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Thread: Lesson number 4

  1. #1
    Flinn's Avatar His Dudeness of TWC
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    Default Lesson number 4

    Part 1

    Italian Articles, Gender & Number

    Articles, gender and number are the first steps to learn Italian properly. Let's start to practice these very important elements of Italian grammar.

    Definite Articles – Gli articoli determinativi
    Italian articles identify the gender and number of nouns; they can be masculine or feminine, singular or plural.

    In Italian, we have 2 feminine definite articles for the singular form and 1 for the plural form:



    Here are some examples:

    La borsa The bag – Le borse The bags
    La finestra The window – Le finestre The windows
    La porta The door – Le porte The doors
    L’ora The hour – Le ore The hours
    L’alba The dawn – Le albe The dawns
    L’aula The classroom – Le aule The classrooms

    The masculine definite articles in Italian are 3 for the singular form and 2 for the plural form:



    Here are some examples:

    Il tavolo The table – I tavoli The tables
    Il letto The bed – I letti The beds
    Il cane The dog – I cani The dogs
    L’amico The friend – Gli amici The friends
    L’orto The garden – Gli orti The gardens
    L’uomo * The man – Gli uomini * The men
    Lo scoiattolo The squirrel – Gli scoiattoli The squirrels
    Lo zio The uncle – Gli zii The uncles
    Lo gnomo The gnome – Gli gnomi The gnomes
    Lo psichiatra The psychiatrist – Gli psichiatri The psychiatrists
    Lo yeti The yeti – Gli yeti The yetis
    Lo pneumologo The pulmonologist – Gli pneumologi The pulmonologists
    Definite articles are used:

    To indicate specific people or objects

    Questa è la macchina di Luca – This is Luca’s car
    La borsa di Paola è molto bella – Paola’s bag is very beautiful
    With possessive adjectives and pronouns

    Mi piace il mio lavoro – I like my job
    La tua stanza è al terzo piano, la mia è al secondo – Your room is on the third floor, mine is on the second
    With abstract and general nouns, including colours

    L’amicizia è molto importante per me – Friendship is very important to me
    Mi piace il nero – I like black
    With parts of the body and clothes

    Stasera mi metto la cravatta – Tonight I’m going to wear a tie
    Mi sono rotto il braccio – I broke my arm
    With dates, *if the day of the week is not mentioned before

    Il mio compleanno è il 7 (sette) Aprile – My birthday is the 7th of April
    *Il mio compleanno è giovedì 7 (sette) Aprile – My birthday is Thursday the 7th of April
    Mi sposo il 2 (due) Giugno 2020 (duemilaventi) – I’ll get married on the 2nd of June 2020
    With times or other expressions of time

    Sono le cinque e mezza – It’s half past five
    La mattina mi sveglio alle 7:00 (sette) – I wake up at 7 in the morning
    With the days of the weeks to show habitual actions

    Il martedì e il giovedì andiamo a lezione di italiano – Every Tuesday and Thursday we go to Italian lessons
    Il sabato e la domenica esco sempre con i miei amici – On Saturdays and Sundays I always go out with my friends
    With physical descriptions when the verb “avere” (to have) is used

    Luca ha gli occhi azzurri – Luca has blue eyes
    Maria ha i capelli rossi – Maria has red hair
    With titles and qualifications used with names

    Il Dottor Bianchi è molto bravo – Doctor Bianchi is very good
    Il principe William si è sposato nel 2011 (duemilaundici)– Prince William got married in 2011
    With most geographical names, *except for city names and when the prepositions “in” or “di” come before feminine singular geographical names

    L’italia ha 20 (venti) regioni – Italy has 20 regions
    La Lombardia è una regione italiana – Lombardy is an Italian region
    *Vado a vivere in Italia – I’m going to live in Italy
    *Il mio ragazzo è di Roma – My boyfriend is from Rome
    Sometimes with famous people:

    Il Botticelli dipinse la Nascita di Venere – Botticelli painted the Birth of Venus
    Sometimes when talking about friends or family members colloquially

    La Giulia viene a cena con noi sabato sera – Giulia is coming to dinner with us on Saturday night
    Il Mauri è troppo simpatico! – Mauri is too kind!
    ! Definite articles are not used:

    When talking about languages, they cannot be used after the verbs “parlare, insegnare, studiare” and after the prepositions “in” and “di”

    Capisco lo spagnolo, ma non l‘italiano – I understand Spanish but not Italian
    Alex parla italiano abbastanza bene – Alex speaks Italian quite well
    Non so scrivere in inglese – I can’t write in English
    With singular possessive adjectives when talking about family members, *except for singular family members with the possessive adjective “loro” or when names have been made more colloquial

    Mio fratello si chiama Stefano – My brother is called Stefano
    Mio padre ha 62 (sessantadue) anni – My father is 62 years old
    *Il loro zio vive a Mosca – Their uncle lives in Moscow
    *Sono felice di conoscere la loro figlia – I am happy that I met their daughter
    *Il mio fratellino si chiama Gabriele – My little brother is called Gabriele
    *La mia cuginetta ha 2 (due) mesi – My little cousin is 2 months old
    With city names, *although there are some exceptions such as La Spezia, L’Aquila, L’Avana, Il Cairo, La Mecca

    Firenze è una città antica, New York è una città moderna – Florence is an old city, New York is a modern city
    *La Spezia si trova in Liguria – La Spezia is in Liguria
    Last edited by Flinn; October 27, 2021 at 03:55 AM.
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  2. #2
    Flinn's Avatar His Dudeness of TWC
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    Default Re: Lesson 4

    Part 2

    Italian Articles, Gender & Number

    Indefinite Articles – Gli articoli indeterminativi
    Indefinite articles are used to introduce someone or something new, not previously mentioned; or to talk about someone or something in a more general and undefined way.

