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Thread: 1648: The Two Towers

  1. #121

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    I paste here the post I had made at Infracta some years ago for reference.

    One event of potential interest is a plan by a French noble, Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers, also Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Gon…_and_Montferrat), to lead a revolution in the Balkan regions of the Ottoman Empire. He was distantly descended from the Palaeologus family and organised a meeting of rebel leaders from Dalmatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania and Greece (especially Maina and Epirus) in a place called Kouki (or similar) in Albania on the 8th of September 1612. The rebels found allies in the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldova. They made plans to raise as many as 160,000 men across the Balkans and to take major Ottoman forts, whose garrisons were Christian and were in actual communication with the rebels, then march eastwards to lay siege on Adrianople and Constantinople. Many of the rebels apparently addressed in their letters the Duke of Nevers as Constantine Paleologus (To his most serene Excellency the Emperor Constantine Palaeologus, etc). Copies of some of these letters survive.

    The Duke of Nevers at first commissioned five galeons and hired a small expeditionary force. A Capuchin priest named Joseph, later associated with Cardinal Richelieu, declared at the time a Crusade against the Ottomans in Spain, France and Germany. However, neither the Pope nor any of the European rulers endorsed the Crusade. Apparently both the Spanish Crown and the Venetians had competing interests in the area and disliked the idea. The Duke of Nevers nonetheless sent money to the rebels to organise their forces and obtain arms. He drew out a budget amounting to 2 million golden coins plus a million per year until Constantinople was taken. He requested and might have had pledges of 600,000 golden coins from the Spanish king and 300,000 from the Pope. He received pledges of ships from some rulers and also from the Knights of Malta whio indeed at around 1617 carried out naval raids against the Ottomans. Although the Duke of Nevers failed to gain the support of the Holy Roman Emperor or the Pope in person, he seemed prepared to take his chances with little help from the European rulers. Inexplicably, however, his five ships were destroyed by fire and he called off the expedition. Of all the rebel forces, apparently only a small force under a priest called Dionysios actually went ahead. They attacked the city of Ioannina in Epirus but, despite initial success, they were eventually defeated. Dionysios was captured and skinned alive. Maina was attacked by a large Ottoman army and was forced to come to terms. The revolution ended there, although the Duke of Nevers apparently continued to plot with local leaders until 1625 and hoped he might still be able to gain support to carry out his plans.

    One option could be to assume that several Balkan regions were at flash point, with high levels of civil unrest. A Crusade had been called against Istanbul. Then if any of the European states joined that Crusade, a war could start between the Ottoman Empire and those states, which the German Emperor might potentially join. In this way there could be a perfectly historical scenario.

    At this time point, in addition to the Duke of Nevers possibly aspiring to become a new Byzantine emperor, there were three mercenary captains under the name of Palaeologus in the pay of Venice: Ioannes Palaeologus, Theodoros Palaeologus and Constantinos Palaeologus. Obviously these also had the potential of becoming leaders of this revolution, especially had Venice joined the Crusade. Other captains of Greek mercenaries in Venetian service around this time included: Costas Rabdas, Markos Antonios Salas (Marcantonio Sala), Eustratios Nikephorakes, Martinos Gradanis, Demetrios Tarchaneiotes and Theodoros Karystinos.

    I have found it easier to get information on the situation in Greece than in other Balkan regions.

    Commerce and resources: Mademochoria, in exchange for their privileges, paid 220 kilograms of pure silver to the Sultan annually plus a capital tax in grain. Apart from the silver mines, the richest region in Greece appeared to be in Thessaly: raw cotton, wool, silk and dyed cotton – the latter being exported to Vienna, Leipzig, Dresden, Budapest and other regions, primarily in Germany. Wine was produced in Attica and in the region of the Peloponnese between Corinth and Argos and also in Cephalonia (under Venetian control). Mastic was produced in Chios. Olive oil in Crete, the Peloponnese and the Ionian Islands (Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante). I came across two named Greek merchants of that time: Nikolaos Mavrokordatos in Istanbul, a silk merchant. One of the city councillors of Athens at this time was a merchant named Kapetanakes.

