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Thread: LEON & CASTILLE

  1. #1
    Jurand of Cracow's Avatar History and gameplay!
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    Default LEON & CASTILLE

    I. General information

    This thread is meant to gather all information about the faction and to conduct discussions on the faction related issues.
    The entries should be developed by both the SSHIP team and the interested players.
    Last edited by Jurand of Cracow; July 04, 2020 at 08:19 AM.

  2. #2
    Jurand of Cracow's Avatar History and gameplay!
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    Default [F] - Leon

    II. Strategy & gameplay


    To be developed in due course. If you've played the game with this faction and have insights how to help fellow players, please write a proposal for this section.

  3. #3
    Jurand of Cracow's Avatar History and gameplay!
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    Default [F] - Leon

    III. Provinces of the Iberian Peninsula

    The provinces that have historically been assigned to this faction are listed here - it's usually defined by the "faction_creator" in the "descr_strat.txt" file.


    Shilb (x, x_Province}
    PT: not checked.
    Settlement name: corrent name Shilb, but I've seen a different spelling " Xilb". More importantly, after the conquest in 13th century the center of power in Algarve moved to Faro, I think.
    CoA: not checked.
    Province name: Algarve.
    Resources:
    Fertility:


    This map may be useful for setting Arabic names for the settlements.



    And this is one among plethora of maps concerning the Reconquista process (or the .
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Last edited by Jurand of Cracow; January 22, 2021 at 01:15 AM.

  4. #4
    Jurand of Cracow's Avatar History and gameplay!
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    Default [F] - Leon

    IV. Faction specific features (Crown, Offices, Bloodline, Traits, Buildings)

    The Crown of Spain is discussed in this entry. There are two lists of provinces - maps are below.

    The Offices are described in this thread. Perhaps it'd be interesting to create separate offices for 3 catholic iberian factions.


    Spanish factions have access to some buildings that may be not available to every faction, in particular Plaza del Toro. It'd be interesting to find out whether they should have also Tourney Fields.
    (note: this might be important for getting certain traits. Plaza del Toro is already in some triggers).

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Quote Originally Posted by j.a.luna View Post
    Jurand talking agains about the special building of spanish "Plaza de Toros"( its correct name), is more appropiate than this building be available for Castille and Leon and Aragón, Portugal didnt have much tradition about this in medieval era..it was after for them, and also is more correct that this building be in settlement with a moderate population maybe minor cities( stone walls), only in cities because in these type of settlements was more common this "playful building" for keep entertaining population, in castle type only should have tourney fields, no Plaza de Toros.


    Some information about medieval "corridas de toros" in Spain:

    There is documented news about bullfights in Cuéllar (Segovia) in 1215, according to Isaías Rodrigo Criado, writings dated in the 12th century indicate that cattle were run in the city, the document details that the custom of running bulls was the object of negotiation as it was prohibited by a provision of the bishop of Segovia in which it was decreed: "that no clergyman should play dice or attend bullfighting, and be suspended if he did so." In the same century Alfonso X El Sabio following the guidelines of the IV Ecumenical Lateran Council held in 1215, by which the disorders of the clergy regarding drunkenness, hunting, attendance at satirical comic shows and dramatic exhibitions were regulated, among them the Bullfighting shows, the King of Castile condemned in the Code of the Seven Games, in Part I, Title V, Law LVII: «That the pearls should not deyr to see the games, or play tables without dice, no other games, that they took them out of the siese… and therefore they should not come and see the games: like how to win, or bohordar, or deal with the Bulls, or other wild beasts, nin yr to see those who fight… »(sic.), these prohibitions did not affect neither to the laity nor to the bullfighters who did not charge, known these as "matatoros" or "toreadores". Following the same line in the Nasrid kingdom of Granada, certain games of beasts are documented in which it is probable that bulls participated.

    Spanish Blood: not checked.

    Specific traits: not checked.



    Last edited by Jurand of Cracow; March 14, 2020 at 12:23 PM.

  5. #5
    Jurand of Cracow's Avatar History and gameplay!
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    Default [F] - Leon

    V. Starting position in 1132 (incl. settlements, armies, generals, traits, political situation)

    to be developed in due course

  6. #6
    Jurand of Cracow's Avatar History and gameplay!
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    Default [F] - Leon

    VI. Units

    I wonder if we shouldn't make Almogavares both foot and horse sodiers. Like like "Almogavares" and "Almogavares Jinetes".
    Last edited by Jurand of Cracow; February 22, 2020 at 07:20 AM.

