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Thread: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

  1. #1

    Default RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III



    PART I/III

    Introduction

    After the overthrow of the Tarquin monarchy by Junius Brutus in 509 BC, Rome does not revert back to a monarchy for the rest of its history. The era of the great expansion of Roman power and civilization is the era of the Roman Republic, in which Rome is ruled by its Senate and its assembly, which were institutions formed at the beginning of the monarchy. The history of the Republic is a history of continuous warfare; all of the historical stories which the Romans will use as stories of Roman virtue and values date from this tumultuous period of defense and invasion... Let's take a closer look then shall we?

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    Polybius - The Histories Book III
    -115 "the advanced guards were the first to come into action, and at first when only the light infantry were engaged neither side had the advantage; but when the Spanish and Celtic horse on the left wing came into collision with the Roman cavalry, the struggle that ensued was truly barbaric; for there were none of the normal wheeling evolutions, but having once met they dismounted and fought man to man. The Carthaginians finally got the upper hand, killed most of the enemy in the mellay, all the Romans fighting with desperate bravery, and began to drive the rest along the river, cutting them down mercilessly, and it was now that the heavy infantry on each side took the place of the light-armed troops and met. For a time the Spaniards and Celts kept their ranks and struggled bravely with the Romans, but soon, borne down by the weight of the legions, they gave way and fell back, breaking up the crescent. The Roman maniples, pursuing them furiously, easily penetrated the enemy's front, since the Celts were deployed in a thin line while they themselves had crowded up from the wings to the centre where the fighting was going on. For the centres and wings did not come into action simultaneously, but the centres first, as the Celts were drawn up in a crescent and a long way in advance of their wings, the convex face of the crescent being turned towards the enemy. The Romans, however, following up the Celts and pressing on to the centre and that part of the enemy's line which was giving way, progressed so far that they now had the heavy-armed Africans on both of their flanks. Hereupon the Africans on the right wing facing to the left and then beginning from the right charged upon the enemy's flank, while those on the left faced to the right and dressing by the left, did the same, the situation itself indicating to them how to act. The consequence was that, as Hannibal had designed, the Romans, straying too far in pursuit of the Celts, were caught between the two divisions of the enemy, and they now no longer kept their compact formation but turned singly or in companies to deal with the enemy who was falling on their flanks."[


    Welcome in our second FACTION PREVIEW. This is our third attempt to introduce our work and preview how we work on units, bulidings and stuff for factions included in RotN. Units, their detailed descriptions and screens, important provinces and cities, and all the rest of what we learned and tried to reflect in the RotN MOD.

    Feel free to post your opinions friends. We are always happy to take under consideration everything you suggest and ask for.

    Feel free to comment and enjoy the preview.

    RotN Team.


    team:
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    Thread Director: hamsha
    Coordinator: haeressiarch, hamsha,
    Picture updates: haeressiarch, hamsha
    Description updates: haeressiarch, hamsha, bigus_dickus, magpie
    Last edited by hæressiarch; January 23, 2010 at 08:10 AM.
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  2. #2

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME (EARLY)



    History Part I/II
    gathered by haeressiarch & hamsha

    Arms, and the man I sing, who, forc'd by fate,
    And haughty Juno's unrelenting hate,
    Expell'd and exil'd, left the Trojan shore.
    Long labors, both by sea and land, he bore,
    And in the doubtful war, before he won
    The Latian realm, and built the destin'd town;
    His banish'd gods restor'd to rites divine,
    And settled sure succession in his line,
    From whence the race of Alban fathers come,
    And the long glories of majestic Rome.

    O Muse! the causes and the crimes relate;
    What goddess was provok'd, and whence her hate;
    For what offense the Queen of Heav'n began
    To persecute so brave, so just a man;
    Involv'd his anxious life in endless cares,
    Expos'd to wants, and hurried into wars!
    Can heav'nly minds such high resentment show,
    Or exercise their spite in human woe?"

    Vergil, Aeneid Book Ir

    Introduction

    Graecia capta, ferum victorem cepit (the fierce conqueror was conquered by conquered Greece), this sentence by Horace provides a key to the "official" history of Rome. When the Romans expanded their direct rule in the Eastern Mediterranean they came in contact with civilizations which had elaborated sophisticated accounts explaining the origin of their nations and of their towns. Augustus, the first emperor, realized that to ease the acceptance of Rome among these new subjects, it was useful to embellish the traditional tales about the foundation and first expansion of Rome. Titus Livius and Virgil with their essays and poems linked Rome with the ancient Greek world.
    However, archaeologists and modern historians have come to the conclusion that the legendary account of the foundation of the Eternal City is not entirely unrelated to the evidence they have found in the remains of the oldest buildings of Rome.
    Rome was one of the greatest powers of the ancient world, and has also exercised a great influence upon nearly all modern nations. There are a few great peoples, like the Hebrews, the Greeks, and the Romans, who have done much to make the world what it is. If these peoples had never existed, our life and customs would no doubt be very different from what they are now. In order, then, to understand the world in which we live today, we must study these world peoples, who may have lived many centuries ago, but who have given to us much that makes us what we are - much of our language, our literature, our religion, our art, our government and law.
    Rome not only conquered the most important countries of the old world; she also made of these different countries one united people, so that the ancient world became at last the Roman world. The old countries which bordered. upon the Mediterranean Sea - Carthage and Egypt, Palestine and Syria, Greece and Macedonia - all became parts of the Roman Empire. The ideas and customs, the art and institutions, of these countries were taken up and welded together into what we call Roman civilization.
    Rome held an important relation to the ancient world, and she has held a still more important relation to the modern world. When the Roman Empire fell and was broken up into fragments, some of these fragments became the foundation of modern states - Italy, Spain, France, and England. Rome is thus the connecting link between ancient and modern history. She not only gathered up the products of the ancient world, she also transmitted these products to modern times. What she inherited from the past she bequeathed to the future, together with what she herself created. On this account we may say that Rome was the foundation of the modern world.


    Founding of Rome

    The founding of Rome is reported by many legends, which in recent times are beginning to be supplemented by more scientific reconstructions.

    Virgil's Aeneid is an important source for information about those early times or, at least, the myth-historical events current in the Augustan period.

    The Latins originally stayed in Colli Albani (the Alban hills, modern Castelli– 30–80 km (20–50 miles) southeast of the Capitoline hill); later, they moved down towards the valleys, which provided better land for animal breeding and agriculture. The area around the Tiber river was particularly advantageous and also offered notable strategic resources, as the river was a natural border on one side, while the hills could provide a safe defensive position on the other side. This position would also have enabled the Latins to control the river (and commercial or military traffic on it), from the natural observation point at Isola Tiberina (the island facing modern Trastevere). Moreover, road traffic could also be controlled, since Rome was at the intersection of the principal roads to the sea coming from Sabinum (in the northeast) and Etruria (to the northwest).

    The development of the town is presumed to have started from the development of separate small villages, located on top of hills, which joined together to form Rome.

    Although recent studies suggest that the Quirinal hill was very important in ancient times, the first hill to be inhabited seems to have been the Palatine (therefore confirming the legend), which is also at the center of ancient Rome. Its three peaks, minor hills (Cermalus or Germalus, Palatium, and Velia) united with the three peaks of the Esquiline (Cispius, Fagutal, and Oppius), and then villages on the Caelian hill and Suburra (between modern Rione Monti and the Oppius hill) joined them.

    These hills had expressive names: the Caelian hill was also called Querquetulanus, from quercus (oak), while Fagutal points to beech-woods, from fagus (beech). Recent discoveries reveal that the Germalus on the northern part of the Palatine, was the site of a village (dated to the 9th century BC) with circular or elliptic dwellings. It was protected by a clay wall (perhaps reinforced with wood), and it is likely that this is where Rome was really founded.

    The territory of this federation was surrounded by a sacred border called the pomerium, which enclosed the so-called Roma Quadrata (Square Rome). This would have been extended with the inclusion of the Capitoline hill and Tiber island at the time Rome became an oppidum or fortified town. The Esquiline still was a satellite village that would be included at the time of the Servian expansion of Rome.

    Festivals for the Septimontium (literally "of the seven hills"), on December 11, were in the past considered related to the foundation. However, as April 21 is the only datum for foundation upon which all the legends agree, it has been recently argued that Septimontium was likely to have actually celebrated the first federations among Roman hills: a similar federation was, in fact, celebrated by the Latins at Cave (a village southeast of Rome) or at Monte Cavo (in Castelli).

    According to Francis Owen in The Germanic People (1960), the people which settled Rome may have been immigrants from outside the Italian peninsula, possibly an off-shoot from the same group that would become Celtic or Germanic peoples. Traces of the founding population were apparently evident in the appearance of the aristocracy long into the time of the republic. According to Owens the evidence available from Roman literature, historical records and statuary and personal names shows that in physical appearance the Roman aristocracy differed from most of the population in the rest of the peninsula. The records describe a very large number of well known historical personalities as blonde. In addition, 250 individuals are recorded to have had the name Flavius, meaning blonde, and there are many named Rufus and Rutilius, meaning red haired and reddish haired respectively. The following Roman gods are said to have had blonde hair: Amor, Apollo, Aurora, Bacchus, Ceres, Diana, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Minerva and Venus.

    The legend

    Aeneas and Julus
    According to Virgil's Aeneid, the defeated army of Troy crossed the Mediterranean Sea on the orders of prince Aeneas, reaching the Italian coast. Here they were considered to have landed in an area between modern Anzio and Fiumicino, southwest of Rome. Most commonly it is supposed that they landed at Laurentum (or Larentum); other versions say that they landed at Lavinium, a place named for Latinus' daughter Lavinia.
    King Procas was the father of Numitor and Amulius. At Procas' death, Numitor became king of Albalonga, but Amulius captured him and sent him to prison; he also forced Rea Silvia (Numitor's daughter) to become a priestess of the Vestan cult. For many years Amulius was then the king.

