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Thread: Boiotian Preview - Hellenika

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    Default Boiotian Preview - Hellenika





    League's Army
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    The Boiotian army illustrates the contentious yet dynamic nature of the boiotian region, which was held together by the military prowess of Thebes.In Hellenica Oxyrhynchia we can find a very detailed description concerning the organization of the league's army. Oxyrhynchia says that
    Boiotian army was divided into eleven divisions (μέρη) each meros providing one Boiotarch (political and military leader).
    Every meros (division) had to offer one thousand hoplites and a hundrend cavalry men. So we can easilly assume that the Boiotian army counts in full
    strength 11.000 hoplites and 1000 cavalry, though actual numbers on campaign under the oligarchic federation ranged to about 7000 hoplites.
    During Democratic period army's numbers were roughly the same despite the depopulation of Orchomenus, Thespiai and Plataia who could provide to the league
    about 5000 hoplites. This can be easily explained with the employment of poor classes into hoplites. Finally Thebes was on of the few cities that maintain
    a force of professional soldiers count 300 men in order to guard the Theban acropolis (Cadmeia) and constitution. Those men were trained and equipped by
    public expense and are known as Kreitones or Kreitoi (named by Ploutarch) during oligarchic reign and as the famous Ieros Lochos (Sacred Band) during
    democratic rule.


    History of the Boiotian league (By Mausolos of Caria)
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    The History of Boiotia and its League up until the Peloponnesian War
    ''If you add a little to a little, and then do it again, soon that little shall be much.'' Hesiod, Boiotian poet, around 700 BC


    Myth has it that the Phoenician king Kadmos sailed to Boiotia from Tyre and founded Thebes. The tales of ancient authors and speakers connected the foundation and early days of its history with the exploits of the great heros Herakles and the well known story of Oedipus and the ''Seven against Thebes.'' We can't say how much truth lies in these stories, but archaeology confirms the ancient history of Thebes and thus its old age. During the Mycenian age, Thebes (Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thēbai) was a smaller palace town in Boiotia (Ancient Greek: Βοιωτία, Boiotia, probably from βοῦς, bous= cow). From these early times on the city was dominated by an oligarchic elite, which retained its dominant power throughout the so called Dark Ages and into the archaic period, during which the Boiotian poet Hesiod gained fame throughout Greece. Boiotia profited from its relatively fertile pastures and thus it won't come as a surprise that Hesiod was also concerned with agriculture in his works and lived as a farmer himself.
    Thebes developed around the old Kadmeia citadel and by the end of the 6th century it had become one of the bigger towns in Boiotia. Various local and religious associations formed the base for the later Boiotian League and a loose, mainly sacral organisation among the Boiotian towns may first have formed during these last years of the 6th century. In 520, Boiotia's Northern neighbours, the Thessalians, threatened the country with an invasion and minor skirmishes occured for several months. During this time the infant League was strengthened and Thebes assumed the position of a primus inter pares, who most likely brought about a favourable peace with the Thessalians. The polis of Plataiai watched this development sceptically and after the Thessalian war came to a close, they tried to break free from the Boiotian alliance. Corinth supported the Boiotian League in its attempts to hold Plataia in the confederation, but eventually Plataiai broke off its ties with Thebes and signed an alliance with Athens about 605 BC, after the latter had just lain the foundations for its unique democracy, following the downfall of the Peisistratid tyrants.


    Map of ancient Boiotia


    At the same time, the Persian Empire had expanded into Ionia, whose Greek cities went on to revolt against the foreign rule in 500 BC. While Athens and Plataiai openly supported the rebels, Thebes acted as a mediator between the Ionians and Persians, though to no avail as the rebellion ended in a series of decisive victories for the Achaemenid overlords. To punish Athens, the Persian Great King sent an expedition against Attica which was defeated at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, before his successor Xerxes I. decided to launch a full scale invasion of Greece. On the background of its role during the Ionian revolt Thebes had retained amicable relations with the Achaemenid court and when the royal army arrived in central Greece in 480 BC, 500 Thebans under the command of the noble Mnamias supported a Persian punitive expedition against rebellious towns in Thessaly, who were regarded as traditional enemies of Boiotia, too. But while Xerxes' main force still resided in Macedon, the Hellenic Leagues' military leader Leonidas, king of Sparta, arrived at Thebes and demanded support for his army. Presumably from the political opposition, 400 men under Anaxandros were chosen and handed over to the Hellenic forces. To these came 700 men from Thespiai, also in Boiotia, who signed up as volunteers- in difference to the Theban contingent. Together, they marched to the Thermopyles and stood against the huge Persian army, only to be betrayed by the famous Ephialtes. While Leonidas released most of his allies once the situation seemed to become hopeless, the Thebans had to stay, which confirms the assumption that they were his personal hostages. The Thebans fought valiantly, especially the noble son Leontiades, who slew many enemies in melee, but eventually most Thebans were captured. The Thespiaians, meanwhile, fought to the bitter end and, like the Lakedaimonians, paid the ultimate price.