  7. #7
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    Default [F] - Leon

    VIII. Reserve

    to be used if needed

  8. #8

    Default Re: [F] - LEON & CASTILLE

    I think that is the thread correct for talk about improve of armies of iberians factions ( also for almoravids).

    For iberian lands it would be great make another "regional army or regional troops" similar to berbers(5 regional units) in north Africa, but for the south of Spain, in Andalucía.
    Andalucía was a pretty pecualiar land that lived a mix of christian and muslim people together, so mix of cultures and mix of weapons and tactics( also in Spain but more in this big region of south of Spain)
    Current exist two units called "andalusian", andalusian spearmen and andalusian archers and i think that could make 2 o 3 more units in this regions recruitable in all cities of south of Iberia and these lands
    ( Silves,Cordoba,Sevilla,Granada,Murcia ) also as hire mercenaries.
    Make a unit of " andalusian crossbowman", i think that this unit could be replace the other unit of andalusian archers, moors and " mozárabes "( mix of christian and muslims in Spain) were famous for the use of crossbow in their cities and for defend as militias.
    Change the names of granadine jinetes and granadine mounted crossbowmen for " andalusian jinetes and mounted andalusian jinetes" and maybe give them another unit models more reciently( Broken crescent mod, not vainilla units), Granada was only a settlement, Andalucía is a full region( all south of Spain), so this term is more appropiate, furthemore andalusian were muslims and christians and also a mix that fought in both wars.
    Change the name of "urban militia" of moors unit, so general term, for " andalusian militia or andalusian militia swordmen" also recruitable in south of Spain and in cities(urban terrain) together with andalusian crossbowmen
    Make this we will obtain another "regional army" similar to berbers, armenians, prussians,alanis...
    So we will have these units in south of Iberia, recruitable in all this settlements( cities, urban terrain) and as mercenaries maybe spearmen and andalusian jinetes.

    -Andalusian spearmen---current unit in sship, maybe could improve their unit model but for now is good( mix of christian and muslim dress), recruitable in South of Iberia as mercenary and in urban settlements as Silves, Córdoba,Sevilla,Granada and Murcia.

    -Andalusian archers( crossbowmen)--- current exist archer unit, i think that in this region the crossbow was more used by people, change the arc weapon for the crossbow and rename as andalusian crossbowmen, recruitable in south of Iberia cities, maybe as cheaper mercenaries ( replaced mercenary crossbowmen)

    -Andalusian jinetes--- currently exist the unit of vainilla granadine jinetes( horsemen that throw javelins), really existed in all Andalucía and not only in Granada, renamed the unit and if is possible improve their unit models,(broken crecent mod???)recruitable as mercenaries in south of Iberia and in castles( stables)

    -Andalusian mounted crossbowmen--- currently exist the vainilla unit of granadine jinetes, similar case of granadine jinetes, rename the unit and be recruitable in castles( archery) and also in big cities as Sevilla and Córdoba (high levels of quarters), this unit could be also mercenary.

    Andalusian swordmen militia--- Currently exit for almoravid faction as "urban militia", but it has a general term, and militias for the people in Iberia were very frequently due a lot of frontiers wars, so crossbows, spears, swords were very "familiar" for the people of Andalucía, this unit could belong as regional unit and not only for almoravids, also for christians factions in these regions, the "mozárabes" were christian peoples that live in Andalusia and they had arabs costums, even they converted to Islam! So they fight for their cities and lands ( Andalucía). So in cities settlements we will have andalusian crossbowmen, spearmen and swordmen militia, and in castles andalusian jinetes and mounted crossbowmen also as mercenaries for can hire them other factions, a total regional army for fight in these
    multicultural shock lands!
    Last edited by j.a.luna; January 23, 2020 at 06:29 PM.
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  9. #9

    Default Re: [F] - Leon

    Quote Originally Posted by Jurand of Cracow View Post
    VI. Units

    I wonder if we shouldn't make Almogavares both foot and horse sodiers. Like like "Almogavares" and "Almogavares Jinetes".
    About almogávares units and spanish armies in general you can see my posts about them in this thread, page 2 and 3
    https://www.twcenter.net/forums/show...-ROSTERS/page2
    They should be a foot unit very resistant with their almogavar sword called "coltell" and some javelins, recruitable in aragonese regions as mercenaries and for Aragon faction also, maybe could be recruitable in greeks lands as mercenaries in 14 th century, Roger de Flor and their almoghavars when they were hired by byzantines for figth agaisnt turks and their posterior rebellion and revenge . They should have beards and mountains ropes and leather armour with rudimentarians weapons but soo braves in combat ( remove double unit called catalans, in unit terms is the same unit as almoghavars, 1 free slot more)
    Last edited by j.a.luna; March 03, 2020 at 04:10 PM.
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  10. #10

    Default Re: [F] - Leon

    Quote Originally Posted by Jurand of Cracow View Post
    IV. Faction specific features (Crown, Offices, Bloodline, Traits, Buildings)

    The Crown of Spain is discussed in this entry.