    Gods and priestesses
    According to myth Mars had two sons with Rea Silvia, a priestess devoted to the sacred cult of Vesta. The name Rea Silvia (often written Rhea Silvia) suggests a minor deity, a demi-goddess of forests. Silva means woods or forest, and rea may be related to res and regum. Rhea was also the mother of Zeus, later renamed Jupiter by the Romans.

    Romulus and Remus
    The earlier legend of the founding of the Rome (i.e., that it was founded personally by Aeneas), was supplanted over the centuries by the attribution of the founding to twin brothers, Romulus (c. 771 BC–c. 717 BC) and Remus (c. 771 BC–c. 753 BC). In Roman mythology, they are sons of the priestess Rhea Silvia and Mars, the god of war, abandoned at birth at Tiber by servants in charge of executing them. The twins were taken by a she-wolf. Later a shepherd named Faustulus came and took Remus and Romulus. Faustulus and his wife (Acca Larentia) raised the children. When Remus and Romulus became adults they decided to establish a city. They couldn't decide who would rule the city so they gave it to omens. Remus was the first to see six vultures flying in the sky. Soon after Romulus saw twelve vultures. Remus saw the birds first but Romulus saw more. Finally Romulus was the one who was designated. When Remus saw how weak Romulus was he laughed. In retaliation Romulus killed Remus.

    The date of the founding of Rome

    During the Roman republic, several dates were given for the founding of the city, all in the interval between 758 BC and 728 BC. Finally, under the Roman empire the date suggested by Marcus Terentius Varro (753 BC) was agreed upon, but in the Fasti Capitolini the year given was 752. While the years varied, all versions agreed that the city was founded on April 21, day of the festival sacred to Pales, goddess of shepherds; in her honour, Rome celebrated the Par ilia (or Palilia). (The Roman Ab Urbe Condita (or a.u.c.) calendar, however, begins with Varro's dating of 753 BC.)
    According to legend, the foundation of Rome took place 438 years after the capture of Troy (1182 BC), according to Velleius Paterculus (VIII, 5). It took place shortly before an eclipse of the sun; some have identified this eclipse as one observed at Rome on June 25, 745 BC, which had a magnitude of 50.3%. Varro may have used the consular list with its mistakes, calling the year of the first consuls "245 ab urbe condita" (a.u.c.).
    According to Lucius Tarrutius of Firmum, Romulus was conceived on the 23rd day of the Egyptian month Choiac, at the time of a total eclipse of the sun. This eclipse occurred on June 15, 763 BC, with a magnitude of 62.5% at Rome. He was born on the 21st day of the month of Thoth. The first day of Thoth fell on 2 March in that year (Prof. E. J. Bickerman, 1980: 115). That implies that Rhea Silvia's pregnancy lasted for 281 days. Rome was founded on the ninth day of the month Pharmuthi, which was April 21, as universally agreed. The Romans add that, about the time Romulus started to build the city, an eclipse of the Sun was observed by Antimachus, the Teian poet, on the 30th day of the lunar month. This eclipse (see above) had a magnitude of 54.6% at Teos, Asia Minor. Romulus vanished in the 54th year of his life, on the Nones of Quintilis (July), on a day when the Sun was darkened. The day turned into night, which sudden darkness was believed to be an eclipse of the Sun. It occurred on July 17, 709 BC, with a magnitude of 93.7%. (All these eclipse data have been calculated by Prof. Aurél Ponori-Thewrewk, retired director of the Planetarium of Budapest.) Plutarch placed it in the 37th year from the foundation of Rome, on the fifth of our month July, then called Quintiles, on "Caprotine Nones". Livy (I, 21) also states that Romulus ruled for 37 years. He was slain by the Senate or disappeared in the 38th year of his reign. Most of these have been recorded by Plutarch (Lives of Romulus, Numa Pompilius and Camillus), Florus (Book I, I), Cicero (The Republic VI, 22: Scipio's Dream), Dio (Dion) Cassius and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (L. 2). Dio in his Roman History (Book I) confirms these data by telling that Romulus was in his 18th year of age when he founded Rome. Therefore, three eclipse records indicate that Romulus reigned from 746 BC to 709 BC. Surprisingly this is very close to the calculation of the founding given by Rome's first native historical writer Quintus Fabius Pictor, who wrote that Rome was founded in the first year of the eighth Olympiad, 747 BC (Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Book 1, ch. 74,2).
    In the modern period debate has raged over the validity of the stories of Rome's foundation. Scholars have supported both extremes—those who want to believe nothing of the legend, and those who want to believe the legend wholeheartedly without skepticism. Archaeology offers the best chance of sorting out the debate, and indeed recent discoveries on the Palatine Hill in Rome have offered some tantalizing pieces of evidence. Chief among these is a series of fortification walls on the north slope of the Palatine Hill that can be dated to the middle of the 8th century B.C., precisely the time when legend says Romulus plowed a furrow (sulcus) around the Palatine in order to mark the boundary of his new city. The remains of the wall, and other evidence, has been discovered by the excavations of Andrea Carandini.

    The name of Rome

    The name of the town is generally considered to refer to Romulus, but there are other hypotheses. Some have suggested an Etruscan word, "rhome", meaning "hard", cognate with Greek "ῥώμη, rhōmē", strength, vigor. Another one of them refers it to Roma, who is supposed to have been the daughter of Aeneas or Evander. The Basque scholar Manuel de Larramendi thought that the origin was the Basque word orma (modern Basque horma), "wall".
    Rome is also the Urbs, and this name (that in later Latin generically meant any towns) comes from urvus, the furrow cut by a plough– in this case, by that of Romulus. Urbs could also come from Urbs, Urbis meaning city in Latin.
    On the Capitoline hill, at noon on April 21 every year, a special bell called Patarina rings from the Campidoglio to commemorate the founding of Rome. On that occasion, the famous cannon of Gianicolo remains silent, the only day in the year on which it does not sound.


    History of Rome

    The history of Rome spans 2,800 years of the existence of a city that grew from a small Italian village in the 9th century BC into the center of a vast civilization that dominated the Mediterranean region for centuries. Its political power was eventually replaced by that of peoples of mostly Germanic origin, marking the beginning of the Middle Ages. Rome became the seat of the Roman Catholic Church and the home of a sovereign state, the Vatican City, within its walls. Today it is the capital of Italy, an international worldwide political and cultural centre, a major global city, and is regarded as one of the most beautiful cities of the ancient world.
    Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill and surrounding hills approximately 30 km from the Tyrrhenian Sea on the south side of the Tiber. Another of these hills, the Quirinal Hill, was probably an outpost for another Italic-speaking people, the Sabines. At this location the Tiber forms a Z-shape curve that contains an island where the river can be forded. Because of the river and the ford, Rome was at a crossroads of traffic following the river valley and of traders traveling north and south on the west side of the peninsula.
    Archaeological finds have confirmed that in the 8th century BC in the area of the future Rome there were two fortified settlements, the Rumi one on the Palatine Hill and the Titientes one on the Quirinal Hill, backed by the Luceres living in the nearby woods. These were simply three of numerous Italic-speaking communities that existed in Latium, a plain on the Italian peninsula, by the 1st millennium BC. The origins of the Italic peoples is not known, but their Indo-European languages migrated from the east in the second-half of the 2nd millennium BC.

    Italic context

    In the 8th century BC, these Italic speakers — Latins (in the west), Sabines (in the upper valley of the Tiber), Umbrians (in the north-east), Samnites (in the South), Oscans and others — shared the peninsula with two other major ethnic groups: the Etruscans in the North, and the Greeks in the south.
    The Etruscans (Etrusci or Tusci in Latin) were settled north of Rome in Etruria (modern northern Lazio and Tuscany). They deeply influenced Roman culture, as clearly showed by the Etruscan origin of some of the mythical Roman kings. The behaviour of the Etruscans has led to some confusion. Like Latin, Etruscan is inflected and Hellenised. Like the Indo-Europeans, the Etruscans were patrilineal and patriarchal. Like the Italics, they were war-like. The gladiatorial displays actually evolved out of Etruscan funerary customs. Future studies of Etruscan and more excavations in the region will no doubt clarify the origin of Rome and the Romans even more.
    The Greeks had founded many colonies in Southern Italy (that the Romans later called Magna Graecia), such as Cumae, Naples and Taranto, as well as in the eastern two-thirds of Sicily, between 750 and 550 BC.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Out of Italy theory
    One theory on the origins of the original settlers of Rome is that the population may have been immigrants from outside the Italian peninsula, possibly an off-shoot from the same group that would become Celtic or Germanic peoples. Traces of this founding population were apparently evident in the appearance of the aristocracy well into the era of the Empire. According to Francis Owens the evidence available from Roman literature, historical records and statuary and personal names shows that in physical appearance the Roman aristocracy differed from most of the population in the rest of the peninsula. The records describe a very large number of well known historical personalities as blonde. In addition, 250 individuals are recorded to have had the name Flavius, meaning blonde, and there are many named Rufus and Rutilius, meaning red haired and reddish haired respectively. The following Roman gods are said to have had blonde hair; Amor, Apollo, Aurora, Bacchus, Ceres, Diana, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Minerva and Venus.
    The physical appearance of Emperor Nero, descended from an aristocratic family, is by the historian Suetonius described as: "... his hair light blond,... his eyes blue..."

    Roman Kingdom

    Seven Kings of Rome

    The traditional account of Roman history, which has come down to us through Livy, Plutarch, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and others, is that in Rome's first centuries, it was ruled by a succession of seven kings. The traditional chronology, as codified by Varro, allots 243 years for their reigns, an average of almost 35 years, which, since the work of Barthold Georg Niebuhr, has been generally discounted by modern scholarship. The Gauls destroyed all of Rome's historical records when they sacked the city after the Battle of the Allia in 390 BC (Varronian, according to Polybius the battle occurred in 387/6), so no contemporary records of the kingdom exist, and all accounts of the kings must be carefully questioned.