    After the Persian victory at the Thermopyles, the Great King came to Thebes and an official alliance was concluded between both parties. This would determine Theban history for the next 50 years since Thebes appeared as a traitor to Greece and the Hellenic cause. But what choice did the Thebans really have, with a gigantic army camping before their gates and the Hellenic League army retreating to the Peloponnese at the same time? The Hellenic fleet might have won a minor victory at Cape Artemision, but with Leonidas' defeat it did not matter for much. In any way, the Persians soon proceeded with their campaign and were now even more determined to destroy Thespiai and Plataiai. Both towns were sacked, as was Athens, but against the odds the Achaemenid fleet was defeated at Salamis in the same year. The Greek victory wasn't decisive, but it stopped the Persian expansion for now and prompted Xerxes' return to Persepolis. While winter fell over the land, Mardonios was appointed as the commander of the Persian forces and fortified a large camp in Thessaly. During the following winter of 480/479 BC, he sent the Karian Mys to visit the Boiotian oracles.
    The royal ambassador was welcomed at the Theban oracle of the Ismenian Apollon, before he visited the oracle of Apollo near Ptoion, which was also under Theban influence. The second event became a minor sensation when the priest of the god replied to Mys in the latter's Karian tongue, puzzling the three Thebans who were in attendance. Allegedly, the same happened when a Lydian, presumably from Mys' retinue, asked the Theban oracle at Amphiaros for advice, with the answer being in Lydian. Clearly the Thebans could not understand what the priests had said and thus their answers, especially the one to Mys at Ptoion, have remained a mystery and Herodotos himself (8,135) marvelled greatly at the story. Drawing from the subsequent events there are two possible theories for the prophet's reply, which was in any case hidden from the three Thebans, who were supposed to write down the statement. Possibly the prophecy had predicted a Persian defeat in the present war, or it advised Mardonios to secure Athens as his vassal. Whatever the reply was, Mys swiftly returned to Thessaly and prompted Mardonios to sent Alexandros of Makedonia to Athens, where he offered them to become the rulers of all Hellas- tried to persuade Mardonios to bribe the Athenians , but when he advanced into Attica once more, they contributed their own infantry contingent nonetheless.


    The Greco Persian Wars: The Hellenic League with all cities, which were members at at least one point, is shown in Red. Direct Persian vassals are depicted in Green, while primarily neutral Greek states are Blue (some of them became vassals or closer allies later on, such as Thebes).

    Shortly thereafter, Athens was evacuated once more and Mardonios ordered his troops to punish the enemy by destroying as many public buildings as possible. While they were still carrying out the work, a messenger from Argos arrived and warned the Persian commander that a Lakedaimonian army- who were the arch enemies of Argos- was on its way to Attica. Mardonios quickly retired his troops to the chora of Thebai and fortified his camp there. To gain the needed wood for the walls, he had to cut down the fruit trees around the city, which caused some anger in Thebes. Also during one of these warm summer evenings, the oligarchs of Thebes hosted an opulent dinner for their Persian guests, to which many other Boiotians were invited as well. While the Thebans remained confident that Mardonios could only win the current campaign and thus make Thebai the foremost polis in Greece, visitors from towns such as Orchomenos noted that even some of the Persians feared defeat, and perhaps even that the Carian prophecy had deeply unsettled them.
    Eventually, when the summer was at its greatest heat, the Hellenic troops arrived in the plain of Plataiai and camped at the foot of the nearby hills. Thebes mobilised the gros of its forces under the command of the nobles Attiginos and Timagenides, who had been among the advisors of Mardonios since the start of the year. The exact numbers of both armies are unknown, but the young Spartan regent Pausanias had brought about 40 000 men to battle, among them a few hundred horsemen, at least 15 000 Peloponnesian skirmishers including the Helots, and more than 20 000 Hoplites from the Peloponnese, Athens, Plataiai, Euboia, Megara, Aigina and a number of smaller towns. While Thebes supported the Persians, Argos abstained from the coalition once more and Maintineian reinforcememts arrived too late. On the other side of the plain, protected by the stream of the Asopus river, the numbers for the Persian troops are even more vague and can only be estimated. Considering the limits of ancient supply and the distance to their homeland, the Persian troops will have most likely (see Lazenby, Delbrück etc.) numbered about 60 000 men infantry- including a great number of bowmen- and 10 000 men cavalry. To this we must add about another 10 000 Greeks from Macedonia, Thessaly and other places who were fighting as vassals of the Great King, including the Theban contingent.