    The Offices are described in this thread. Perhaps it'd be interesting to create separate offices for 3 catholic iberian factions.


    Spanish factions have access to some buildings that may be not available to every faction, in particular Plaza del Toro. It'd be interesting to find out whether they should have also Tourney Fields.
    (note: this might be important for getting certain traits. Plaza del Toro is already in some triggers).

    Spanish Blood: not checked.

    Specific traits: not checked.
    And for this is you need help about spanish and moors factions you have my support
    About special building for iberian factions, its correct name is "Plaza de Toros" and yes it could be similar to tourney Fields or obtain some values as Brave or with Courage, also Plaza de Toros building could give public order by happiness due to this building make happy to peasants and people
    About tittles a spanish word for medieval generic tittle is the word "Señor", Señor of León, Señor of Santiago... Other tittles are Conde( Comes) , Duque( Dux), but the general tittle for a Lord or Sir is Señor.
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  11. #11

    Default Re: [F] - LEON & CASTILLE

    Jurand talking agains about the special building of spanish "Plaza de Toros"( its correct name), is more appropiate than this building be available for Castille and Leon and Aragón, Portugal didnt have much tradition about this in medieval era..it was after for them, and also is more correct that this building be in settlement with a moderate population maybe minor cities( stone walls), only in cities because in these type of settlements was more common this "playful building" for keep entertaining population, in castle type only should have tourney fields, no Plaza de Toros.


    Some information about medieval "corridas de toros" in Spain:

    There is documented news about bullfights in Cuéllar (Segovia) in 1215, according to Isaías Rodrigo Criado, writings dated in the 12th century indicate that cattle were run in the city, the document details that the custom of running bulls was the object of negotiation as it was prohibited by a provision of the bishop of Segovia in which it was decreed: "that no clergyman should play dice or attend bullfighting, and be suspended if he did so." In the same century Alfonso X El Sabio following the guidelines of the IV Ecumenical Lateran Council held in 1215, by which the disorders of the clergy regarding drunkenness, hunting, attendance at satirical comic shows and dramatic exhibitions were regulated, among them the Bullfighting shows, the King of Castile condemned in the Code of the Seven Games, in Part I, Title V, Law LVII: «That the pearls should not deyr to see the games, or play tables without dice, no other games, that they took them out of the siese… and therefore they should not come and see the games: like how to win, or bohordar, or deal with the Bulls, or other wild beasts, nin yr to see those who fight… »(sic.), these prohibitions did not affect neither to the laity nor to the bullfighters who did not charge, known these as "matatoros" or "toreadores". Following the same line in the Nasrid kingdom of Granada, certain games of beasts are documented in which it is probable that bulls participated.
    Last edited by j.a.luna; March 12, 2020 at 06:22 AM.
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  12. #12

    Default Re: [F] - LEON & CASTILLE

    About spanish tittles for nobility, i see in campaign map that for other factions as for example romans/byzantines have their own names... Byzantines generals are called Roman pronoia, roman strategos, basileus, co-emperor... Other agents have also another real names like papal diplomatics are called "nuncio" or papal generals called "papal legate" and i love see these historicals differences in factions so if developers wants i can traduce the generals terms of agents and generals for add in the campaign map but before some information about spanish nobiliy and ranks in medieval era...

    REY---The King.Monarch or sovereign prince of a kingdom.
    Example--- Castilian King( current sship name), Castilian-Leonese Rey or Rey castellano-leonés (spanish)
    -INFANTE/INFANTA---Each of the king's legitimate and male children, born after the prince or princess.Legitimate daughter of the king not heir to the throne.
    In medieval Hispanic monarchies, both Castilian and Leonese as Navarrese or Aragonese, all the sons and daughters of kings, including the first-born, received the title of infants or infantas. However, at the end of the 14th century, Juan I of Castilla, son and successor of Enrique II de Trastámara, when he married his first-born son, the infant Enrique —the future Enrique III— with Catherine de Lancaster, granddaughter of the dethroned and assassinated Pedro el Cruel, created the title of Princes of Asturias for the couple, which hereafter was awarded to the heirs of the Crown, whatever their sex. By birth, the firstborn sons of the kings were born infants like their brothers, but it was at the time of their designation as heirs by the Cortes when they became Princes of Asturias.
    "So in the gameplay we can called all son and daugthers of the king(Rey) infante(masculine) or infanta(femenine), i dont know if is possible select only the king's sons and daugthers with this name, but if not, only call the spanish heir as "Infante".
    Example--- Castilian Prince(current sship name), Infante castellano( spanish) or Castilian Infante(new name).
    For the princesses only if they are daughters of king should be called infanta, if not, the general term.
    Example---Castilian Princess(current sship name), Princesa castellana( spanish) , Castilian infanta( king's daugther).