    Early Rome was a monarchy governed by kings (Latin rex). The kings, excluding the legendary Romulus who held office by virtue of being the city's founder, were all elected by the people of Rome to serve for life, with none of the kings relying on military force to gain the throne. Though no reference is made to the hereditary principle in the election of the first four kings, beginning with the fifth king Tarquinius Priscus, the royal inheritance flowed through the royal females of the deceased king. Consequently, the ancient historians state that the king was chosen on account of his virtues and not his descent.
    The historians of ancient Rome make it difficult to determine the powers of the king as they referred to the king with the powers of their republican counterparts (namely the consuls). Some modern writers believe that the supreme power of Rome resided in the hands of the people and that the king was just the chief executive for the Senate and people while others believe that the king possessed the sovereign powers and that the Senate and people had only minor checks upon his powers.
    The insignia of the kings of Rome were twelve lictors wielding the fasces bearing axes, the right to sit upon a Curule chair, the purple Toga Picta, red shoes, and a white diadem around the head. Of all these insignia, the most important was the purple toga.
    Assuming the likelihood that the king was a sovereign in the traditional sense, the supreme power of the state would have been vested in the Rex, whose position would have made him the:

    Chief Executive – served as the head of government with the power to enforce the laws, managed all state owned property, disposed of conquered territory, and oversaw all public works
    The king would have been invested with the supreme military, executive, and judicial authority through the use of imperium. The imperium of the king was held for life and protected him from ever being brought to trial for his actions. As being the sole owner of imperium in Rome at the time, the king possessed ultimate executive power and unchecked military authority as the commander-in-chief of all Rome's legions. Also, the laws that kept citizens safe from the misuse of magistrates owning imperium did not exist during the times of the king.
    Another power of the king was the power to either appoint or nominate all officials to offices. The king would appoint a tribunus celerum to serve as both the tribune of Ramnes tribe in Rome but also as the commander of the king's personal bodyguard, the Celeres. The king was required to appoint the tribune upon entering office and the tribune left office upon the king's death. The tribune was second in rank to the king and also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it.
    Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi, who acted as the warden of the city. When the king was absent from the city, the prefect held all of the king's powers and abilities, even to the point of being bestowed with imperium while inside the city.
    The king even received the right to be the sole person to appoint patricians to the Senate.

    Commander in Chief – commander of the Roman military with the sole power to levy and organize the legions, to appoint military leaders, and to conduct war.

    Head of State – served as the chief representative of Rome in its relations with foreign powers and received all foreign ambassadors

    Chief Priest – served as official representative of Rome and its people before the gods with the power of general administrative control over Roman religion
    What is known for certain is that the king alone possessed the right to the auspice on behalf of Rome as its chief augur, and no public business could be performed without the will of the gods made known through auspices. The people knew the king as a mediator between them and the gods (cf. Latin pontifex, "bridge-builder", in this sense, between men and the gods) and thus viewed the king with religious awe. This made the king the head of the national religion and its chief executive. Having the power to control the Roman calendar, he conducted all religious ceremonies and appointed lower religious offices and officers. It is said that Romulus himself instituted the augurs and who was believed to have been the best augur of all. Likewise, King Numa Pompilius instituted the pontiffs and through them developed the foundations of the religious dogma of Rome.

    Chief Legislator – formulated and proposed legislative proposals as he deemed necessary.
    Under the kings, the Senate and Curiate Assembly had very little power and authority; they were not independent bodies in that they didn't possess the right to meet together and discuss questions of state at their own will. They could only be called together by the king and could only discuss the matters the king laid before them. While the Curiate Assembly did have the power to pass laws that had been submitted by the king, the Senate was effectively an honorary council. It could advise the king on his action but by no means could prevent him from acting. The only thing that the king could not do without the approval of the Senate and Curiate Assembly was to declare war against a foreign nation.

    Chief Judge – adjudicated all civil and criminal cases.
    The king's imperium granted him both military powers as well as qualified him to pronounce legal judgment in all cases as the chief justice of Rome. Though he could assign pontiffs to act as minor judges in some cases, he had supreme authority in all cases brought before him, both civil and criminal. This made the king supreme in times of both war and peace. While some writers believed there was no appeal from the king's decisions, others believed that a proposal for appeal could be brought before the king by any patrician during a meeting of the Curiate Assembly.

    To assist the king, a council advised the king during all trials, but this council had no power to control the king's decisions. Also, two criminal detectives (Quaestores Parridici) were appointed by him as well as a two man criminal court (Duumviri Perduellionis) which oversaw for cases of treason.

    Senate

    According to Livy the Senate, initially consisting of 100 men, was created by Rome's first king, Romulus. The descendants of those 100 men subsequently became the patrician class.
    The word senate derives from the Latin word senex, which means "old man". Therefore, senate literally means "board of old men" and translated as "Council of Elders." The prehistoric Indo-Europeans who settled Rome in the centuries before the legendary founding of Rome in 753 BC were structured into tribal communities. These tribal communities often included an aristocratic board of tribal elders, who were vested with supreme authority over their tribe. The early tribes that had settled along the banks of the Tiber eventually aggregated into a loose confederation, and eventually formed an alliance for protection against invaders.
    The early Romans, like all Indo-Europeans, were deeply patriarchal. The early Roman family was called a gens or "clan". Each clan was an aggregation of families under a common living male patriarch, called a pater (the Latin word for "father"). The pater was the undisputed master of his clan. He had the absolute power to resolve any disputes, and to make any decisions for the collective gens. When the early Roman gens were aggregating to form a common community, the patres from the leading clans were selected for the confederated board of elders (what would become the Roman Senate). Legend states that the senate grew to a membership of 300 after three blocks of 100 senators were added at fixed points in time. What likely happened, however, was a gradual aggregation of patres over time, as more clans achieved high status. The early senate derived its ultimate sovereignty from the fact that it was composed of the patriarchal heads of the leading families. As the individual patres led their families, the board of patres led the confederation of those families. In time, the patres came to recognize the need for a single leader. Therefore, they elected a king (rex), and vested in him their sovereign power. The king presided over the senate, appointed individuals to the senate (for life), and expelled individuals from the senate. When the king died, his sovereign power naturally reverted back to the patres.

    The senate of the Roman Kingdom could only be convened by the king, and usually met in either a templum, or in some other location that had been consecrated by a religious official (an augur). While the senate could pass "laws", it would be incorrect to view the "laws" passed during the time of the kingdom as legislation. In effect, these "laws" were actually the decrees of the king. The king had the absolute power to make any law. However, he often involved both the senate and the popular assembly (the "Curiate Assembly") in the process. The primary role of the senate in this process was to either assist the king, or to provide additional legitimacy to a decree of the king by declaring its support. Sometimes this involved debate in the senate over the proposed law or an actual vote on the law. However, the king was free to ignore any ruling that the senate ultimately passed. In addition, during the days of the kingdom, the senate's limited prestige made it an accepted practice for the king to ignore advice handed down by the senate. The senate did, however, become an influential advisory council to the king. This tradition was maintained throughout the life of the Roman Republic, although in practice, the republican magistrates rarely acted against the wishes of the senate.
    The patres that filled the ranks of the early senate held a position of absolute dominance over their respective families. Since the senate was filled with the patres of the leading families, their individual dominance over their individual families was consolidated into collective dominance over the collective families of the early Roman community. These were the original patrician families.

    While the king was technically elected by the people, it was actually the senate who chose each new king. Since the consolidated authority of the patres of the senate chose the king, the king became the embodiment of that authority. Since the authority of each patre over his family was absolute, the king was vested with the absolute authority over those families (and thus over the entire state). Since the king derived his authority from the patres, he (theoretically) could not pass that power on to an heir upon his death. Thus, the authority reverted back to the senate when the king died.
    The period between the death of one king, and the election of a new king, was called the interregnum. The interregnum was the only period during which the senate exercised its sovereign power. During the first interregnum after the death of Romulus, the senate, comprised at that time of 100 men, arranged itself into ten decuries, and each decurio governed Rome for five days as interrex. The decurios continued to rotate the government amongst themselves for a year until the senate elected Numa Pompilius as king.
    The practice eventually evolved that, when a king died, it was a member of the senate (the Interrex) who nominated a candidate to replace the king. If the senate gave its approval, then in practice, the people were unlikely to reject the nominee. The formal election of the king by the people, however, did serve to confirm to the senate that the people (many of whom fought in the armies that were commanded by the king) found their new potential commander-in-chief to be acceptable. After the senate gave its final approval, the Interrex declared the individual king, and then returned to the ranks of the senate. In effect, the senate chose the king, the people ratified that choice, and the senate finalized the decision.

    Constitution of the Roman Kingdom

    The Constitution of the Roman Kingdom was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. During the years of the Roman Kingdom, the constitutional arrangement was centered around the king. The Roman King had the power to appoint assistants, and delegate to them their specific powers. The Roman Senate, which was dominated by the aristocracy, served as the advisory council to the king. Often, the king asked the senate to vote on various matters, but he was free to ignore any advice given to him by the senate. The king could also request a vote on various matters by the popular assembly (the "Curiate Assembly"). The popular assembly functioned as a vehicle with which the People of Rome could express their opinions. In it, the people were organized by their respective Curia. The king was also free to ignore any ruling of the popular assembly. However, the popular assembly did have other functions. For example, it was a forum used by citizens to hear announcements. It could also serve as a trial court for both civil and criminal matters.