    The main phase of the Battle at Plataiai, August 479 BC

    After the biggest Greek army ever seen had arrived, the preparations on both sides and the cautious tactical plans led to a stalemate of several days, until Pausanias ordered a fake retreat to lure the Persian cavalry onto the rugged ridges and into a melee. Mardonios initially fell for it and sent both the Immortals and the bulk of his cavalry after the Peloponnesians on what was from his point of view the left side of the battlefield. He led the mounted force himself and was shocked when the Spartan and Tegeate Hoplites suddenly turned their spears and shields around and received his cavalry charge in phalanx formation. Pausanias duly dispatched a messenger to the Athenians and their Euboian and Aiginate allies on the other side of the battlefield to tell them to attack the Persians in the rear and close the trap. However, the Theban Hoplites had seized their opportunity and eagerly bore down on their old Athenian rivals, attacking them with great boldness and fervour (in difference to the other Greek allies of Mardonios who fled as soon as an opportunity arose, according to Herodotos). During the struggle on the right (seen from Plataiai), a Spartiate called Arimnestos picked up a rock and threw it at Mardonios, who had come too close to the battle lines. Herodotos tells us that Mardonios was hit in the head and fell dead off his horse. The Persians, seeing that their general had died, began to break away and the remaining bodyguard was slaughtered by the Lakedaimonians. Meanwhile, the Thebans found themselves suddenly outnumbered and were pushed back by the Athenians. One part of the Achaemenid forces under Mardonios' rival Artabazos had already left the battlefield and eventually, the Theban phalanx broke as well. Now, the battle soon turned into a rout and the Persian camp was taken after a short, but bloody battle. The survivors of the Persian army fled northwards, while the Hellenic League resolved to punish Thebes. After more than a decade, Hellas had been saved- and Thebes had to pay the price.


    Urban map of Thebes

    During the Battle of Plataiai, one of the largest battles which ever took place on Greek soil, more than 300 Theban citizens had been slain in defence of their home city. While the defeat was, in the grand scheme of things, only a minor annoyance to the Achaemenid world empire, it was a deadly threat to Thebes, whose very existence hung in the balance. The surviving Thebans, and the few Boiotian allies who were left with them, retreated behind the city's big walls. Pausanias announced that Thebes should be spared if they handed over Attiginos, Timagenides and their followers, but their fellow citizens refused. And thus, the Siege of Thebes began. While the remaining Persian troops could easily return to Macedonia and then the Hellespont, the main force of the Hellenic Force remained at Thebes. On the 20th day of the Siege, probably in early September, Attiginos and Timagenides handed themselves over to the Greeks, trusting on their abilities to bribe their way out. But Pausanias was well aware of this risk and thus sent them straight to Corinth, where they were illegaly, but swiftly executed. A few days later, however, he received the news that Attiginos had managed to escape in time before the execution and thus Thebes offered his sons in place of their missing father. Pausanias, however, rejected this idea as immoral and no further punishment was imposed on Thebai. On a first glance, the town had seemingly survived it's Persian alliance with much less damage than could have been expected. But a closer look reveals that its chora and precious pastures lay devastated, its territory was reduced, its reputation had reached an all time low and it's army had been beaten and scattered. The once great and mythical city had become a shadow of itself and even if we take Herodotos' clearly anti-Theban stance (as our main source for these events) into account, the situation for the town looked bleak by the end of the Greco-Persian Wars in late 479 BC.