    Settlements: Among the larger settlements on mainland Greece were Thessalonika, Athens, Ioannina, Arta, Napoli di Romania (Nauplia), Patras, Negroponte (Chalcis), Larisa, Volos and Serres. The most significant fortresses were in Thessalonica, Ioannina and four fortresses close to each other in Corinth, Argos and Napoli di Romania (2 fortresses). Rhodes was also heavily fortified since the days of the Knights Hospitaller. The most heavily fortified city under Venetian control was Corfu, which was also the seat of the Venetian Admiralty.

    Religion and schools: Except for the three autonomous regions, where entry to Muslims was forbidden by the Treaties, most towns in Greece had a mix of Muslim and Christian inhabitants. Athens at this time had a population of 15-16,000, with about 1000-1200 being Muslim. Parthenon had been converted into a mosque but remained otherwise intact. The vast majority of the Christian population was illiterate but Athens had some schools including a school of music. Greek schools began to be built at this time in other regions with donations from expatriate Greeks. There were Greek schools also in Istanbul and Venice at this period and theological schools in Istanbul, Ioannina and Mt Athos that had existed since Byzantine times. Some recorded historical priests of this period: Athanasios Vilerianos (1635), Philotheos, Hierotheos, Makarios, Ambrosios, Kallinikos, Theodoretos, Daniel, Kyrillos, Ioannikios, Christophoros, Liberakes Gerakares (1689). The bishop of Maina Neophytos was one of the Greek leaders of the 1612 movement. The Orthodox Patriarch in Constantinople/Istanbul was Parthenios III.

    Government and diplomacy: The three autonomous regions were governed by councils headed by a prelate, somewhat in the style of the Italian city states. Mademochoria: capital Machalas (I believe ancient Stageira, the birthplace of Aristotle). Zagori: capital Kapesovo. Maina (Mani) had no capital, potentially Skoutari could be used, one of the bigger settlements. Greek diplomats serving under the Sultan in the late 17th C: Panagiotes Nikouses, Alexandros Mavrokordatos, Antonios Kremakes, Constantinos Giobanikes, Thomas Tarsias. City councillors of Athens of this period whose names could be used for diplomats or governors included: Stamates Paleologus, Giannis Paleologus, Ioannes Venizelos, Demetrios Venizelos, Leonardos Skleros, Demetrios Makolos, Panagiotes Kavallares, Stamates Chalcocondyles.

    Rebels: Rebel captains of the 17th century in Greece: Chrysanthos Laskaris, Patrikios Phokas, Niketas Melissenos, Dionysios Ralles, Medikos, Stephanopoulos, Leonardos Philaras, Demetrios Niklos, Constantinos Poubalos, Gregorios Klinodes, Karales, Makrythanasis, Makropoulios, Karakitsos, Georgios Bernakiotes, Nikolos Tziobaras; Delphi/Lepanto: Libines, Skylodemos; Peloponnese: Panagiotaros, Kolokotrones, Kontobounisios, Chontrogiannes; Epirus: Lapas, Stournaris, Nikos Tsaras or Nikotsaras, Vlachavas, Kontogiannis, Christos Meliones, Zetros, Toskas, Syntekniotes, Theodoros Grivas, Poulios Drakos, Malamos. Rebel captains of the 16th century from the Peloponnese: Theodoros Agiapostolites, Michael Kalophonos, Nikolaos Mamonas, Theodoros Boukites.

    I have been working on names also for the other factions.

    Edit 1: By the way, the autonomous regions in Greece (1) Zagori (Zagorochoria), 2) Maina or Mani and 3) Mademochoria that included Mount Athos) are indicated in the online map I posted above. There were a couple of other regions (e.g. Souliotes) that I am not sure whether they had formal treaties with the Sultan. Zagori and Mani had small armed forces. Zagori and possibly also Mani provided small troops of Sipahi to Ottoman campaigns up to 1632 or 1638 but other than that had their own governments. There were no Turkish governors or delegates, in fact Turks/Muslims were prohibited entry according to a treaty that in the case of Zagori dated to 1430. Only Mani really rebelled against the Sultan, the others were more or less vassals, although individuals frequently fought as mercenaries mainly for Venice.