    Legendary kings of Rome

    The first legendary epoch saw the reigns of the first four legendary kings. During this time, the political foundations of the city were laid, the city was organized into "Curia", the religious institutions were established, and the senate and the assemblies evolved into formal institutions. The city fought several wars of conquest, the port of Ostia was founded, and the Tiber River was bridged. The early Romans were divided into three ethnic groups: the Ramnes (Latins), Tities (Sabines), and Luceres (Etruscans). The families that belonged to one of these ethnic groups were the original "Patrician" families. In an attempt to add a level of organization to the city, these Patrician families were divided into units called "Curia". The vehicle through which the early Romans expressed their democratic impulses was known as a "committee" (comitia or "assembly"). The two principle assemblies that formed were known as the "Curiate Assembly"' and the "Calate Assembly". The two assemblies were designed to mirror the ethnic divisions of the city, and as such, the assemblies were organized by Curia. The vehicle through which the early Romans expressed their aristocratic impulses was a council of town elders, which became the Roman senate. The elders of this council were known as patres ("fathers"), and thus are known to history as the first Roman senators. The demos ("people") and the elders eventually recognized the need for a single political leader, and thus elected such a leader, the rex (Roman King). The demos elected the rex, and the elders advised the rex.

    Reign of Romulus

    Romulus was Rome's first king and the city's founder. In 753 B.C., Romulus began building the city upon the Palatine Hill. After founding Rome, he permitted men of all classes to come to Rome as citizens, including slaves and freemen without distinction.
    To provide his citizens with wives, Romulus invited the neighboring tribes to a festival in Rome where he abducted the young women from amongst them (known as The Rape of the Sabine Women). After the ensuing war with the Sabines, Romulus shared the kingship with the Sabine king Titus Tatius.
    Romulus selected 100 of the most noble men to form the Roman senate as an advisory council to the king. These men he called patres, and their descendants became the patricians. He created three centuries of equites named ramnes (meaning Romans), tities (after the Sabine king) and a third called luceres. He also divided the general populace into thirty curiae, named after thirty of the Sabine women who had intervened to end the war between Romulus and Tatius. The curiae formed the voting units in the Comitia Curiata
    In addition to the war with the Sabines and other tribes after the Rape of the Sabine Women, Romulus waged war against the Fidenates and Veientes.
    After his death at the age of 54, Romulus was deified as the war god Quirinus and served not only as one of the three major gods of Rome but also as the deified likeness of the city of Rome.

    Reign of Numa Pompilius

    After the death of Romulus there was an interregnum for one year, during which ten men chosen from the senate governed Rome as successive interreges. Numa Pompilius, a Sabine, was eventually chosen by the senate to succeed Romulus, on account of his reputation for justice and piety.
    Numa’s reign was marked by peace and religious reform.
    Numa constructed a new temple to Janus and, after establishing peace with Rome's neighbours, shut the doors of the temple to indicate a state of peace. The doors of the temple remained closed for the balance of his reign.
    He established the Vestal Virgins at Rome, as well as the Salii, and three flamines for Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. He also established the office and duties of Pontifex Maximus.
    Numa reformed the Roman calendar by adjusting it for the solar and lunar year as well as by adding the months of January and February to bring the total number of months to twelve.
    Numa reigned for 43 years.

    Reign of Tullus Hostilius

    Tullus Hostilius was much like Romulus in his warlike behavior and completely unlike Numa in his lack of respect for the gods. Tullus waged war against Alba Longa, Fidenae and Veii and the Sabines. It was during Tullus' reign that the city of Alba Longa was completely destroyed and Tullus integrated its population into Rome.
    According to Livy, Tullus neglected the worship of the gods until, towards the end of his reign, he fell ill and became superstitious. However, when Tullus called upon Jupiter and begged assistance, Jupiter responded with a bolt of lightning that burned the king and his house to ashes.
    Tullus also constructed a new home for the Senate, the Curia Hostilia, which survived for over 500 years after his death.
    His reign lasted for 31 years.

    Reign of Ancus Marcius

    Following the mysterious death of Tullus, the Romans elected a peaceful and religious king in his place, Numa’s grandson, Ancus Marcius. Much like his grandfather, Ancus did little to expand the borders of Rome and only fought war when his territories needed defending. He also built Rome's first prison on the Capitoline Hill.
    During his reign, Janiculum Hill on the western bank was fortified to further protect Rome, and the first bridge across the Tiber River was built. He also founded the port of Ostia on the Tyrrhenian Sea and established Rome’s first salt works. Rome's size increased as Ancus used diplomacy to peacefully join some of the smaller surrounding cities into alliance with Rome. In this manner, he completed the conquest of the Latins and relocated them to the Aventine Hill, thus forming the plebeian class of Romans.
    He died a natural death, like his grandfather before him, after 25 years as king, marking the end of the Latin-Sabine kings of Rome.

    Etruscan dominance

    The second epoch saw the reigns of the last three legendary kings. The second epoch was more consequential than was the first, which was in part due to the significant degree of territorial expansion which occurred during this period. Regardless of how true these legends were, it is likely that, as the legends suggest, a series of conquests did occur during the late monarchy. As a result of these conquests, it became necessary to determine what was to be done with the conquered people. Often, individuals whose towns had been conquered remained in those towns, while other such individuals came to Rome. To acquire legal and economic standing, these newcomers adopted a condition of dependency toward either a Patrician family, or toward the king (who himself was a Patrician). Eventually, the individuals who were dependents of the king were released from their state of dependency, and became the first "Plebeians". As Rome grew, it needed more soldiers to continue its conquests. When the Plebeians were released from their dependency, they were released from their Curia. When this occurred, while they were no longer required to serve in the army, they also lost their political and economic standing. To bring these new Plebeians back into the army, the Patricians were forced to make concessions. While it is not known exactly what concessions were made, the fact that they were not granted any political power set the stage for what history knows as the Conflict of the Orders.
    To bring the Plebeians back into the army, the army was reorganized. The legends give credit for this reorganization to the king Servius Tullius.

    Reign of Tarquinius Priscus

    Tarquinius Priscus was the fifth king of Rome and the first of Etruscan birth. After emigrating to Rome, he gained favor with Ancus, who later adopted him as his son. Upon ascending the throne, he waged wars against the Sabines and Etruscans, doubling the size of Rome and bringing great treasures to the city.
    One of his first reforms was to add 100 new members to the Senate from the conquered Etruscan tribes, bringing the total number of senators to 300. He used the treasures Rome had acquired from the conquests to build great monuments for Rome. Among these were Rome’s great sewer systems, the Cloaca Maxima, which he used to drain the swamp-like area between the Seven Hills of Rome. In its place, he began construction on the Roman Forum. He also founded the Roman games.
    The most famous of his great building projects is the Circus Maximus, a giant stadium used for chariot races. Priscus followed up the Circus Maximus with the construction of the temple-fortress to the god Jupiter upon the Capitoline Hill. Unfortunately, he was killed after 38 years as king at the hands of one of Ancus Marcius' sons before it could be completed. His reign is best remembered for introducing the Roman symbols of military and civil offices as well as the introduction of the Roman Triumph, being the first Roman to celebrate one.

    Reign of Servius Tullius

    Following Priscus’s death, his son-in-law Servius Tullius succeeded him to the throne, the second king of Etruscan birth to rule Rome. Like his father-in-law before him, Servius fought successful wars against the Etruscans. He used the booty from the campaigns to build the first walls to fully encircle the Seven Hills of Rome, the pomerium. He also made organizational changes to the Roman army.
    He was renowned for implementing a new constitution for the Romans, further developing the citizen classes. He instituted the world’s first census which divided the people of Rome into five economic classes, and formed the Century Assembly. He also used his census to divide the people within Rome into four urban tribes based upon location within the city, establishing the Tribal Assembly. He also oversaw the construction of the temple to Diana on the Aventine Hill.
    Servius’ reforms brought about a major change in Roman life: voting rights were now based on socio-economic status, transferring much of the power into the hands of the Roman elite. However, as time passed, Servius increasingly favored the poor in order to obtain support among the plebs. His appeal to the plebs often resulted in legislation unfavorable to the patricians. The 44-year reign of Servius came to an abrupt end when he was assassinated in a conspiracy led by his own daughter, Tullia, and her husband, Tarquinius Superbus.

    Reign of Tarquinius Superbus

    The seventh and final king of Rome was Tarquinius Superbus. As the son of Priscus and the son-in-law of Servius, Tarquinius was also of Etruscan birth. It was also during his reign that the Etruscans reached their apex of power. More than other kings before him, Tarquinius used violence, murder, and terrorism to maintain control over Rome. He repealed many of the earlier constitutional reforms set down by his predecessors.
    Tarquinius removed and destroyed all the Sabine shrines and altars from the Tarpeian Rock, enraging the people of Rome. A sex scandal brought down the king. Allegedly, Tarquinius allowed his son, Sextus Tarquinius, to rape Lucretia, a patrician Roman. Sextus had threatened Lucretia that if she refused to copulate with him, he would kill a slave, then kill her, and have the bodies discovered together, thus creating a gigantic scandal. Lucretia then told her relatives about the threat, and subsequently committed suicide to avoid any such scandal. Lucretia’s kinsman, Lucius Junius Brutus (ancestor of Marcus Brutus), summoned the Senate and had Tarquinius and the monarchy expelled from Rome in 510 BC.
    Etruscan rule in Rome, according to tradition, then came to a dramatic end in 510 BC, with the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, which also signaled the downfall of Etruscan power in Latium, the gradual cessation of Etruscan influences at Rome, and the establishment of a Republican constitution.

    Many years later during the Republican period, this strong Roman opposition to kings was used by the Senate as a rationalization for the murder of the agrarian reformer Tiberius Gracchus. Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, a member of the Tarquin family and Lucretia's widower, went on to become one of the first consuls of Rome’s new government. This new government would lead the Romans to conquer most of the Mediterranean world and would survive for the next 500 years until the rise of Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus. Even then, the trappings of the Republic were not entirely done away with; the Republic would survive in a debased form until the Dominate.