    The fate of Thebes had not remained unnoticed by other Boiotian poleis, some of which had participated less active in the war or had even, as the examples of Thespiai and Plataiai have shown, supported the Hellenic League. Thebes was by no means powerful enough anymore to dominate the Boiotian League and by 478 BC Tanagra had become the new primus inter pares, followed by Orchomenos. It took Thebai a whole decade to recover from the economic crisis and in 470 confidence had slowly returned so that Thebes was able to hand a statue, which had been stolen by the Persians, to Delion, a town on the border of the chorai of Tanagra and Thebes. By bestowing the statue to Delion, Thebes symbolically assumed a hegemonic role over the village, a clear statement that Delion should belong to Thebes, and not to Tanagra. However, Thebes was still weakened and to compete not only with Tanagra and Orchomenos in the League, but in all of Greece, it increasingly drew on such symbolic means as the return of the Delion statue. Theban athlets celebrated many successes during the Isthmian games in the 460s and Pindaros from Kynoskephalai, a Theban citizen, became one of the most important and influential poets of the classical age, a man who was active and renowned in areas as far afield as Sicily, where he praised the Syracusan tyrants.
    Almost twenty years had passed since the Battle of Plataiai when the so called ''First Peloponnesian War'' broke out in 460 BC. While mainly a conflict between Athens and Lakedaimon, Boiotia was drawn into the war in 457 BC. The Phokians had invaded Doris, a region to the North of Boiotia, and the inhabitants of the latter sent a request for help to Lakedaimon, their big Dorian brother. The Spartan magistrates realized the chance to win influence in Boiotia as well and sent an army of 1500 Spartiates, supported by their respective helots. After a more or less successful intervention in Doris, which guaranteed their border against Phokis, the Lakedaimonian army returned through Eastern Boiotia and was stopped by a large enemy force near the town of Keraneia in the chora of Tanagra. 14 000 men made up of Athenians, Tanagrians, Thessalians and Argives had encamped on the main street and blocked the way home for the Spartan force. Since they were hopelessly outnumbered, the Lakedaimonian leaders opened negotiations with Thebes and convinced it to help them with their whole army of 10 000 men. In return for their military help, Sparta promised to oust Tanagra from the leading position of the Boiotian League and help Thebes to assume it. After the alliance was sealed, Athens' Thessalian allies changed sides and suddenly the Lakedaimonian coalition held the advantage. At the foot of the mighty Parnassos mountains, the Athenians under Myronides would have numbered about 13 500 men when Nikomedes' Lakedaimonian coalition of roughly the same number attacked them. The Battle of Tanagra in 457 BC was a rather straightforward engagement, in which both sides suffered relatively high losses, but in the end the quality of the Spartan homoioi and the numerically superior cavalry- thanks to the skilled Thessalian riders- carried the day. Myronides evaluated the outcome of the battle as a draw, but he had suffered too many casualties and agreed to a treaty, which allowed the Spartans to march back home.

    However, Myronides and the Athenian government were not ready to let Thebes get away and only 62 days later, an Athenian force of roughly the same size as the one at Tanagra returned and met the defending Thebans and their allies at Oinophyta, a few miles East of Tanagra. This time, the invaders prevailed and the Boiotian League was crushed. When the Theban oligarchs had thought that the disaster of 479 BC could not be exceeded, they had been wrong. Athens now subjugated all of Boiotia and made it part of its ever growing empire. Tanagra and Plataiai were the loyal bases Athens could rely on, while it intervened in the governments of the other towns. Following the defeat, a stasis evolved in Thebai, resulting in a civil strife between an oligarchic and a democratic party. Unsurprisingly, the latter was supported by Athens and a coup let to the establishment of a democratic government. But Boiotia was not used to demokratia and soon the new regime broke down because of administrative problems. Even the Athenian magistrates had to realise that a democratic Thebes would not work and instead they helped to install a pro-Athenian oligarchy. During the the next years, Boiotian and Theban soldiers contributed many men to Athenian expeditions against Delphi and Thessaly and from an Athenian point of view, it looked as if Boiotia would become a successful and precious acquisition.
    By 450 BC, however, dissatisfaction about the Athenian suzerainty and unrest was on the up. The foreign rule had strengthened a local patriotism among the different Boiotian tribes and towns and many nobles began to contact their friends abroad. During the turbulent years that had passed, many Boiotians had been exiled, especially once Athens took over the region. Many of these nobles had been opponents of Athens, which had been seen as a major rival to oligarchic Boiotia ever since the establishment of democracy. Now, many of these exiles returned under cover and prepared to throw over the foreign administration. The chance came in 447 BC, a year of widespread unrest and revolt in the Athenian empire. Many poleis refused to pay their yearly tribute or only transferred a part of it, and the Boiotian exiles quickly seized the opportunity. At first, Chaironeia was ''freed'' by a putsch, and many smaller towns followed suit. More significantly, the same happened in Orchomenos, one of the four big poleis of the region. Upon the arrival of these news, Athens dispatched 1000 citizen Hoplites under Tolmides and a similar number of skirmishers and allies to Boiotia. The army succeeded in taking Chaironeia, but soon Orchomenos and Thebes united their troops under the command of Sparton and faced the enemy at Koroneia on the Northern slopes of the Helikon. Tolmides was taken by surprise when the numerically superior Boiotians suddenly attacked his forces and they quickly lost their order. The small Athenian army was decisively defeated and routed. Since many Athenian citizens had been captured, Athens was willing to agree to a treaty which set Boiotia free and released the prisoners of war. All Athenian garrisons were removed and the Boiotian League fully revived.