    The map I posted has all the Venetian colonies of the time. The governors and some of the aristocracy were Venetian, but the soldiers were normally locals. Later in the 17th century Venice made attempts to capture more areas and succeeded for a time in capturing most of the south of Greece including Athens.

    Edit 2: Actually, one possibility could be to have Mantua in the game and turn it into the Byzantine Empire if it captures Cosntantinople, and change the name of Charles Gonzaga to Constantinos Palaeologos if that happens. Just a thought - it doesn't have to be that way. The War of the Mantuan Succession (1628–31) was a peripheral part of the Thirty Years' War, in the course of which the Duke of Nevers found himself at war with Spain, the HRE and Savoy, with France as his only ally. Perhaps there is room for Mantua in the mod.
    Last edited by Geoffrey of Villehardouin; January 11, 2015 at 08:56 AM.

  2. #122

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Quote Originally Posted by Geoffrey of Villehardouin View Post

    Edit 2: Actually, one possibility could be to have Mantua in the game and turn it into the Byzantine Empire if it captures Cosntantinople, and change the name of Charles Gonzaga to Constantinos Palaeologos if that happens. Just a thought - it doesn't have to be that way. The War of the Mantuan Succession (1628–31) was a peripheral part of the Thirty Years' War, in the course of which the Duke of Nevers found himself at war with Spain, the HRE and Savoy, with France as his only ally. Perhaps there is room for Mantua in the mod.
    I really like that idea my friend. Like we say in german: "Two Flies, one Swatter"

    But i hear it already from distant future posts: "wtf, an italian faction have greek rebel units and minor cities in greek and could become Byzantine Empire? are u kidding me?"

  3. #123

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Relasing date?

  4. #124

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    The more help there is from people who can mod, the nearer the releasing date will get.

  5. #125
    mircea's Avatar Biarchus
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    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    As I'm a big fan of this period, I'm eaferly exepcting this mod.
    I could provide a lot of information for the principalities of Moldova and Wallahia and Transylvania. Also, some of the (late era) units designed for the mod Tsardom TW could be used for the aforementioned factions.
    Cheers

  6. #126

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    If you feel like doing some research, then historical names would be useful for generals, any well known diplomats, priests, merchants etc as starting characters, any key historical events, such as the signing of treaties, discoveries and so on. Demographic information, with proportion of Muslims, Orthodox, Catholic and Protestants for the major cities and which cities were the major cities. Any castles, and landmarks - such as important historical buildings. Also resources, cotton, wood, metals, or whatever was being produced in those days - any of that would be good. Portraits of period characters would also be useful, if any can be found.

    We would be glad for offers to research any of the other Balkan factions, Montenegro, Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Albania.

  7. #127
    Hetman Khmelnytsky's Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    I'm always busy due to high school work, but since there's Zaporozhian Cossacks in this mod I may provide some research and sources.

  8. #128

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Quote Originally Posted by Hetman Khmelnytsky View Post
    I'm always busy due to high school work, but since there's Zaporozhian Cossacks in this mod I may provide some research and sources.
    When you have a bit of time for research, we would be grateful for anything you can find on the Zaporozhian Cossacks, also any units, either names of units or drawings/paintings.

    There is also some room for making improvements in the 1648 mod. For example, the Polish and Bohemian factions have been left with a provisional medieval battle deployment: missile units at the front, melee units behind, with no pike and shot style formations. Did the Polish infantry use pike and shot formations? Did they use pikemen in preference to other melee infantry? It is not easy to find historical information about the former Eastern Block countries in western sources.

  9. #129
    Hetman Khmelnytsky's Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    A bit off topic, but I would like to see Polish units from the Fire and Sword 2 mod in a future version of 1648. I just feel that the Polish units are a bit too generic besides a few unique units like winged hussars. And perhaps for Two Towers we can have a Fire and Sword 2 roster for the Cossack faction, but I feel that permission must be obtained first.