    Roman Republic

    New Form of Government and New Institutions

    According to the more or less legendary traditional accounts, Rome's republican era began after the overthrow of the last Roman King of the Tarquin monarchy by Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC. The republic of Rome was then ruled by the Senate and its assembly which were put in place as far back as the beginning of the monarchy.

    The Roman Republic was governed by a largely unwritten complex constitution, which centred on the principles of a separation of powers and comprised a host of checks and balances. The evolution of the constitution was heavily influenced by the struggle between the aristocracy and the other prominent Romans who were not from the nobility. Early in its history, the republic was controlled by an aristocracy, the patricians, who could trace their ancestry back to the early history of the kingdom. Over time, the laws that allowed these individuals to dominate the government were repealed, and the result was the emergence of a new aristocracy which depended on the structure of society, rather than the law, to maintain its dominance.

    Rome also saw its territory expand dramatically during this period, from central Italy to the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries, Rome's influence expanded to cover the whole of Italy. During the next century, Rome's military muscle and developing economy dominated North Africa, Spain, Greece, and what is now southern France. During the last two centuries of the Roman Republic, Rome overcame resistance across the rest of modern France, as well as much of Anatolia and Syria.

    Constitution of the Roman Republic

    The Constitution of the Roman Republic was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. The constitution was largely unwritten, uncodified, and constantly evolving. Rather than creating a government that was primarily a democracy (as was ancient Athens), an aristocracy (as was ancient Sparta), or a monarchy (as was Rome before and after the republic), the Roman constitution mixed these three elements, thus creating three separate branches of government. The democratic element took the form of the legislative assemblies, the aristocratic element took the form of the senate, and the monarchical element took the form of the many term limited executive magistrates.
    The ultimate source of sovereignty in this ancient republic, as in modern republics, was the demos (people). The People of Rome gathered into legislative assemblies to pass laws and to elect executive magistrates. Election to a magisterial office resulted in automatic membership in the senate (for life, unless impeached). The senate managed the day-to-day affairs in Rome, while senators presided over the courts. Executive magistrates enforced the law, and presided over the senate and the legislative assemblies. A complex set of checks and balances developed between these three branches, so as to minimize the risk of tyranny and corruption, and to maximize the likelihood of good government.


    Early Italian campaigns (458-396 BC)

    The first Roman republican wars were wars of both expansion and defence, aimed at protecting Rome itself from neighbouring cities and nations and establishing its territory in the region. Initially, Rome's immediate neighbours were either Latin towns and villages, or else tribal Sabines from the Apennine hills beyond. One by one Rome defeated both the persistent Sabines and the local cities that were either under Etruscan control or else Latin towns that had cast off their Etruscan rulers. Rome defeated Latin cities in the Battle of Lake Regillus in 496 BC, the Battle of Mons Algidus in 458 BC, the Battle of Corbione in 446 BC, the Battle of Aricia, and an Etruscan city in the Battle of the Cremera in 477 BC.
    By the end of this period, Rome had effectively completed the conquest of their immediate Etruscan and Latin neighbours, as well as secured their position against the immediate threat posed by the tribespeople of the nearby Apennine hills.
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    Early Roman Battle Records and Legends

    Battle of Lake Regillus

    The Battle of Lake Regillus was a legendary early Roman victory, won over the Latin League led by the expelled Etruscan former king of Rome. It is usually said to have occurred in 498 BC, but other dates have been proposed, including 499 BC, 496 BC and 493 BC.
    The battle may be entirely legendary, due to the scarcity of records from this early date in Roman history. According to Livy the fight was waged against the Latins, with help from Tarquinius Superbus, the former Etruscan king of Rome. Lake Regillus, the relic of a volcanic crater, was dried in the IV century BC: it was located not far from Frascati and the ruins of Tusculum, in Prataporci site, east to Rome (15 miles from Servian wall).
    Aulus Postumius Albus was dictator for the year and Titus Aebutius Elva was master of the horse. Octavius Mamilius, Tarquinius, and his son Sextus led the Latins; the presence of the Tarquinii caused the Romans to fight more passionately than in any previous battle. Tarquinius was injured at the beginning of the battle when he attacked Postumius; Aebutius meanwhile attacked Mamilius, but was injured in the arm, while Mamilius suffered a minor wound to the chest. Tarquinius' troops, made up of exiled Romans, began to push the Romans back, and Marcus Valerius Volusus (consul 505 BC) was killed by a spear when he tried to attack Sextus. Postumius then brought fresh troops from his own bodyguard into the battle. Mamilius was killed in the ensuing fight by Titus Herminius, who was subsequently killed by a javelin. Postumius ordered the equites to dismount and attack on foot, and soon the Latins were forced to retreat. The Latin camp was also captured. Postumius and Aebutius returned to Rome in triumph.
    A popular Roman legend had the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) helping in the victory, transfigured as two young horsemen, and Postumius ordered a temple built to them in the Roman Forum, in the place in which they were watering their horses.

    Battle of Mons Algidus

    The government of Rome was already shared between the original Romans, the Latin and Sabine peoples. For example, the Quinctia gens who had a major influence on Roman public life during this time were of Latin origin. The Hernici were allied to Rome; the Etruscans were not impinging on the Romans, even though the Estruscan town of Veius was close to Rome.
    The greatest enemies of Rome at this time were the Volsci and the Aequi. The Volsci were based in territory to the west of Rome while the Aequi were based to the east. The Aequi kept attacking, whether with allies or alone, Rome and its surroundings. In particular, the Aequi moved from the Apennine Mountains towards Tusculum (Frascati). Their attacks disturbed trade and commercial communications along the Via Latina as well as throughout Roman territory.
    Within Rome the situation at this time was disturbed. There were conflicts between the Roman patricians and plebians. There was also a revolt by Rome's slaves. During the revolt, the Campidoglio was held by the slaves for a lengthy period, along with the most important temples of Rome. It was during this revolt that consul Valerius Publicola had died. The revolt ended only with the arrival of an army from Tusculum, led by Tusculan dictator Lucius Mamilius. Meanwhile, Cincinnatus was appointed as consul to replace Publicola.
    In 459 BC, the Aequi occupied Tusculum. In response to the threat, the Romans decided to send an army to help the allied city, under the command of consul Lucius Cornelius Maluginensis. In addition, the consul Fabius Vibulanus, who was at that point besieging Antium, moved his forces to attack Tusculum. In the end, the Tusculans were able to recapture their city, with Vibulanus killing many Aequi near Algidus Mons. A truce was then arranged with the Aequi.
    Not long after, in 458 BC, the Aequi broke the truce. They attacked Tusculum again, and camped near Algidus Mons; at the same time, a Sabinian army moved against Rome. Two Roman armies were formed in haste - consul Gaius Nautius Rutilus planned to move against the Aequi territories, while consul Lucius Minucius Esquilinus Augurinus planned to move against the Aequi camped near Algidus Mons.
    Minucius did not attack the Aequi, who by nightfall had started to build a fortification all around the Roman camp. Since even Nautius did not know how to handle the situation, Cincinnatus, whose brief term as consul had ended, was elected dictator.
    Cincinnatus chose his magister equitum, and levied in Campus Martius each available Roman, requiring them to bring food for five days and also bring twelve valli. The vallus was the pole brought by each Roman soldier. The valli were used to build a protective wall around the camp; a requirement of twelve valli instead of one was unusual.
    The Roman army arrived at Algidus Mons by night. Cincinnatus signalled to the besieged Romans that he had arrived, then ordered his men to build a wall all around the Aequi. The Aequi attacked Cincinnatus, but they were soon obliged to turn and face the Romans of Minucius, who had left their camp to reach their companions. At dawn, the wall around the Aequi was completed; Cincinnatus ordered his men, who had marched and worked for a whole day without rest, to attack the Aequi within the wall. The Aequi, unable to sustain a double attack, surrendered. Cincinnatus let all but the leaders of the Aequi go.
    The Aequi leaders were kept prisoners in Rome. The spoils of the sacking of the Aequi camp was distributed among Cincinnatus' men, while the Romans who had fought under Minucius were criticised and Minucius himself deposed.
    Cincinnatus received a Roman triumph, while the Tusculan consul Lucius Mamilius received Roman citizenship. Having been elected dictator for six months, Cincinnatus resigned after only sixteen days.

    Battle of Corbione

    The Battle of Corbione took place in 446 BC. General Titus Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus and legatus Spurius Postumius Albus Regillensis led Roman troops to a victory over the Aequi tribes of north-east Latium and the Volsci tribes of southern Latium. The Romans had already defeated the Aequi in the Battle of Mons Algidus, so that the Battle of Corbione definitely marked the dominion of the Romans over this tribe.

    Battle of the Cremera

    The Battle of the Cremera was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC).
    Historical records show the defeat of the Roman stronghold on the river Cremera, and the consequent incursions of the Veientes in Roman territory.
    The preserved account of the battle, written by Livy, is an elaboration of the real events, and celebrates the sacrifice of the gens Fabia. Probably, its aim is to give a reason of the absence of Fabii from consular lists in the years following the battle. Furthermore, this account is clearly influenced by the Spartan last stand at the Battle of Thermopylae.
    After a pacific coexistence between Rome and Veii, open war sprung between the close cities, escalating into a battle in 480 BC, in which the Roman army was close to defeat, and saved by consul Kaeso Fabius Vibulanus. After the battle, the Veientes kept on raiding Roman territory, retreating in front of Roman legions to deny them open battle.
    Engaged in a conflict with Aequi and Volsci, the Romans were fighting on two fronts. Thus, in 479 BC, the gens Fabia offered to deal with Veii on its own, while the Republican legions had to fight against the other enemies. Livy says that all of the 306 adult (i.e. more than fifteen years old) Fabii went to the war, together with their clients.
    The Fabii built a stronghold on the river Cremera, close to Veii, from which they managed to limit Veii raids. The Veientes engaged an open battle near the Roman stronghold, but were defeated by Fabii and a Roman army led by consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercinus, and obliged to ask for a truce.
    After the truce was broken, the Veientes renewed their raid, but were repeatedly defeated by the Fabii, who, encouraged by the successes, became bold and attacked and pillaged Veii territory.
    In the end, however, the Fabii fell in the trap laid by the Veientes. Considering the enemies far from the stronghold, the Romans exited from the stronghold to capture a herd, scattering in pursue of the animals. In that moment, the outnumbering Veientes exited and surrounded the Fabii. Adopting the wedge formation, the Romans broke through and reached a hill, where they successfully repulsed the Etruscan attacks, until a Veienite formation arrived to their back.
    All of the Fabii were slaughtered save Quintus Fabius Vibulanus, who was too young to be sent to war.