    In this new situation, the critical role in the fight for freedom and the influence of both Thebes and Orchomenos were acknowledged when the federal council worked out and passed a new constitution. Our main information about the Boiotian League constitution concerns the year 395 BC, when Thebes had won considerable influence in all of Boiotia, but it is clear that the structure dates back to 447 BC. First of all, Boiotia was divided into 11 districts, corresponding to the size of the population. Each district was represented by one boiotarchos and sent 60 bouletai into the federal council. The number of 60 was chosen because it can be divided through 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 and thus one district could easily represent one polis as well as six poleis. The assembly of 660 representatives, which was thus formed, was again divided into four parts, as was the boule (council) of each polis. The government both in the cities and the league was round-based, at any given time one of the quarters of the bouletai would act as probouloi. This was keeping with Boiotia's oligarchic tradition, but added a new level of flexibility to its government. Since the same was applied to the urban level, all citizens could identify themselves with their home division, similar to the tribus in Rome and the phyle in Athens and other poleis. Each district was obliged to supply 1000 men of infantry and 100 men of cavalry for the federal army, which adds up to an overall army of 11 000 infantry and 1100 cavalry for the whole League. In times of war, to this one would have to add the own forces of the four big poleis Thebai, Orchomenos, Tanagra and Thespiai, so that the league's forces could roughly number as many as 20 000 infantry and 2000 cavalry.

    The eleven districts were distributed the following way:

    Thebes (each polis including it's chora): 2 districts
    Orchomenos (also including Hyettos): 2
    Thespiai (including Thisbai and Eutresis): 2
    Tanagra: 1 district
    Haliartos, Lebadaia and Koroneia: 1
    Akraiphion, Kopai and Chaironeia: 1
    Skolos, Erythrai and Skaphai (After Peloponnesian War: + Plataiai): 1
    Remaining minor towns: 1

    (The latter two were under Theban influence and, by 395 BC, under full Theban control)

    Along with these changes of the federal structure, the Theban oligarchy became more open from 447 BC on, but only people who had not been active in trade for 10 years were allowed to take up public offices. Since Athens had dominated Boiotian politics for the last ten years, this excluded most of the Athenian favourites from the government, but gave them a fair chance to return to higher posts in the future. For now, the returning exiles held most of the important offices and pushed through more changes for the Boiotian Koinon. Arguing with Thebai's infrastructure and its central position in Boiotia, the Theban Boiotarchs convinced the assembly to held the regular meetings in Thebes, which made it much easier for the Theban bouleutai to attend all federal gatherings. Furthermore, Thebes took over the role to mint coins, and ONLY Thebes. And, in a striking similiarity to the Delian Legaue, the League's treasury was moved to Thebes as well.


    A Greek Silver Stater, minted in Thebes around 400 BC, showing a Boiotian shield and a bearded Dionysos

    The flexible and elaborated system, which established Thebai as the dominating polis in Boiotia, points to an external influence from an intellectual person. At this very time, the Pythagorean philosopher Lysis arrived in Boiotia, having spent several years in Achaia. Since the Pythagoreans were oligarchic theoretical thinkers, Thebes was an attractive target for him, especially during this period of political change. In Achaia, Lysis had also learned to respect the local democratic constitution and when some Pythagoreans were persecuted in Southern Italy, a Pythagorean embassy from Achaia convinced the Italic poleis to establish a new constitution after the Achaian rolemodel to solve the inner crisis. On a similar line, Lysis and his companions probably provided the complicated structure of the Boiotian League, whose constitution bore some resemblance to the Platonic constitution- no wonder, since Platon was a disciple of the Pythagoreans. The model also served as a template for the oligarchic constitution, which was installed in Athens in 411 BC.

    Finally, Thebes had recovered it's power and enhanced it's position in a newly ordered Boiotian League. But soon, conflict with Plataiai, the one Boiotian polis, who, as an Athenian ally, remained outside of the confederation, would lead to its involvement in the Peloponnesian War... and Thebes' true rise to a great power...