  10. #130

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Quote Originally Posted by Hetman Khmelnytsky View Post
    A bit off topic, but I would like to see Polish units from the Fire and Sword 2 mod in a future version of 1648. I just feel that the Polish units are a bit too generic besides a few unique units like winged hussars. And perhaps for Two Towers we can have a Fire and Sword 2 roster for the Cossack faction, but I feel that permission must be obtained first.
    Some units from 1648 are likely to find their way to the Two Towers, so this is worth discussing. By generic units, you probably mean the standard musketeers, pikemen and halberdiers. So would you say that Poland-Lithuania did not have such units? Did they have them in only small numbers? Do not assume that our decisions on the Polish units were based on any great depth of knowledge. The Fire and Sword mod also being in Polish is unfathomable to most of us. Perhaps when you have the time and inclination you can do some research and let us know what the common types of units were for the Polish or the Cossacks, whether pike and shot formations were used, and whether the reforms of Maurice of Nassau had been adopted, if so.

  11. #131
    mircea's Avatar Biarchus
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    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    I complied some hefty amounts of information about the 3 principalities in vassalage with the Ottoman Empire, but I would be interested if the start date could be pushed back several decades, the period around 1618 and afterwards is quite lackluster in this area of Europe, with the 3 major players being more preoccupied by wars in Central Europe (30 Years War), North-East Europe (Polish-Swedish-Russian wars) and in Asia (wars with Iran). On the other hand, between 1593 and 1606, Balkan area was engulfed in a prolonged war, arguably the bloodiest and most extensive experienced in the region, at least until the Great War of 1683-1699.

  12. #132
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    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    I have some Osprey books on Poland-Lithuania, and the Thirty Years War in general

    Is development still going, if slow?

  13. #133

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Quote Originally Posted by Mr Kriegtooth View Post
    I have some Osprey books on Poland-Lithuania, and the Thirty Years War in general

    Is development still going, if slow?
    Yes, please give us some feedback on the situation with the Poland-Lithuania armies, whether they used pike and shot formations and what formations they used if so. Also did they use Cuirassiers of the German type and Harquebusiers or dragoons?

  14. #134
    mircea's Avatar Biarchus
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    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Hello,

    As the size of the material gathered regarding the 3 Christian principalities vassal to Ottoman Empire is quite extensive, I'll have to present it piecemeal, first we start with demographic & economic data:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Population

    Transylvania c.1.1 million in 1600, c1.25 million by 1700
    Wallachia 300,000 in 1600, over 500,000 by mid 1600s
    Moldova 440,000 in 1600 and 480,000 in 1700

    Main cities
    Wallachia
    Targoviste (with c.5,250 at 1581 and 3,000 by 1700), Campulung (with 4,750 at 1581), Craiova (more than 2,000 at 1700 and 836 families or about 4,000 people by 1735), Curtea de Arges, Buzau (1,500), Slatina, Pitesti, Targu Jiu, Bucuresti (8,000 at 1600 and below 20,000 by 1700), Ramnicu Valcea (almost 2,000 by late 16th century, ravaged by black death in 1602 and 1671). Fortified courts at Bucuresti and Targoviste

    Moldova
    Suceava (c. 4,000 at 1600) Neamt, Galati (2,000 by 1700), Bacau, Targul Lapusna, Roman, Iasi (4,000 in 1600 and 7,000 in 1700), Orhei, Soroca, Dorohi, Barlad, Cernauti
    Fortresses - Hotin, Soroca, Neamt, Suceava and fortified princely court at Iasi

    Transylvania
    For second half of 16 centuries estimates give a population of 7,400 for Cluj (Kolozsvar), 2,200 at Sighisoara (Schasbrich), 5,300 for Sibiu (Hermannstadt), 4,800 for Bistrita (Bistriz), while Brasov (Kronstadt) had 10,000 in 16th c. Other major cities were the capital Alba Iulia with 3,000 by late 17th c. (Gyulafehérvár), but also Medias (Mediasch), Oradea (Nagyvárad) with 5000 in late 16th c., Tg. Mures (Székelyvásárhely), Satu Mare (Szatmárnémeti), Baia Mare (Nagybánya). Almost all Transylvanian cities were walled, with many of fortifications modernized in this period. Saxon (German colonists) and Hungarians formed the majority of urban dwelling population, while Romanians had a stronger presence in the countryside. The Saxon cities, with Sibiu (Hermannstadt), Bistrita (Bistriz), Brasov (Kronstadt), Medias (Mediasch) and Sebes (Mühlbach) being the most significant, benefited from extensive privileges and full administrative autonomy, where also some of the most significant trade and industrial centers in the principality, as well as in the region.