    Plebeians First Secession

    After the monarchy had been overthrown, and the Roman Republic had been founded, the people of Rome began electing two Roman Consuls each year. In 501 BC, the office of "Roman Dictator" was created. In the year 494 BC, the Plebeians (commoners) seceded to the Mons Sacer, and demanded of the Patricians (the aristocrats) the right to elect their own officials. The Patricians duly capitulated, and the Plebeians ended their secession. The Plebeians called these new officials "Plebeian Tribunes", and gave these Tribunes two assistants, called "Plebeian Aediles". In 443 BC, the office of "Roman Censor" was created, and in 367 BC, Plebeians were allowed to stand for the Consulship. The opening of the Consulship to the Plebeian class implicitly opened both the Censorship as well as the Dictatorship to Plebeians. In 366 BC, in an effort by the Patricians to reassert their influence over the magisterial offices, two new offices were created. While these two offices, the Praetorship and the Curule Aedileship, were at first open only to Patricians, within a generation, they were open to Plebeians as well.

    Senate of the Roman Republic

    The Senate's ultimate authority derived from the esteem and prestige of the Senate. This esteem and prestige was based on both precedent and custom, as well as the high calibre and prestige of the Senators. The Senate passed decrees, which were called senatus consultum. This was officially "advice" from the Senate to a magistrate. In practice, however, these were usually obeyed by the magistrates. The focus of the Roman Senate was directed towards foreign policy. Though it technically had no official role in the management of military conflict, the Senate ultimately was the force that oversaw such affairs. The senate also managed the civil administration in the city and the town. The requirements for becoming a senator included having at least 100,000 denarii worth of land, being born of the patrician (noble aristocrats) class, and having held public office at least once before. The rest of the senatus would vote on your acceptance.

    Legislative Assemblies

    It was the People of Rome - and thus the assemblies - who had the final say regarding the election of magistrates, the enactment of new laws, the carrying out of capital punishment, the declaration of war and peace, and the creation (or dissolution) of alliances. There were two types of legislative assemblies. The first was the comitia ("committees"), which were assemblies of all citizens. The second was the concilia ("councils"), which were assemblies of specific groups of citizens.

    Assembly of the Centuries

    Citizens were organized on the basis of centuries and tribes. The centuries and the tribes would each gather into their own assemblies. The Comitia Centuriata ("Century Assembly") was the assembly of the centuries. The president of the Comitia Centuriata was usually a consul. The centuries would vote, one at a time, until a measure received support from a majority of the centuries. The Comitia Centuriata would elect magistrates who had imperium powers (consuls and praetors). It also elected censors. Only the Comitia Centuriata could declare war, and ratify the results of a census. It also served as the highest court of appeal in certain judicial cases.

    Assembly of the Tribes

    The assembly of the tribes, the Comitia Tributa, was presided over by a consul, and was composed of thirty-five tribes. The tribes were not ethnic or kinship groups, but rather geographical subdivisions. The order that the thirty-five tribes would vote in was selected randomly by lot. Once a measure received support from a majority of the tribes, the voting would end. While it did not pass many laws, the Comitia Tributa did elect quaestors, curule aediles, and military tribunes.

    Plebeian Council

    The Plebeian Council was an assembly of plebeians, the non-patrician citizens of Rome, who would gather into their respective tribes. They elected their own officers, plebeian tribunes and plebeian aediles. Usually a plebeian tribune would preside over the assembly. This assembly passed most laws, and could also act as a court of appeal. Since it was organized on the basis of the tribes, its rules and procedures were nearly identical to those of the Comitia Tributa.


    Executive Magistrates

    Each magistrate was vested with a degree of maior potestas ("major power"). Each magistrate could veto any action that was taken by a magistrate of an equal or lower rank. Plebeian tribunes and plebeian aediles, on the other hand, were independent of the other magistrates.

    Magisterial powers, and checks on those powers

    Each republican magistrate held certain constitutional powers. Only the People of Rome (both plebeians and patricians) had the right to confer these powers on any individual magistrate. The most powerful constitutional power was imperium. Imperium was held by both consuls and praetors. Imperium gave a magistrate the authority to command a military force. All magistrates also had the power of coercion. This was used by magistrates to maintain public order. While in Rome, all citizens had an absolute protection against coercion. This protection was called provocatio (see below). Magistrates also had both the power and the duty to look for omens. This power would often be used to obstruct political opponents.
    One check over a magistrate's power was his collegiality. Each magisterial office would be held concurrently by at least two people. Another check over the power of a magistrate was provocatio. Provocatio was a primordial form of due process. It was a precursor to habeas corpus. If any magistrate was attempting to use the powers of the state against a citizen, that citizen could appeal the decision of the magistrate to a tribune. In addition, once a magistrate's annual term in office expired, he would have to wait ten years before serving in that office again. Since this did create problems for some consuls and praetors, these magistrates would occasionally have their imperium extended. In effect, they would retain the powers of the office (as a promagistrate), without officially holding that office.

    Consuls, praetors, censors, aediles, quaestors, tribunes, and dictators

    The consul of the Roman Republic was the highest ranking ordinary magistrate. Consuls had supreme power in both civil and military matters. While in the city of Rome, the consuls were the head of the Roman government. They would preside over the senate and the assemblies. While abroad, each consul would command an army. His authority abroad would be nearly absolute.
    Praetors would administer civil law and command provincial armies. Every five years, two censors would be elected for an eighteen month term. During their term in office, the two censors would conduct a census. During the census, they could enroll citizens in the senate, or purge them from the senate. Aediles were officers elected to conduct domestic affairs in Rome, such as managing public games and shows. The quaestors would usually assist the consuls in Rome, and the governors in the provinces. Their duties were often financial.
    Since the tribunes were considered to be the embodiment of the plebeians, they were sacrosanct. Their sacrosanctity was enforced by a pledge, taken by the plebeians, to kill any person who harmed or interfered with a tribune during his term of office. All of the powers of the tribune derived from their sacrosanctity. One obvious consequence of this sacrosanctity was the fact that it was considered a capital offense to harm a tribune, to disregard his veto, or to interfere with a tribune.
    In times of military emergency, a dictator would be appointed for a term of six months. Constitutional government would dissolve, and the dictator would become the absolute master of the state. When the dictator's term ended, constitutional government would be restored.


    The patrician era (509-367 BC)

    The historical monarchy, as the legends suggest, was probably overthrown quickly, but the constitutional changes which occurred immediately after the revolution were probably not as extensive as the legends suggest. The most important constitutional change probably concerned the chief executive. Before the revolution, a king would be elected by the senators for a life term. Now, two consuls were elected by the citizens for an annual term. Each consul would check his colleague, and their limited term in office would open them up to prosecution if they abused the powers of their office. Consular political powers, when exercised conjointly with a consular colleague, were no different from those of the old king. In the immediate aftermath of the revolution, the senate and the assemblies were as powerless as they had been under the monarchy.
    In the year 494 BC, the city was at war with two neighboring tribes. The plebeian soldiers refused to march against the enemy, and instead seceded to the Aventine hill. The plebeians demanded the right to elect their own officials. The patricians agreed, and the plebeians returned to the battlefield. The plebeians called these new officials "plebeian tribunes". The tribunes would have two assistants, called "plebeian aediles". In 367 BC a law was passed, which required the election of at least one plebeian aedile each year. In 443 BC, the censorship was created, and in 366 BC, the praetorship was created. Also in 366 BC, the curule aedileship was created. Shortly after the founding of the republic, the Comitia Centuriata ("Assembly of the Centuries") became the principal legislative assembly. In this assembly, magistrates were elected, and laws were passed.
    During the fourth century BC, a series of reforms were passed. The result of these reforms was that any law passed by the Plebeian Council would have the full force of law. This gave the tribunes (who presided over the Plebeian Council) a positive character for the first time. Before these laws were passed, the only power that the tribunes held was that of the veto.