    UNITS

    Phroura Boiotarchou
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    (General unit)Rich citizens, able to bear the best of arms who fight along with the leaders of the Boiotian army the "Boiotarchs".
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    Kreittoi Hoplitai
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    The predecessor of the famous Sacred Band, Kreittoi or Kreittones hoplitai (means the beter ones) as they are named by Ploutarch, consist the elite fighting force of the Theban army, numbered up to 300 men. Their base was in Kadmeia (as the Sacred Band), their expenses are funded by the oligarchic state and acts as protectors of Kadmeia and the oligarchic constitution.
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    Boiotoi Promachoi Hoplitai
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    The richest citizens of the cities of the Boiotian league consist the promachoi regiments, fighting as heavy hoplites in the Boiotian phalanx.
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    Thebaioi Hoplitai
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    Theban hoplites are known for their military pride and physical skills. They traditionally have a deeper phalanx formation than the other Greeks, as we can see from battles like Delium and Leuctra. Epameinondas inspired from this uniqueness, to perfect his military ideas. As patron hero of Thebes was Hercules, his club is the main symbol on the shields of the Thebans.
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    Orchomenoi Hoplitai
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    Orchomenos was the biggest and wealthiest city in the league after Thebes, that's why a rivalry existed between those cities that ended with the double destruction of Orchomenos at 364 nad 349. From coins founded, dated from late 5th century we assume that the wheat ear was their main hoplitic emblem.
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    Thespieis Hoplitai
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    The famous Thespian hoplites, who fought and died alonside Leonidas at Thermopylae.
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    Boiotoi Hoplitai
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    The hoplites from the rest of Boiotia from cities like Tanagra, Aliartos etc. It is suggested that Boiotians used widely, among with personal or other local emblems, the snake in W shape on their shields.
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    Thebaioi Hippeis
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    ph
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    Democratic Reform Units
    When Thebes and Boiotian league change their constitution to a republic deep reforms have been made in the army organization, most of them by the military intellect of Epameinondas.

    Ieros Lochos
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    The most widely known Theban unit, Ieros Lochos (or Sacred Band in english) is the successor regiment of the Kreittoi hoplites. It is said that the regiment reformed by general Gorgidas after the liberation of Cadmeia from the Spartan guard and the establishment of democracy although better known for the period when commander of the regiment was general Pelopidas. Like it's predecessor, Ieros Lochos was consisted from the best hoplites numbered 300 men, trained and equipped by public expense. They acted as guards of the democratic constitution and they are based at Cadmeia.
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    Thebaioi Ekdromoi Hoplitai
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    For many historians the existence of the Boiotian shield during the classical age seems rather doubtful, drawing on the opinion that coins found in Boiotia dating from the classical age who do depict Boiotian shields are merely images projecting the heroic past of Boiotia. Some other writes, however, including Peter Connolly, support the idea that the Boiotians actually used the Boiotian shield during this timeframe. But according to this opinion it was not used in a classical hoplite phalanx due to the different grip and shape of the Boiotian shield, which inevitably left parts of the body unprotected and gaps in the line vulnerable to attack. Peter Connolly and others who follow his thesis suggested that this shield was used in a more open formation along with a longer spear like a pike in order to exploit the moon-cuts of the shield. It is said that Boiotian shield was much lighter and cheaper than the Argive hoplon since it was made from leather and covered in wood. That explains why no shield of this type has ever been found, and also makes the historians believe that poor Boiotian citizens used this shield because of the comparatevily low cost.

    Later, during the life of Epameinondas, when democracy had been established and many poorer citizens joined the army, the Boiotian shield became common among their ranks. If we may have an opinion on this, we support the idea that the Boiotian shield existed during the classical era and was more than simply a symbol of the heroic past. It was a shield commonly used by poor Boiotian citizens, who were not able to join the ranks of hoplites. But when democracy was established and many of the poor joined the Theban army in a more professional role, Epameinondas, inspired by the great Athenian general Iphikrates, (Iphicrates created an unit of peltast-hoplites carrying much longer spears and the smaller and lighter pelte shields. Look for the Iphicrateans in the Athenian preview) armed those who carried Boiotian shields with pikes and deployed them in a more open formation than the classical hoplitic phalanx (as Connolly says) in order to fully exploit the elements of the shield and make them robust enough for a fight with heavy hoplites.