    Economy
    Cooper and iron ore extraction at Baia de Arama and Baia de fier (both in western Wallachia) and Hunedoara (Transylvania), salt at Trotus, Targu ocna, Ibanesti, Harlau (all in W Moldova) and Ocnele Mari, Slanic, Sararu, Telega (in N Wallachia) and Ocnele Sibiu, Sibiu, Dej (in Transylvania). Salt was one of the main export item for the 3 principalities, for Wallachia accounting to around 10% of total exports. Salt went mainly toward ottoman empire, Poland.

    Value of wheat exports amounted to 5-10% of Wallachia and Moldova exports in 16th c., mainly exported toward Ottoman Empire.
    Moldova and Wallachia also exported fish, wood, honey or wax, the latter in Ottoman Empire and Venice, wine, but all these in quite small quantities.

    Livestock was the main export item for all 3 principalities, with the livestock category including horses, but mainly cattle and sheep, as well as processed goods, such as leather, wool, fat, butter, Livestock representing around 60% of Wallachia's exports and 70-80% in Moldova's case. Sheep went mainly toward Ottoman Empire, cattle toward Central Europe, Poland, but also Ottoman empire. Concerning quantities, in 16-17th centuries, the average annual livestock exports toward Central Europe amounted to around 10,000 animals in Transylvania's case and 20,000 in Moldova's case. The livestock exports of Wallachia were more significantly orientated toward the Balkan region. In the same period, Wallachia and Moldova were also exporting up 27,000 cattle to Ottomans. The price of cattle stood high in first part of 17th c., but drops significantly in Central Europe after 30 years war

    Saltpeter was extracted at Focsani, Ramnicu Sarat (NE Walalchia) and in most Moldova.

    Gold and silver extracted in Transylvania at Abrud, Zlatna, Baia de cris, in parallel with cooper extraction. Transylvania obtained up to 15,000 florins from gold


    (to be continued)

  15. #135

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Quote Originally Posted by mircea View Post
    Hello,

    As the size of the material gathered regarding the 3 Christian principalities vassal to Ottoman Empire is quite extensive, I'll have to present it piecemeal, first we start with demographic & economic data:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Population

    Transylvania c.1.1 million in 1600, c1.25 million by 1700
    Wallachia 300,000 in 1600, over 500,000 by mid 1600s
    Moldova 440,000 in 1600 and 480,000 in 1700

    Main cities
    Wallachia
    Targoviste (with c.5,250 at 1581 and 3,000 by 1700), Campulung (with 4,750 at 1581), Craiova (more than 2,000 at 1700 and 836 families or about 4,000 people by 1735), Curtea de Arges, Buzau (1,500), Slatina, Pitesti, Targu Jiu, Bucuresti (8,000 at 1600 and below 20,000 by 1700), Ramnicu Valcea (almost 2,000 by late 16th century, ravaged by black death in 1602 and 1671). Fortified courts at Bucuresti and Targoviste

    Moldova
    Suceava (c. 4,000 at 1600) Neamt, Galati (2,000 by 1700), Bacau, Targul Lapusna, Roman, Iasi (4,000 in 1600 and 7,000 in 1700), Orhei, Soroca, Dorohi, Barlad, Cernauti
    Fortresses - Hotin, Soroca, Neamt, Suceava and fortified princely court at Iasi

    Transylvania
    For second half of 16 centuries estimates give a population of 7,400 for Cluj (Kolozsvar), 2,200 at Sighisoara (Schasbrich), 5,300 for Sibiu (Hermannstadt), 4,800 for Bistrita (Bistriz), while Brasov (Kronstadt) had 10,000 in 16th c. Other major cities were the capital Alba Iulia with 3,000 by late 17th c. (Gyulafehérvár), but also Medias (Mediasch), Oradea (Nagyvárad) with 5000 in late 16th c., Tg. Mures (Székelyvásárhely), Satu Mare (Szatmárnémeti), Baia Mare (Nagybánya). Almost all Transylvanian cities were walled, with many of fortifications modernized in this period. Saxon (German colonists) and Hungarians formed the majority of urban dwelling population, while Romanians had a stronger presence in the countryside. The Saxon cities, with Sibiu (Hermannstadt), Bistrita (Bistriz), Brasov (Kronstadt), Medias (Mediasch) and Sebes (Mühlbach) being the most significant, benefited from extensive privileges and full administrative autonomy, where also some of the most significant trade and industrial centers in the principality, as well as in the region.