    Celtic invasion of Italia (390-387 BC)

    By 390 BC, several Gallic tribes had begun invading Italy from the north as their culture expanded throughout Europe. The Romans were alerted of this when a particularly warlike tribe[133] invaded two Etruscan towns from the north. These two towns were not far from Rome's sphere of influence. These towns, overwhelmed by the size of the enemy in numbers and ferocity, called on Rome for help. The Romans met them in pitched battle at the Battle of Allia River around 390-387 BC. The Gauls, under their chieftain Brennus, defeated the Roman army of around 15,000 troops and proceeded to pursue the fleeing Romans back to Rome itself and sacked the city before being either driven off or bought off. Now that the Romans and Gauls had bloodied one another, intermittent warfare was to continue between the two in Italy for more than two centuries.
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    Battle of the Allia


    The Battle of the Allia was a battle of the first Gallic invasion of Italy. The battle was fought near the Allia river: the defeat of the Roman army opened the route for the Gauls to sack Rome. It was fought in 390/387 BC.
    Prior to the battle, the Senones, a single tribe of Gaul, traversed the Appennines searching for new land to settle. They eventually camped outside the town of Clusium (in the Etruscan province of Siena) and began negotiations for land rights. The Clusians felt threatened by the Senones, and they called for help from Rome, who had recently exerted military influence over Etruria. Rome, weakened by recent wars, sent a delegation of three ambassadors, the Fabii brothers, to negotiate the situation.
    When negotiations broke down, the Clusians sent an army to fight the Senones off the land. At this point, the Roman historian Livy says that the Roman ambassadors "broke the law of nations and took up arms" against the Senones. (The "law of nations" was the oath of neutrality sworn by ambassadors and diplomats). In the resulting action, Quintus Fabius, an ambassador and a member of a powerful patrician family, killed one of the Gallic leaders. When the Senones realized that the sacred trust of the ambassador was broken, they withdrew from battle to discuss the issue.
    The Senones sent their own ambassadors to Rome, demanding the Fabians be handed over to them for justice. However, the defiant Romans not only refused, but, as Livy writes, "those who ought to have been punished were instead appointed for the coming year military tribunes with consular powers (the highest that could be granted).... The Celtic (Gallic) envoys were naturally - and rightly - indignant!" The enraged Senones promised war against the Romans to avenge the insult that they had been dealt.
    The Senones marched 130 km from Clusium to Rome to take revenge. Livy describes their journey:
    "Contrary to all expectation the Celts (Gauls) did them [the people of the countryside] no harm, nor took aught from their fields, but even as they passed close by their cities, shouted out that they were marching on Rome and had declared war only on the Romans, but the rest of the people they regarded as friends."
    Thus, the Senones came to engage the Roman army about 18 km north of the city, at the Battle of the Allia.
    According to the common (but incorrect) Varronian chronology, the battle took place on July 18, 390 BC, but a more plausible date is 387. About 24,000 Romans under Quintus Sulpicius fought against the Senones, a Gallic tribe who were about equal in number, under Brennus. The Romans, with six legions, took post on the Allia to check the advance of the Senones on Rome. In those days, a legion counted 4,200 men, but was rarely fully manned. The Roman army was at this time a militia and very similar to a Greek phalanx battle line, with heavy hoplites in the centre (representing the richer Roman citizens) and extending to flanks with poorer and poorly armed conscripts (every soldier was required to supply his own equipment). When the Gauls attacked, the Roman flanks were routed leaving the Roman centre to be surrounded and slaughtered. Many of Rome's older citizens made up this centre and they would be sorely missed in the coming calamity.
    The remnants of the legions fled back to Rome in panic; as Livy states, "all hastened to Rome and took refuge in the Capitol without closing the gates." In Rome the citizens barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill. The Gauls unsuccessfully tried a full frontal assault, pausing half way up the hill and due to the Romans' quick thinking, and a direct charge later, they paid dearly and lost many lives. At this point, the Roman soldiers in Veii needed to get a message to the Senate in order to reinstate Marcus Furius Camillus as the dictator and general, and so a messenger climbed a steep cliff the Gauls had neglected to guard. The messenger left with the Senate's approval, but the Gauls noticed this path onto the hill. According to legend Marcus Manlius Capitolinus was alerted to the Gallic attack by the sacred geese of Juno. The rest of the city was plundered and almost all Roman records were destroyed. Marcus Furius Camillus may have arrived with a relief army, but this may be Roman propaganda to help quell the humiliation of defeat. The Gauls may have been ill-prepared for the siege, as an epidemic broke out among them as a result of not burying the dead. Brennus and the Romans negotiated an end to the siege when the Romans agreed to pay one thousand pounds of gold. According to tradition, to add insult to injury, it was discovered that Brennus was using heavier weights than standard for weighing the gold. When the Romans complained, Brennus is said to have exclaimed "vae victis" - "woe to the vanquished".
    According to some Roman historians, it was in this very moment that Camillus arrived with a Roman army and, after putting his sword on the steelyard, replied, "Not gold, but steel redeems the native land," thus attacking the Gauls. A battle ensued in the streets of Rome, but neither army could fight effectively in the narrow streets and alleyways. The Gallic and Roman armies left the city and fought the next day. Camillus' army lived up to his hopes and the Gallic army was routed. The Romans dubbed Camillus a "second Romulus," a second founder of Rome.


    Recovery and reform

    It is conjectured that there was no effective wall around the larger city prior to the siege because Rome's earlier Etruscan rulers may have forced the Romans to dismantle significant defences. As a result of the siege and near total destruction of Rome, Rome built the much stronger Servian Wall.
    The Romans also began restructuring their military organization: They ceased using the Greek phalanx style spear and adopted better and more standardized armour and weapons. The massacre of the 1st Class infantry, representing many Patrician and aristocratic citizens, enforced the need not to expose such important members of Roman society. It could have been at this time that the Triarii (remnants of the 1st Class) were formed, as a reserve.

    Many historians speculate that the Romans learned much about weapons technology and battle tactics from this run-in with the Senones. Though only a single tribe, the Senones were part of the much larger culture of Celts (or Gauls) that had more advanced iron-working and close-quarter combat techniques. Specifically, the Celts/Gauls used heavier long swords and full body shields, which allowed them to interlock shields for greater defense (a tactic later named "tortoise" in the Roman histories).
    Later, after Roman defeats in the second Samnite War had shown novel enemy tactics and formations, it was recognized the need for increased flexibility, leading to the reorganization of the legion into three main lines of soldiers: the hastati in front, the principes in the middle, and the triarii in the rear organized in alternating "maniples" (units). This was to be known as "manipular formation". Lightly equipped men who had been fighting in the legion for up to two years would fight in the Velites rank in the far front, throwing javelins at the enemy and then retreating. Men with more experience would fight in the next two ranks armed with a heavy javelin, a short sword and a shield: Hastati in the front, veteran Principes behind them. Finally the older Triarii would be in the rear, organized in smaller units of 60 men as opposed to 120 in the front ranks. The Triarii were armed in Hoplite weapons and armor. The Romans had created a "teaching army" that would introduce the young Velites to battle while minimizing the chances of death.
    The military system that resulted remained the basis of all Roman armies for the next few centuries, as well as the instrument that made possible the Roman Empire.
    The defeat at the hands of the Gauls was the last time the city of Rome was captured by non-Roman forces until 410 AD

    The Conflict of the Orders (367-287 BC)

    After the plebeian aedileship had been created, the patricians created the curule aedileship. After the consulship had been opened to the plebeians, the plebeians were able to hold both the dictatorship and the censorship. In 337 BC, the first plebeian praetor was elected.
    In 342 BC, two significant laws were passed. One of these two laws made it illegal to hold more than one office at any given point in time. The other law required an interval of ten years to pass before any magistrate could seek reelection to any office.
    During these years, the tribunes and the senators grew increasingly close. The senate realized the need to use plebeian officials to accomplish desired goals. To win over the tribunes, the senators gave the tribunes a great deal of power and the tribunes began to feel obligated to the senate. As the tribunes and the senators grew closer, plebeian senators were often able to secure the tribunate for members of their own families. In time, the tribunate became a stepping stone to higher office.
    Around the middle of the fourth century BC, the Concilium Plebis enacted the "Ovinian Law". During the early republic, only consuls could appoint new senators. The Ovinian law, however, gave this power to the censors. It also required the censor to appoint any newly-elected magistrate to the senate. By this point, plebeians were already holding a significant number of magisterial offices. Thus, the number of plebeian senators probably increased quickly. However, it remained difficult for a plebeian to enter the senate if he was not from a well-known political family, as a new patrician-like plebeian aristocracy emerged. The old nobility existed through the force of law, because only patricians were allowed to stand for high office. The new nobility existed due to the organization of society. As such, only a revolution could overthrow this new structure.
    By 287 BC, the economic condition of the average plebeian had become poor. The problem appears to have centered around widespread indebtedness. The plebeians demanded relief, but the senators refused to address their situation. The result was the final plebeian secession. The plebeians seceded to the Janiculum hill. To end the secession, a dictator was appointed. The dictator passed a law (the "Hortensian Law"), which ended the requirement that the patrician senators must agree before any bill could be considered by the Plebeian Council. This was not the first law to require that an act of the Plebeian Council have the full force of law. The Plebeian Council acquired this power during a modification to the original Valerian law in 449 BC. The significance of this law was in the fact that it robbed the patricians of their final weapon over the plebeians. The result was that control over the state fell, not onto the shoulders of voters in a democracy, but to the new plebeian nobility.
    The plebeians had finally achieved political equality with the patricians. However, the plight of the average plebeian had not changed. A small number of plebeian families achieved the same standing that the old aristocratic patrician families had always had, but the new plebeian aristocrats became as uninterested in the plight of the average plebeian as the old patrician aristocrats had always been.


    Roman expansion into Italia (343-282 BC)

    After recovering surprisingly swiftly from the sack of Rome, the Romans immediately resumed their expansion within Italy.

    Samnite Wars

    The First, Second, and Third Samnite wars, between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium, extended over half a century, involving almost all the states of Italy, and ended in Roman domination of the Samnites. The tribes of Samnium, who held the Apennines to the southeast of Latium, were one of early Rome's most formidable rivals.

    First Samnite War (343 to 341 BC)

    For centuries the Sabellian highlanders of the Apennines had struggled to force their way into the plains between the hills and the Mediterranean. But Etruscans and Latins had held them in check, and for the past hundred years the direction of their expansion had been not on Latium but east and south-east. They had begun to stream into Campania where they had become accustomed to a more civilized life, and in turn had become less warlike and ill-fitted to cope with their kinsmen of the hills. In the middle of the fourth century, the most powerful group of the highlanders, the confederated Samnites, were swarming down upon their civilized precursors in Campania. Farther east and south, Lucanians and Bruttians were pressing upon the Greek colonies of Magna Graecia. The Samnite warrior-herdsmen from nearby hills wished to use the grasslands of the plains for their animals — lands that the plains people had fenced. The Greeks were appealing for help to Epirus; those on the plains — the Campanians — appealed to Rome and Rome came to their rescue. Roman envoys went to leaders among the hill people for discussions and were rudely treated. War between Rome and the Samnite hill people followed.