    Another reason to strongly believe Connolly's theory is the example of Philip II of Makedon. It is commonly known that Philip was strongly inspired to reform the Makedonian army from what he saw in Thebes. But what exactly did he see there in order to create an army full of pikes? That's why we believe that Iphikrates started the development when he created his peltast-hoplite soldiers using all the lessons of the Peloponnesian war, Epameinondas was inspired by him and finally Philip used all the knowledge from his time in Thebes to invent a perfect army full of those soldiers with pikes and pelte shields, the Makedonian phalanx. We do not actually know how the afore mentioned troops were used by the Thebans so we can only speculate that they normally filled the last ranks of the Boiotian phalanxes in order to achieve the huge depths of 25-50 ranks. At least this may have been be their initial role before Epameinondas trained them and exploit all their benefits to make them into a force like the later Makedonian phalanx. Unfortunately its creation had to wait until the rule of Phillip in Makedon because of Epameinondas' early death at the battle of Mantineia.
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    Officers
    Because the basic lochos system were most likely being used from Thebes, Athens, Sparta and the most of the Greeks with small differences, i choose to represent the Boiotian officer system like i did previous on Spartans and Athenians. So we have outside and inside unit officers. The outside unit officer is the lochagos and is the normal officer of a hoplite unit. The inside unit officers are commanders of sub-divisions of lochos. I will call them like the Spartans (enomotarch and pentikontarch) because is more convinient since the actual names of those minor Boiotian officers are not known to us. So:

    Boiotian Lochagos
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    Lochos was a subdivision of the biggest Boiotian division the Meros as we said above. Commander of the lochos is the lochagos, the normal unit officer.
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    Pentikontarch of heavy hoplites (Phroura, Kreittoi, Promachoi)
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    An inside unit officer. You will find about 4 of them inside Kreittoi, Phroura and Promachoi units.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Penticontarch of Thebaioi Hoplitai
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    An inside unit officer. You will find about 4 of them inside a Theban regiment.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Penticontarch of Orchomenoi, Boiotoi hoplitai
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    An inside unit officer. You will find about 4 of them inside a unti of Boiotoi,Orchomenioi hoplitai.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Penticontarch of Ieros Lochos
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    An inside unit officer. You will find about 4 of them inside an Ieros Lochos unit.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Enomotarchs of heavy hoplites (Phroura, Kreittoi, Promachoi)
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    An inside unit officer. You will find about 16 of them inside Phroura, Kreittoi and Promachoi units.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Enomotarchs of medium hoplites (Thebaioi, Boiotoi, Orchomenioi)
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    An inside unit officer. You will find about 16 of them inside Thebaioi, Orchomenioi and Boiotoi hoplitai.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Enomotarchs Ierou Lochou
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    An inside unit officer. You will find about 16 of them inside Ieros Lochos unit.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 



    Various Screenshots
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 







    Graphics Team
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    M@x1mus - Variantmeshes/Texturing/Research
    Morfeasnikos - Texturing
    JJpower - Texturing
    Decoco and Buio666 - 3d modeling


    Credits
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Without help from our friends bellow, the above result will not be existed. So a huge thanks to:
    Demokritos for his permission to import his ACR in GaW You can find his great mod here:
    http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showt...-Mod-available
    TWHellas team and Koultouras for letting as use assets of theirs great mod(Koultouras thanks a lot my friend) Link of TWHmod: http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showt...-0-WoS-updated!!
    Aguirre for his guidance to me, and his Boeotian models and skins of his beautiful TABU mod. Link:
    http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showt...-units-for-WOS
    The Germans are coming for tones of new textures free to all! Check this out:
    http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showt...xtures-for-You!
    To Meneros for his spartan cloak, some tunics and an awesome linothorax used on Athenians:
    http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showt...1#post13331666
    Paeninsula Italica II team and KEA. You can find it here:
    http://www.twcenter.net/forums/forum...ula-Italica-II
    To Lupus Noctuam for helping Decoco in 3d modelling
    And of course to the glorious Hegemonia City States team and Jarlaxe:
    http://www.twcenter.net/forums/forum...ty-States-(BI)

    We all thank you for your contribution in Greeks at War!


    Sources
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    [/ER]



    http://laonikos13galanis.blogspot.gr...post_2122.html
    http://www.sparta.markoulakispublica...dex.php?id=108
    The Boeotian Army The Convergence of Warfare, Politics, Society by Nicholas Ryan Rockwell








    PS: UI i'm using is Rafkos' creation for DeI, that i modify it in our mod for my personal use.



    Last edited by M@x1mus; March 06, 2016 at 05:55 AM.

  2. #2

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Damn beautiful !!!!!