    Economy
    Cooper and iron ore extraction at Baia de Arama and Baia de fier (both in western Wallachia) and Hunedoara (Transylvania), salt at Trotus, Targu ocna, Ibanesti, Harlau (all in W Moldova) and Ocnele Mari, Slanic, Sararu, Telega (in N Wallachia) and Ocnele Sibiu, Sibiu, Dej (in Transylvania). Salt was one of the main export item for the 3 principalities, for Wallachia accounting to around 10% of total exports. Salt went mainly toward ottoman empire, Poland.

    Value of wheat exports amounted to 5-10% of Wallachia and Moldova exports in 16th c., mainly exported toward Ottoman Empire.
    Moldova and Wallachia also exported fish, wood, honey or wax, the latter in Ottoman Empire and Venice, wine, but all these in quite small quantities.

    Livestock was the main export item for all 3 principalities, with the livestock category including horses, but mainly cattle and sheep, as well as processed goods, such as leather, wool, fat, butter, Livestock representing around 60% of Wallachia's exports and 70-80% in Moldova's case. Sheep went mainly toward Ottoman Empire, cattle toward Central Europe, Poland, but also Ottoman empire. Concerning quantities, in 16-17th centuries, the average annual livestock exports toward Central Europe amounted to around 10,000 animals in Transylvania's case and 20,000 in Moldova's case. The livestock exports of Wallachia were more significantly orientated toward the Balkan region. In the same period, Wallachia and Moldova were also exporting up 27,000 cattle to Ottomans. The price of cattle stood high in first part of 17th c., but drops significantly in Central Europe after 30 years war

    Saltpeter was extracted at Focsani, Ramnicu Sarat (NE Walalchia) and in most Moldova.

    Gold and silver extracted in Transylvania at Abrud, Zlatna, Baia de cris, in parallel with cooper extraction. Transylvania obtained up to 15,000 florins from gold


    (to be continued)
    Fabulous! Thank you so much! That kind of information is so hard to come by. In case you can find any demographic information on percentages of religion, Protestant, Orthodox, Catholic, Muslim for some representative towns or some of the provinces, that would also be useful.

    Some historical names would be good, too. No rush.

  16. #136
    mircea's Avatar Biarchus
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    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Quote Originally Posted by Geoffrey of Villehardouin View Post
    Fabulous! Thank you so much! That kind of information is so hard to come by. In case you can find any demographic information on percentages of religion, Protestant, Orthodox, Catholic, Muslim for some representative towns or some of the provinces, that would also be useful.

    Some historical names would be good, too. No rush.
    Long time no talk, so here are the requested info, hope is not too late...

    In regard to data concerning the religion of towns' inhabitants, I'm afraid that I haven't found to much, as most studies I found speak only in general about towns population, without offering clear statistic data.
    Transylvania was inhabited by four major ethno-religious groups, namely:
    - Romanians (mostly Orthodox, vast majority lived as peasants, very little presence in major cities, especially as they were restricted from entering major walled cities, sometimes they lived in neighborhoods outside city walls, such as Scheii Brasovului ),
    - Transylvanian Saxons (mostly urban dwellers, adopted Lutheranism almost en-mass and the major Saxon cities were Sibiu (Hermannstadt), Bistrita (Bistriz), Brasov (Kronstadt), Medias (Mediasch) and Sebes (Mühlbach), but Saxons had a significant presence in other towns of Transylvania),
    - Magyars (they adopted Calvinism and to a lesser extent Unitarianism, they formed the majority of urban population in non-Saxon cities)
    - Szekelys (they lived in the Eastern area of the Principality, mostly in rural areas, most of them remained Catholic, but there was a seizable minority of converts to Hungarian Calvinism, as well as Unitarianism and even Sabbatarianism)
    From religious perspective, following the edict of Torda (1568), a significant feature of Transylvania during this era was the extensive religious freedom for the major Western Christian religious denominations (Catholicism, Calvinism, Lutheranism and Unitarianism), while Orthodox, Jewish and Muslim religion were just "tolerated". This factor ensured a relative religious peace, although sects were sometimes harshly extinguished, such as the case of Sabbatarianism, while members of tolerated religious groups were often pressured to adopt one of the accepted religions.