    -DUQUE---The highest nobility. Normally the Military and political commander general of a province.
    The title of Duke is usually granted by the King to children of royalty and who cannot hold the reign as is the case of the Crown Prince.It is usually granted to children of royalty who are not heirs.
    It has its origin in the late Roman and Byzantine positions of the Latin doge, plural duces. In Latin, doge denoted the military rank of general (a word which, in turn, derives its semantics probably from the duke verb "guide from the front", as opposed to ago "guide from behind"). In this way, "he who guides from the front" would originally denote a military guide or leader. Following the practice of granting land to victorious generals, this title was eventually used as a noble reference designating a member of the upper class. For centuries that same Latin form would be used in Venice to designate the head of the Adriatic Republic.
    As the Germanic kingdoms developed after the fall of the Roman Empire, the title was used by high officials, governors, leaders, etc. In the social and political system called feudalism, which Charlemagne founded by dividing his dominions into counties, the dukes occupied the highest level on the noble scale, in the same way it happened in the kingdoms of Spain and France.
    " In the gameplay could be reserved an high noble with the tittle of army chief similar to the tittle of roman strategos with mega dux tittle"
    Example--- Castilian duke or Duque castellano(spanish).

    -The Marquises are next in the hierarchical pyramid of the nobility that ruled the Marquis and were men of considerable power. Back then they were magnates of the time and that has nothing to do with what we know today as a magnate.
    "For the gameplay nothing"

    -CONDE--- In the first centuries of the Middle Ages, governor of a region or territory.
    The Counts, on the other hand, were originally the companions of the Emperor in times of the Roman Empire and that his fief was called County.
    In Spain the titles of counts existed in the time of the Goths and in the first centuries of the Legion monarchy they were titles of office and not of honor as at present. There were palatine counts and counts of provinces.From the Latin term ´comes, comitis´, companion. They used to be in palatial settings with the monarch.

    The palatine counts put the care and management of the offices that were in the court and those related to the servants of the king in his palace:
    count cubiculario was the main waiter
    Earl of the Pincerna the Major Butler
    Count of the cup, the one in charge of the pantry, royal table and attached to it.
    outside the palace, others were known, such as the count of notaries, or chief chancellor, and the count of patrimonies, or general treasurer of royal revenues.
    The county counts used to gather the civil, political and military jurisdiction of the districts whose government was entrusted to them and which took the name of counties; but these jobs were not for life or hereditary, but temporary and at the discretion of the monarch and there was still graduation and alternative in them, and as a certain scale to pass from one to the other, according to the services and merits of these magistrates or governors.
    To choose or transfer the counts, the kings consulted not only the personal merit, but also that of their ancestors, rewarding it in their children if they were able to carry out such a serious and delicate task. King Alfonso the Wise was the first to grant perpetual titles of counts with land when he named his cousins ​​Luis and Juan counts of Belmonte. In 1293 Sancho IV of Castile confirmed the dominion of Santa Eufemia with the county title. Alfonso XI gave in 1328 the title of count of Trastamara, Lemos and Sarria to Álvar Núñez Osorio, his private, and from that time the custom of giving titles of counts with the dominion of lands and civil and criminal jurisdiction over the vassals was introduced. From the 19th century on, this title is simply honorary.
    So the "Condes" or counts were standard or medium lords.

    *The Viscounts were the substitutes for the previous ones in his absence and which is currently simply an honorary title.

    On the other hand, the Barons were the least common and they were influential people wherever they were and that during Feudalism they had all the rights of the Feud, or what is the same, the right to have lands and vassals working on them.

    -SEÑOR---It is the lowest-ranking title, indicating the possession of places. In english term is Lord or Sir. First rank of the nobility scale.
    More than the term "fief" is used in Spain that of "lordship" or "señorío"(spanish), a set of territories linked to a lord, who exercised his jurisdiction over its inhabitants and extracted their income on their economic activity.
    From the Middle Ages to the end of the Old Regime, both in the kingdoms of Castilla and León and in the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia, the seigniorial system was verified, with the particularity that in Aragon and Valencia the manors were called baronies("baronias"), and thus the holders of a lordship were entitled Lord of the Barony of such, or in short Baron of such("Barón de Valencia"). The oldest baronies are Fraga's barony, Gavin's barony and Polop's barony.