    Just as with the definite articles, in Italian there are 2 feminine indefinite articles for the singular form and 1 for the plural form:



    Here are some examples:

    Una ragazza A girl – Delle ragazze Some girls
    Una mela An apple – Delle mele Some apples
    Una studentessa A student – Delle studentesse Some students
    Un’insalata A salad – Delle insalate Some salads
    Un’aula A classroom – Delle aule Some classrooms
    Un’ora An hour – Delle ore Some hours

    And for the masculine form, there are 2 indefinite articles for the singular form and 2 for the plural form:



    ! Pay attention: with indefinite articles an APOSTROPHE is used only with FEMININE nouns (eg. “un’amica”) and NOT with MASCULINE ones (eg. “un amico”)

    Here are some examples for the masculine form:

    Un bicchiere A glass – Dei bicchieri Some glasses
    Un coltello A knife – Dei coltelli Some knives
    Un telefono A phone – Dei telefoni Some telephones
    Un amico A friend – Degli amici Some friends
    Un orto A garden – Degli orti Some gardens
    Un uomo * A man – Degli uomini * Some men
    Uno scoiattolo A squirrel – Degli scoiattoli Some squirrels
    Uno zio An uncle – Degli zii Some uncles
    Uno gnomo A gnome – Degli gnomi Some gnomes
    Uno psichiatra A psychiatrist – Degli psichiatri Some psychiatrists
    Uno yeti A yeti – Degli yeti Some yetis
    Uno pneumologo A pulmonologist – Degli pneumologi Some pulmonologists
    Indefinite articles are used for:

    People, animals or things which are not known by the person speaking

    Una persona ha suonato il campanello – A person rang the bell
    Ieri ho trovato un cane – Yesterday I found a dog
    Undefined people, animals or things

    Vorrei un gelato – I would like an ice cream
    Prendi un libro in libreria – You take a book from the library
    Parts of the body (of which there are more than one)

    Maria si è rotta un ginocchio – Maria broke her knee
    [ma: *Maria si è rotta il ginocchio sinistro – but: * Maria broke her left knee]
    Stefano ha un occhio gonfio – Stefano has a swollen eye
    [ma: *Stefano ha gli occhi gonfi – but: * Stefano has swollen eyes]
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  3. #3
    Flinn's Avatar His Dudeness of TWC
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    Default Re: Lesson 4

    Part 3

    Italian Articles, Gender & Number

    Noun and Gender (masculine and feminine) – Il nome e il genere (maschile e femminile)



    Singular nouns ending in – A are feminine, and change to end in -E in the plural form:



    Singular nouns ending in -E can be either masculine or feminine: there is no special rule to help identify them, only studying and practicing them!
    However, the plural form always ends in – I (masculine) and -e (feminine), as shown in these examples:



    Some exceptions to the rules:

    La radio The radio – Le radio The radios
    Il programma The programme – I programmi The programmes
    L’uovo The egg – Le uova The eggs
    L’uomo The man – Gli uomini The men
    Il problema The problem – I problemi The problems
    La mano The hand – Le mani The hands
    Il bar The bar – I bar The bars
    Il cinema The cinema – I cinema The cinemas

    Nouns that have been taken from other languages or that end in an accent are invariable, and so we just change the article in the plural form:

    Il computer The computer – I computer The computers
    La email The email – Le email The emails
    Il caffè The coffee – I caffè The coffees
    Il papà The dad – I papà The dads

    ! PAY ATTENTION: to change a noun from singular to plural, always remember to change both the article and the ending!
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  4. #4
    Flinn's Avatar His Dudeness of TWC
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    Default Re: Lesson number 4

    Exercises

    Please PM me your homework, do not post them here.

    Definite articles

    Choose the right article

    1. ____ Italia.
    -La
    -L'
    -Le

    2. ____ caffè.
    -Il
    -I
    -Lo

    3. ____ spaghetti.
    -I
    -Gli
    -Lo

    4. ____ studente.
    -La
    -Il
    -Lo

    5. ____ lezione.
    -La
    -Le
    -Il

    6. ____ amico.
    -Il
    -L'
    -I

    Indefinite articles

    Choose the right article

    1. ____ cane.
    -Dei
    -Un
    -Una

    2. ____ caffè.
    -Il
    -Dei
    -Un

    3. ____ uomini.
    -I
    -Degli
    -Una

    4. ____ ombrello.
    -Un
    -Il
    -Gli

    5. ____ cartella.
    -Una
    -Delle
    -La

    6. ____ gatto.
    -Un
    -Dei
    -Il

    Number

    Change the Italic part from the singular to the plural and vice versa

    1. La borsa è nuova
    2. Il ragazzo è intelligente
    3. Le lezioni sono difficili
    4. La città è moderna
    5. Gli studenti sono olandesi
    6. Lo zaino è blu
    7. Il giornale è interessante
    8. L’isola è deserta
    Last edited by Flinn; October 26, 2021 at 06:35 AM.
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  5. #5
    Kilo11's Avatar Philosopher
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    Default Re: Lesson number 4

    May I make a small request: Would you mind editing the lesson in part 1 so that the numbers used there have the numbers spelled out in parentheticals? Just so that we can start figuring out the details of the numbers as we go along with these things.

    EX: Where you have " Il mio compleanno è il 7 Aprile – My birthday is the 7th of April", change that to " Il mio compleanno è il 7 (settimo) Aprile – My birthday is the 7th of April"
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  6. #6
    Flinn's Avatar His Dudeness of TWC
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    Default Re: Lesson number 4

    It's done

    However, in Italian we don't use ordinal numbers for date, but cardinal ones, so it's not the Settimo di Aprile, but il Sette di Aprile

    we will see numbers in details in the future, don't worry
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