    Wallachia and Moldova
    Romanians constituted the majority of population, both in rural and urban environments, but in cities, especially the major ones, lived seizable minorities, especially Greeks, but also Armenians (significant presence in Galati, Suceava, Iasi, Bucuresti, Craiova, Targoviste), Germans (Campulung, Targoviste, Suceava), Albanians and Turks. Orthodox religion was the majority religion in both rural and urban environments.

    Names for Wallachia and Moldova
    Masculine: Alexandru Neagoe Dragomir Stan Ilie Costache Bogdan Neagu Petru Drag Drăghici Pârvu Danciu Barbu Datco Vâlsan Marcea Vlaicu Vlad Vladislav Mihail Mihai Mihu Radu Gheorghe Gavriil Constantin Grigore Ioan Nicolae Dan Mihnea Mircea Baldovin Simion Stefan Ilias Matei.
    Feminine: Maria, Calea, Caplea, Pârva, Safta, Ilinca, Mara, Neaga, Neacşa, Marga, Stana, Stanca, Ruxandra, Catrina, Ileana, Anastasia.

    Boyar houses (Late XVI- mid XVII)
    Wallachia: Buzescu Rudeanu Cantacuzino Brancoveanu Baleanu Dragoescu Margineni-Floresti Greceanu
    Moldavia: Bogdan Bals Cantacuzino Racovita Jora Costin Movila Carp Ureche Buhusi, Barnovschi Ghica Sturza Costin Caradja Ureche Beldiman Gradisteanu

    I also found a ton of data about the military of the three principalities, info that I will present at a later date

    Cheers

  17. #137

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    No "Ana" and "Ioana" for the feminine names? "Elena"?

    I have done no research, but it seems odd for those names to be missing. Are they too modern?

  18. #138

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Quote Originally Posted by mircea View Post
    Long time no talk, so here are the requested info, hope is not too late...

    In regard to data concerning the religion of towns' inhabitants, I'm afraid that I haven't found to much, as most studies I found speak only in general about towns population, without offering clear statistic data. <snipped>
    Great, thanks. Your input is invaluable. Seventeenth century historical information from former communist countries is hard to get by.

  19. #139
    mircea's Avatar Biarchus
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    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Quote Originally Posted by Geoffrey of Villehardouin View Post
    Great, thanks. Your input is invaluable. Seventeenth century historical information from former communist countries is hard to get by.
    Glad to be able to help

    In the next part, I will try sketching the military categories making up the armies of Moldova and Wallachia, as the armies of the two principalities were very similar.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Wallachia and Moldova
    Military categories:
    I. Cetele or gloatele boierilor – (Moldova & Walalchia) the boyars continued being called to serve in the field, followed by their retinue. They played a major role at the battle of Selimbar (1599) and even as late as the battle of Finta (1653).

    II. Strajerii in Moldova and plaiesii in Wallachia – commoners living in village borders, they had the role to cover the mountain borders, in exchange for their service, they were exempted from certain taxes

    III. Vanatorii de Neamt – (Moldova) armed commoners living in villages around Neamt that served in the garison of Neamt fortress, similar to the castrenses category from Transylvania, sometimes called puscasi de Neamt (the riflemen of Neamt). These men served in the castle’s military force, had labor obligations and provided supplies and taxes.

    IV. Haiducii, (Wallachia) Mihai Viteazul and Radu Serban used up to 8,000, in late 16th c.-early 17th c., mostly recruited from Balkans (Serbs, Bulgarians, Bosnians, Albanians). They were irregular light cavalry. Most often unpaid by the central authority, operated as raiders on the frontiers of the Ottoman Empire, subsisting totally on plunder.