    The manorial and jurisdictional lordships existed. The former were exclusively based on territory, while the latter were an evolution and referred to the powers of the local Lord, although the two elements used to be present in the manor. In fact, a gradual evolution is observed in the course of the Middle Ages, from the dominical properties of the first times to the later seigniorial dominions, when the owners began to exercise attributions of command, and finally to the jurisdictional lordships, typical of the centuries. XIV and XV.

    "As final conclusion in the gameplay for the general term of Lord in medieval Iberia would be "Señor" or maybe "Conde" and for Aragón was used more frequently the term of Barón as Lord...
    So for portuguese lords/nobles--- "Portuguese Senhor"
    For aragonese lords/nobles--- "Aragonese Barón"
    For castilian lords/nobles--- "Castilian Señor/Conde"

    I think that "Señor" is more neutral for a Lord indicating the possession of places and the first rank of nobility.

    The same term can be used by the Jurand PTF, as entittled as "Señor de Toledo" , "Conde de Barcelona" , "Senhor de Lisboa", "Barón de Zaragoza"...

    If you need some translates in spanish for this medieval figures i can help you.
    Last edited by j.a.luna; April 11, 2020 at 08:01 PM. Reason: Typo
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  13. #13

    Default Re: [F] - LEON & CASTILLE

    Repository idea: faction intro movies
    León and Castille

    The idea

    Representative song - although it's from 13th century, what could be better than one (allegedly) written by a king (Alfonso X)?
    Santa Maria Strela do Dia

    edit.
    Video in action
    Last edited by Just let me post; July 29, 2020 at 09:42 AM.

  14. #14

    Default Re: LEON & CASTILLE

    If you can read Spanish or just want to look through a nice resource for historical literature this here link could be useful - I have been using it myself. http://www.hispanicseminary.org/textconc-en.htm

    Just because, here is how to write "Spanish Knights" "Espanyole Caualleros"... might be useful in a unit description. You can render "u" as "v" "Cavalleros" (I tend to do this when getting place names). Seems like Spanish/Castilian is a rather conservative language from what I can tell. Place names are almost always identical to their modern versions.

    Also, here are some historical Spanish names all from Cantar de mio Cid:
    Díaz, Diego, Fernando, Gonzalo, Gustioz, Rodrigo, Bermúdez, Álvar, Fáñez, Muñoz, Antolínez, Remond, Fruela, Beltrán, Ansúrez
    Like Luna said, Conde and Rey are good for titles!

  15. #15
    Jurand of Cracow's Avatar History and gameplay!
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    Default Re: LEON & CASTILLE

    Quote Originally Posted by Cephalophore View Post
    Also, here are some historical Spanish names all from Cantar de mio Cid:
    Díaz, Diego, Fernando, Gonzalo, Gustioz, Rodrigo, Bermúdez, Álvar, Fáñez, Muñoz, Antolínez, Remond, Fruela, Beltrán, Ansúrez
    Like Luna said, Conde and Rey are good for titles!
    If you want to see these names in-game, modify files in folder /data:
    - descr_names.txt
    - descr_names_lookup.txt
    and in /data/text:
    - names.txt
    Have a look, check if they already exist. If not - then introduce them in all three files (without breaking other names, pls ;-).
    Last edited by Jurand of Cracow; August 16, 2020 at 07:32 AM.

  16. #16

    Default Re: LEON & CASTILLE

    If you need it, I can help with the translations into Spanish of units, titles, agents or whatever you need on the Iberian Peninsula.
    Currently knights in spanish is called "Caballeros", i dont know if old castilian is called with "v"...
    So current sship names are good for "caballeros villanos".
    ( feudal cavalry but no nobles). And "Caballeros hidalgos" (lesser nobles).
    Nobles are simply called as knigths or "Caballeros/Nobles a caballo".
    For infantry existed a general spanish medieval word, "Peones (plural) or Peón (singular). This would be spear militia/ axe militia.

    https://es.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caballero_villano
    https://es.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hidalgo
    https://arrecaballo.es/edad-media/la...os-cristianos/
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  17. #17

    Default Re: LEON & CASTILLE

    Thanks, Jurand. I might edit the names in the future if I can find them in historical literature. Like I said on the other thread, I don't want to do too much at once because I will never finish anything lol.