  3. #3
    Mausolos of Caria's Avatar Royal Satrap
    Join Date
    Nov 2011
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    County of Ravensberg
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    5,576

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Great work, mate, +rep! I have done my research for the text, but I'll be on holidays from coming Friday to the Wednesday thereafter, so I will probably only get it done after that, sorry. In any case I think that we should simply have one texts. The origins of the Boiotian League are more or less unknown and only in the period before the Peloponnesian League does it appear as an actual institution. I will write a bit about the history of Thebes in the archaic period and then explain how it recovered from its fate in the Persian wars and then rose to become the hegemon of the League.
    "Pompeius, after having finished the war against Mithridates, when he went to call at the house of Poseidonios, the famous teacher of philosophy, forbade the lictor to knock at the door, as was the usual custom, and he, to whom both the eastern and the western world had yielded submission, ordered the fasces to be lowered before the door of science."

    Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 7, 112

  4. #4

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Thanks Guys!

    Quote Originally Posted by Mausolos of Caria View Post
    Great work, mate, +rep! I have done my research for the text, but I'll be on holidays from coming Friday to the Wednesday thereafter, so I will probably only get it done after that, sorry. In any case I think that we should simply have one texts. The origins of the Boiotian League are more or less unknown and only in the period before the Peloponnesian League does it appear as an actual institution. I will write a bit about the history of Thebes in the archaic period and then explain how it recovered from its fate in the Persian wars and then rose to become the hegemon of the League.
    Ok Maus No prob!

  5. #5

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Absolutely AMAZING!

    Democratic Reform Units will available in case of conquering Thebes from Athens?

  6. #6

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Quote Originally Posted by juve View Post
    Democratic Reform Units will available in case of conquering Thebes from Athens?
    No. Thebes, became a democracy after the liberation of their acropolis (Cadmeia) from the Spartan guard stationed there, under the leadership of Epameinondas.
    Ieros Lochos (sacred band) had the task to protect future attempts against Cadmeia and acted as protectors of the Theban democracy, besides being the elite force of the Theban army.
    So those units will be avalaible after completing some tasks representing the change of the constitution of Thebes from oligarchy to democracy.

  7. #7

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Quote Originally Posted by M@x1mus View Post
    No. Thebes, became a democracy after the liberation of their acropolis (Cadmeia) from the Spartan guard stationed there, under the leadership of Epameinondas.
    Ieros Lochos (sacred band) had the task to protect future attempts against Cadmeia and acted as protectors of the Theban democracy, besides being the elite force of the Theban army.
    So those units will be avalaible after completing some tasks representing the change of the constitution of Thebes from oligarchy to democracy.
    Thank you for the explanation

  8. #8

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Bravo Elia !!!

  9. #9

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Great job as always Liako..I told you privately also.
    + rep when i am allowed.

  10. #10

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Quote Originally Posted by jjpower24 View Post
    Bravo Elia !!!
    Bravo mas Johnny!

  11. #11

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    amazing Elia!!!!

  12. #12

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    very very beautiful !

    I work on the Beotian Shield Yet Still in WIP
    See you soon for it

  13. #13
    Linke's Avatar Hazarapatish
    Join Date
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    Stockholm
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    1,800

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Vry nice indeed Elias. But we're waiting for Korinthians to publish both right? (My faction of choise btw)

  14. #14
    Mausolos of Caria's Avatar Royal Satrap
    Join Date
    Nov 2011
    Location
    County of Ravensberg
    Posts
    5,576

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Good to see this up, well done everyone once again
    "Pompeius, after having finished the war against Mithridates, when he went to call at the house of Poseidonios, the famous teacher of philosophy, forbade the lictor to knock at the door, as was the usual custom, and he, to whom both the eastern and the western world had yielded submission, ordered the fasces to be lowered before the door of science."

    Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 7, 112

  15. #15

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    This looks absolutely GREAT!! Its clear that you guy's has done a lot of research.

  16. #16

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Quote Originally Posted by WolfLuyt View Post
    This looks absolutely GREAT!! Its clear that you guy's has done a lot of research.
    As much as possible!
    Thank you!

  17. #17

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Love it! Wou team, that´s gonna be great! can´t wait to play, love that historical review of this mini camp...best mod ever! =)

  18. #18

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Excellent work as always.

    + rep

  19. #19

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Quote Originally Posted by KLAssurbanipal View Post
    Excellent work as always.

    + rep
    Thank you KLA for the support

  20. #20

    Default Re: Boiotian Preview

    Quote Originally Posted by KLAssurbanipal View Post
    Excellent work as always.

    + rep
    Thanks a lot my friend!
    Hope you all guys enjoy our mod!

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