    V. Curtenii (Moldova), rosii (Wallachia). They were recruited from among the lesser nobility (boyars), some of them held titled offices (armasei, banisori, comisei, logofeti, vistiernicei, spatarei, postelnicei, stolnicei, vornicei or paharnicei). In peacetime were tasked with a variety of administrative jobs, ranging from tax and fines collection, to quelling revolts. During wartime, they served on horse, being obliged to pay for their own equipment. In exchange for their service, they had a series of fiscal privileges. They numbered less than 10,000 in each principality. Some of them served as administrators on the demesne of major nobles (boyars). In Wallachia, the Prince gifted them red cloth at Christmas, hence the name RosiI (Reds). Due to their hierarchical organization, curteni were easily called to arms, with each of them being ascribed to a princely court1, which also served as rally point during wartime. Curteni were recruited from among the lower nobility which in exchange for various advantages (tax exemptions, titles) performed administrative functions (tax and goods collecting, policing, fines issuing, customs service, daily administration of towns and counties etc). In addition to the administrative service, curteni were called to serve as mounted troops during wartime.

    VI. Calarasii and Darabanii (Moldova and Wallachia) were part of the servants (slujitori) category, which appeared in late 16th c., recruited from among free but landless peasants. Some of were colonized on the royal demesne or other boyars’ lands receiving the right to use the land, as well as benefiting from fiscal privileges and in exchange they served in the army, on their own expense, in calarasi’s case or also for pay, in darabani’s case. Calarasi served on horse, they were tasked with relaying Prince’s orders, as well as protecting the borders, especially in case of Moldova’s Eastern border, which was exposed to frequent Tatar raids (Calarasi de margine – border calarasi). Darabani were the counterparts of calarasi that served on foot. They received weapons and cloths (usually blue in Wallachia and red in Moldova) from central authorities and were paid during wartime period. In 1595, Mihai Viteazul had around 6,000 darabani, while in mid 17th century, Matei Basarab had around 6,000 calarasi and 4,000 darabani. At 1620, sources estimated that Moldova could recruit 10,000 horse archers, while Muntenia could field a number of 8,000 similarly armed men. Probably refers to both calarasi and curteni.

    VII. Lefegii (mercenaries): Catanele (mercenaries from Transylvania, usually Hungarians, but also Saxons), sarbi (from Balkans, later called seimeni), joimiri ( from Poland, only in Moldova), beseli (Turk and Tatars mercenaries). In late 16th century, Mihai Viteazul of Wallachia had up to 23,000 mercenaries, but their number dwindled in the first decades of the next century. By mid 17th century, in Moldova and Walalchia were around 8,000 in each. In late 16th century, Moldavian princes has up to 7,000 mercenary Cossacks, although the number is probably exaggerated. Most of them served on foo

    VIII. Hinsarii (Moldova) were a type of irregular soldiers in Moldova, called to arms during wartime that was unpaid and subsisted totally on plunder.

    IX. Garda domnului (Moldova and Wallachia) Starting with 15th century, for their protection, the Princes of Walalchia and Moldova hired mercenaries, which beside pay, they received food and clothes they were quartered within the Princely Court. In fourth quarter of 16th century, Wallachian prince Petru Cercel had a guard that included Serbs, Greeks, Albanians and Transylvanians. Around 1585, the Guard corps of Moldavia includes is formed of 500 Hungarian mercenaries, armed with sword and axe, as well as harquebuses (in trabanten style), 50 Greek and Albanian halberdiers. Mihai Viteazul’s guard included 1,000 mercenary horsemen. In 1611, Moldavian prince Stefan Tomsa had 100 riders and 200 infantrymen, all Turks. In mid 17th century, Vasile Lupu of Moldova had 4 units of harquebusiers in his guard corps, 150 men each, while Matei Basarab of Wallachia had 100 harquebusiers in weekly shifts. A description of Moldovan soldiers from mid century say that most of them "carry bows, curved swords or swords and few of them use long swords. Almost none uses helmets, cuirasses and even the use of shield is rare. The use of firearms is mostly restricted to Prince's guard infantrymen. They do not use long lances in battles."

  20. #140

    Default Re: 1648: The Two Towers

    Muntenia = Wallachia, if it isn't clear.

    "Lefegi" should be "Lefegii"?

    Quote Originally Posted by mircea
    Most of them served on foo
    I pity them.

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