    @Luna Yeah, I was almost convinced the transcriptions I was looking at were just modern Spanish lol, but apparently there is little change in the Castilian dialect. Reyno - Reino, Cavalleros - Caballeros, for ex. y - e (and). There's a link here of Song of Cid, you can toggle between Spanish, old Spainish, and English using the buttons on the right side.
    https://miocid.wlu.edu/main/?v=nor

    Other than that, I have done a fair amount of place names for Iberian factions. I am aware that Portuguese, Catalan, Aragonese, and Castilian are not the same, but for convenience and lack of resources I have combined them into the place names for Portugal, Castile/Leon, and Aragon. I have Lisbon in it's old Portuguese form Lixboa.

    If you're interested here is the list so far. I will be adding them to my next release of my Mini-Mod. They are mostly easy to identify, I did a few I thought would be too hard to figure out lol


    -----------------------this is outdated, so deleting inaccurate/unhistorical info.
    Last edited by Cephalophore; February 24, 2021 at 10:22 PM. Reason: Updated List

  18. #18

    Default Re: [Release]KCC (Kostic Chronology Costumes)

    Kostic speaking of the Iberian units (Castilian, Aragonese, Portuguese ...) and to make them a little more unique (as they were due to their continuous contact with the Muslims) it would be possible to make models of units for the Almogávar unit, which They do not have the same model as the normal javeliners, they should have a more disheveled appearance, with hides and leather, since they came from mountainous lands in addition to adding as a secondary weapon their feared large knife "cotell", I also think that I should add the attribute It "scares the enemy troops" because it really did. If you want more information I can provide it.
    Here are the old links on this topic.

    https://www.twcenter.net/forums/show...-ROSTERS/page2

    https://www.twcenter.net/forums/show...N-amp-CASTILLE

    https://almogavares.foroactivo.com/t1286-la-adarga






    Another issue would be to add more variety to the Iberian units to add the shield type "adarga", the Iberian Christians adopted it from the Muslims and used both cavalry and infantry, it had a lot of resistance to swords, spears and arrows.


    ADARGA SHIELD




    ALMOGAVARES


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  19. #19

    Default Re: LEON & CASTILLE

    Now in sship 0.9.7 the capital for castilians or Kingdom of Castille and León it was transferred to the city of Burgos instead of León as it was previously in previous versions.

    Regarding the "capital" for the Iberian factions, the only one more difficult to manage is for the kingdom of Castilla y León due to its "Itinerant Courts" similar to other factions such as the Holy Roman Empire.
    It is clear that at the beginning of the game for Portugal it is the city of Coimbra, and later it is logical and historical to move the Portuguese capital to Lisbon (as it was in 1255), for the Aragonese they had no doubt and it was always their capital Zaragoza and as second important the city of Barcelona.


    Some information about this issue and the "capitals" for this faction.

    -Crown of the Kingdom of Galicia and León
    Although in the early days of the Kingdom of León, the Kingdom of Asturias seems to have used Oviedo as a possible capital or royal palace, no buildings, archives, or a place for the coronation ceremony of an Asturian royal court or palace are preserved. Yes, a Pantheon of kings in the Cathedral of Oviedo. In the case of Galicia and León, both kingdoms can be understood as a single Crown from Alfonso VI of León, Galicia and Castilla Imperator totius Hispaniae. Both the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela and the Cathedral of León were used on several occasions as a place of coronation of kings, existing in both cities the royal pantheon of the various dynasties of the kings of Galicia and León. In 1188 the first Courts of León of 1188 were held. The Kingdom of León and Galicia ended up integrated under the name of Crown of Castile from 1230 on the basis of a single King Fernando III of Castile, León and Galicia. The Benavente Concord pact ensured Portuguese non-interference in the formation of the new crown.




    -Castilla's crown


    Burgos was "caput castellae" (head of Castile, as Amaya had been, according to the Poem of Fernán González), but that dignity only served him to speak first in the Cortes, disputing priority with Toledo. The debates were very lively, and the king ended them with the famous phrase: "For Castile I have spoken, speak then" ... (the city that touched -in this case, Burgos-).


    Valladolid can be considered judicial capital, due to the existence in it of the Royal Court and Chancery, a unique institution until the conquest of Granada, where another was founded with powers south of the Tagus (although it was originally in Ciudad Real, while the jurisdiction over the court where it was belonged to the Hall of Mayors). But it was not legislative capital, since the Cortes were convened in Alcalá de Henares, Toro, Madrid or wherever it suited the king. Nor was it the sole residence of the kings, who kept the itinerant court, either visiting the network of royal palaces or alcazares (a route parallel to the Mesta gullies that ran through Burgos, Valladolid, Segovia, Madrid, Toledo, Córdoba, and Seville.) Or visiting vassals, at the expense of which they supported themselves, by virtue of the room royalty.


    With King Carlos I of Spain, who locked up his mother (Juana la Loca) in Tordesillas, Toledo became an "imperial city", and Granada was the capital with the Royal Chancery and the Captaincy General of the Army, where he ordered to raise a Renaissance palace in the middle of the Alhambra castle where he spent the months after his wedding with Isabel de Portugal (which took place in Seville in 1526).
    However, he was not long in any of those cities, and after his endless travels throughout Europe he went to die in Yuste, when he was no longer king.


    It was King Felipe II of Spain who established the capital in Madrid, where he settled all the bureaucracy and created an annual circuit through the royal sites of El Escorial and Aranjuez. The Duke of Lerma took the capital to Valladolid for a few years, to control King Felipe III of Spain closer to his own fiefdoms (Lerma, in Burgos) and to blackmail the Madrid merchants, who bribed him to give them back the business to have the court.



    *BURGOS
    When in 1038 Fernando I was crowned king of León, forming the kingdom of Castile, Burgos was chosen as its capital.


    In 1071 Sancho II locked up his brother García in Burgos to take away the kingdom of Galicia. In 1074 Alfonso VI, king after the death of his brother Sancho, gave his palace in Burgos for the construction of the Cathedral of Santa María. That same year his sisters, Elvira and Urraca, moved the diocese of Oca to Gamonal.


    In 1080, Alfonso VI of León and Castilla convened a general council of his kingdoms in the city and officially declared the abolition of the Hispanic liturgy and its replacement by the Roman one.


    After the conquest of Toledo in 1085 by Alfonso VI, Burgos lost the capital of the Kingdom of Castile in favor of this city. This did not paralyze the growth of Burgos, where some Cortes would continue to be held.



    *VALLADOLID

    In the 10th century, Alfonso III of Asturias consolidated the border from the Kingdom of Asturias to the Duero, becoming part of the County of Castilla. In the 11th century, during the repopulation of the Meseta, King Alfonso VI of León commissioned the Count of Saldaña y Carrión, Pedro Ansúrez, and his wife, Doña Eylo Alfonso, with the settlement and expansion of the primitive agrarian nucleus, which already existed and it was organized through an open council. Alfonso VI granted the lordship of the same to the count in 1072, date from which the growth of the city took place. He had a palace built for him and his wife, Doña Eylo, which is not preserved, as well as the Collegiate Church of Santa María (which gave it the rank of town) and the church of La Antigua. In 1208, King Alfonso VIII of Castile named it a court city and in 1255 Alfonso X granted it the Royal Charter.


    After the early death of Enrique I of Castile, born in Valladolid, and the abdication of his mother, Fernando III el Santo was proclaimed King of Castile in 1217, in an act held in the Plaza Mayor of Valladolid. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Valladolid experienced rapid growth, favored by the fairs and commercial privileges granted by the monarchs Alfonso VIII and Alfonso X El Sabio. During these centuries, the city occasionally served as a royal residence and seat of the Cortes. The first Alcazarejo was transformed into the Real Alcazar, and Queen María de Molina, queen and regent of Castile, had a palace built and established her residence there around 1300. In 1346, Pope Clemente VI granted the bull that allowed the passage of the Valladolid Private Study, existing since the second half of the 13th century, to the General Study or University.


    Juan II of Castile grew up and died in Valladolid, having reigned from this city of what he would say is "the most remarkable town of these my regnos and even outside of them." This king was buried in the church of San Pablo, until the final transfer of his remains to the Cartuja de Miraflores








    *TOLEDO

    Toledo became an important taifa kingdom, which nevertheless had to pay outcasts to the kings of Castile to maintain its independence.




    Entry of Alfonso VI into Toledo (1085)
    After years of siege, the city was subsequently subdued and surrendered on May 6, 1085. Days later, on May 25, Alfonso VI of León entered Toledo, after a prior agreement with the king of the Taifa who ruled it. Through the capitulation agreement, the Leonese king subdues the kingdom, guaranteeing the Muslim settlers the safety of their people and property. The king granted their own charters to each of the existing minorities: Mozarabs (Toledo was an important Mozarabic center, with its own liturgy, the Hispano-Mozarabic, which is still preserved), Muslims and Jews, later recast by Alfonso VII in the Fuero de 1118. After the capitulation of the city, the period of greatest splendor of Toledo occurred, of great cultural, social and political intensity. The Toledo School of Translators, flourishing during the 12th and 13th centuries, as well as the numerous civil and religious works of art, which left an important mark on the city.


    After the capitulation, the religious practice of the Jewish and Muslim communities was tolerated, but this tolerant attitude did not last long. The Christians built the new cathedral on top of the main mosque, which in turn stood on the old Visigoth cathedral.


    In 1162 the city was conquered by King Ferdinand II of León, during the troubled period of the minority of Alfonso VIII of Castile. The Leonese king named Fernando Rodríguez de Castro "el Castellano", a member of the Casa de Castro, governor of the city. The city of Toledo remained in the power of the Leonese until 1166, when it was recovered by the Castilians.



    *LEÓN

    In the twelfth century, and after the passage of the first queen, Urraca I, her son Alfonso VII stands out, who notably advanced the reconquest and was crowned emperor of all Hispania in the old Leon cathedral. It is in this century when the Arab geographer and traveler Edrisi wrote the following about León: "There is a very profitable trade practiced there. Its inhabitants are thrifty and prudent." We also have news of León through various codices, including the Codex Calixtinus, a manuscript that, among other things, contains information about the route that the pilgrims followed to Santiago de Compostela. With all this, the city knew the development of new neighborhoods, sometimes outside the walls of a city that was already small, and almost always on the side of the pilgrims' path, who entered the city through the so-called Puerta Moneda.


    After the death of Alfonso VII, he divided the kingdoms of León and Castilla among his sons; Fernando II reigned in León, highlighting the reconquest of Extremadura. His successor and last exclusive king of León was Alfonso IX, who convened the first courts of Europe, with the participation of all social classes, in the basilica of San Isidoro in 1188. It will be in 1230, when after his death the Leonese crown and the Castilian capital falls on the head of the monarch Ferdinand III the Saint, something that would mean for León the loss of the fixed capital, since it becomes itinerant. It would not, however, mean the end of the prosperity of the city, which throughout the century XIII maintained a great commercial thrust and demographic growth. It is at this time that in the middle of the century, Alfonso X the Wise ordered the demolition of the old cathedral and the construction of the current one, in the Gothic style.


    After the union of the Leonese kingdom with Castile, despite the loss of political relevance, the city remained prosperous and it was during the 13th century that the cathedral of León was built, restarting its construction by order of Alfonso X in 1255, ending in 1302 the entire temple. During the fourteenth century, León experienced an economic crisis that was accentuated by a series of climatic events throughout Europe that reduced harvests, causing famines and indebtedness of the peasants. These circumstances were aggravated with the arrival of the plague in León between 1349 and 1350, which caused a great mortality in the area, depopulating towns and reducing, according to sources of the time, by more than a quarter the population of the region. zone. This series of fatalities was joined by political instability throughout the Castilian Crown that produced continuous tensions that often led to armed conflicts.


    With the arrival of the 15th century, things began to improve, observing a notable increase in the population in the construction of new houses, reconstruction of the previous ones and widening of the suburbs. In these years there was talk of making a fence that included the suburb of the eastern part of the city, including the churches of San Lorenzo, San Pedro de los Huertos and San Salvador del Nido de la Cigüeña. Thus, the city of León, at the end of the century, had a population of between four and five thousand inhabitants while neighboring cities such as Salamanca and Burgos have fifteen thousand and ten thousand inhabitants.




    +++-Then as a summary we could say that during the Middle Ages "Spain" had several capitals, in addition to the fact that the Cortes were itinerant, that is, they did not have a stable capital.But at the beginning of the game we could say that León continued to be the capital until the year 1230 with King Fernando III el Santo. If it is true that the kingdom of Castilla y León functioned many times independently with the capital in Burgos for the Castilians and the capital in Leon for the Leonese, but I believe that the capital in León should continue to be in the game, in addition to being a city more developed and centric for the player. Once the player is conquering territories in the Iberian peninsula, the logical and historical thing is to move the capital to Toledo, due to its central position and because Madrid (in the game does not exist and would only be a town) would be located very close to Toledo.

    I hope to help with these informations for the improvement of the mod in these aspects.
    Last edited by j.a.luna; November 01, 2020 at 02:12 PM.
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  20. #20
    Jurand of Cracow's Avatar History and gameplay!
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    Default Re: LEON & CASTILLE

    Thanks, j.a.luna - to be used when we get into this aspect of the game. IIRC, the capital of Castille in 095 (and maybe even 092) was also Burgos.

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