    The First Samnite War was brief. It was marked by Roman victories in the field and by a mutiny on the part of the soldiery, which was suppressed by the sympathetic common sense of the distinguished dictator Marcus Valerius Corvus, who was said to have vanquished a Gallic champion in single combat in his youth. The war lasted two years, ending in 341 with Rome triumphant and the Samnites willing to make peace.
    The war was ended by a hasty peace as the Romans deserted the Campanians, to put down a revolt by their Latin allies. The members of the Latin League had been forced into the Samnite War without their consultation, and they resented their dependence on Rome.
    Despite its brevity the First Samnite War resulted in Roman acquisition of the rich land of Campania with its capital of Capua. Roman historians modeled their description of the war's beginning on the Greek historian Thucydides' account of the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. Nevertheless, they were probably correct in stating that the Campanians, when fighting over the town of Capua with the Samnites, allied themselves with Rome in order to utilize its might to settle the quarrel. If so, this may have been the first of many instances in which Rome went to war after being invited into an alliance by a weaker state already at war. Once invited in, Rome usually absorbed the allied state after defeating its adversary. In any event, Campania now somehow became firmly attached to Rome; it may have been granted Roman citizenship without the right to vote in Rome (civitas sine suffragio). Campania was a major addition to Rome's strength and manpower.

    Second (or Great) Samnite War (326 to 304 BC)

    In 327, war broke out again between Samnite hill people and those on Campania's plain. The Samnites established a garrison in Naples — a city inhabited by Greeks. Again people of the plain sought Rome's assistance, and again Rome went to war against the Samnites.
    The Romans soon confronted the Samnites in the middle of the Liris river valley, sparking the Second, or Great, Samnite War (326-304 BC), which lasted twenty years and was not a defensive venture for Rome. During the first half of the war Rome suffered serious defeats, but the second half saw Rome's recovery, reorganization, and ultimate victory.
    At first the Roman armies were so successful that in 321 BC the Samnites sued for peace. But the terms offered were so stringent that they were rejected and the war went on.
    In the same year (321 BC) the two consuls, leading an invading force into Samnium, were trapped in a mountain pass known as the Caudine Forks where they could neither advance nor retire, and after a desperate struggle would have been annihilated if they had not submitted to the humiliating terms imposed by the Samnite victor Gaius Pontius. The troops were disarmed and compelled to pass 'under the yoke', man by man, as a foe vanquished and disgraced. This ancient ritual was a form of subjugation by which the defeated had to bow and pass under a yoke used for oxen. (In this case it was a yoke made from Roman spears, as it was understood to be the greatest indignity to the Roman soldier to lose his spear).
    Six hundred Equites had to be handed over as hostages. Meanwhile the captive consuls pledged themselves to a five-year treaty on the most favourable terms for the Samnites. Later Roman historians, however, tried to deny this humiliation by inventing stories of Rome's rejection of the peace and its revenge upon the Samnites.
    The war stalled for five years. And, as Rome waited for the war to resume, it strengthened its military by increasing recruitment.
    In 320 and 319, the Romans returned for revenge against the Samnites and defeated them in what the Roman historian Livy described as one of the greatest events in Roman history. In 315 BC, after the resumption of hostilities, Rome suffered a crushing defeat at Lautulae.
    Until 314 BC, success seemed to flow with the Samnites. Campania was on the verge of deserting Rome. Peace was established between Rome and some Samnite towns. Then the tide turned in 311, when the Samnites were joined by Etruscan cities that had decided to join a showdown against Roman power. The intervention of the Etruscans in 311 BC came about as the forty years peace reached its end.
    After the first shock the Romans continuously defeated both their enemies. The war became a contest for the dominance of much of Italy. Between 311 and 304, the Romans and their allies won a series of victories against both the Etruscans and the Samnites. In 308 BC the Etruscans sued for peace which was granted on severe terms and in 304 BC the Samnites obtained peace on terms probably severe but not crushing. For assurance, the Romans demanded inspections, and peace was established between the Romans and Samnites that remained until 298.
    Ancient sources state that Rome initially borrowed hoplite tactics (the use of the phalanx) from the Etruscans (used during the 6th or 5th century BC) but later adopted the manipular system of the Samnites, probably as a result of Samnite success at this time. The manipular formation resembled a checkerboard pattern, in which solid squares of soldiers were separated by empty square spaces. It was far more flexible than the solidly massed hoplite formation, allowing the army to maneuver better on rugged terrain. The system was retained throughout the republic and into the empire.
    During these same years Rome organized a rudimentary navy, constructed its first military roads (construction of the Via Appia was begun in 312 BC and of the Via Valeria in 306), and increased the size of its annual military levy as seen from the increase of annually elected military tribunes from 6 to 16.
    During the period 334–295 BC, Rome founded 13 colonies against the Samnites and created six new rustic tribes in annexed territory. During the last years of the war, the Romans also extended their power into northern Etruria and Umbria. Several successful campaigns forced the cities in these areas to become Rome's allies.

    Third Samnite War (298 to 290 BC)

    At the turn of the century, the Samnites attempted a final invasion of Roman territory, and made common cause with the Etruscans and Umbrians, persuading the Gauls also to join them.
    The war began again in 298 BC on the plains near Neapolis. When the Romans saw the Etruscans and Gauls in northern Italy joining the Samnites they were alarmed. The Romans had benefited from a lack of coordination among its enemies, but now Rome faced them all at once.
    Some relief came with a victory over the Samnites in the south, but the crucial battle for Italy took place in 295 at Sentinum in Umbria, in Central Italy, where more troops were engaged than any previous battle in Italy. At first the Romans gave way before an attack by Gauls in chariots. Then the Romans rallied and crushed the Samnites and Gauls, the Romans benefiting from their self-discipline, the quality of their military legions, and their military leadership.
    Nevertheless, the stubborn Samnites fought on until a final defeat in 291 BC made further resistance hopeless, and in the following year peace was made on more favourable terms for the Samnites than Rome would have granted any less dogged foe.
    The Campanian cities, Italian or Greek, through which Rome had been involved in the Samnite wars, Capua and others, were now allies of Rome, with varying degrees of independence. Roman military colonies were settled in Campania as well as on the eastern outskirts of Samnium.
    After Rome's great victory at Sentinum, the war slowly wound down, coming to an end in 282. Rome emerged dominating all of the Italian peninsula except for the Greek cities in Italy's extreme south and the Po valley — the Po valley still being a land occupied by Gauls.

    to know more visit this site: http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/ancient/articles/firstsamnitewar.aspx


    Pyrrhic War (280-275 BC)

    By the beginning of the third century, Rome had established itself as a major power on the Italian Peninsula, but had not yet come into conflict with the dominant military powers in the Mediterranean at the time: Carthage and the Greek kingdoms.
    The Pyrrhic War initially started as a minor conflict between Rome and the city of Tarentum over a naval treaty violation by one of the Roman consuls. Tarentum had, however, lent aid to the Greek ruler Pyrrhus of Epirus in his conflict with Corcyra, and requested military aid from Epirus. Pyrrhus honored his obligation to Tarentum and joined the complex series of conflicts involving Tarentum, the Romans, Samnites, Etruscans, and Thurii (as well as other cities of Magna Graecia). To further complicate historical analysis of the conflict, Pyrrhus also involved himself in the internal political conflicts of Sicily, as well as the Sicilian struggle against Carthaginian dominance.
    By the time of the Pyrrhic War, the Italian peninsula had been undergoing a gradual consolidation under Roman hegemony for centuries. The Latin War (340–338 BC) had placed the Latium region under Roman dominance, if not outright control, and the resistance of the Samnites against Roman control was coming to an end with a few minor conflicts being the only remnants of the Samnite Wars (343–290 BC).
    To the north of Roman-controlled Latium lay the Etruscan cities, and to the south of Roman-controlled Samnium lay the Greek city states of Magna Graecia: politically independent cities in southern Italia and Sicily, settled by Greek colonists in the 7th and 8th centuries BC (also the source of the Hellenization of Roman culture).
    On the island of Sicily, conflict between the cities of Magna Graecia and the Carthaginian colonies, which had also been settled in the 7th and 8th centuries BC, was an ongoing concern.
    The patchwork of Italian and Sicilian cultures and nations had resulted in an onging web of conflicts and territory changes, which many would argue had seen a steady expansion of Roman influence over Italy. Rome was, however, a "local Italian concern", never having tried its hand in the larger international affairs of the Mediterranean, nor pitted its military strength against any of the dominant Greek cultures. The Pyrrhic war would change both of these facts.

    Tarentum asks for help

    In 282 BC, Rome was called by the city of Thurii for military assistance in a dispute it had with another city. In response, Rome sent out a fleet of ships that entered the Bay of Tarentum. This act violated a longstanding treaty between it and the city of Tarentum, which forbade Rome from entering Tarentine waters. Enraged by what it considered a hostile aggression, the city attacked the fleet, sinking several ships and sending the rest away. Rome was shocked and angered by this incident and sent out diplomats to defuse the situation. However, negotiations turned sour, leading to a declaration of war against Tarentum.
    Seeking reinforcements, Tarentum then turned to mainland Greece for military aid and called on the King of Epirus to help it defeat the Romans. Pyrrhus, hoping to build a vast empire, saw this opportunity as a good starting point and accepted.
    In 280 B.C. Pyrrhus landed with 25,000 troops, including a score of war elephants, in Italy. A Roman army of 50,000 led by Publius Laevinius was sent into the Lucanian territory, where the first battle took place near the city of Heraclea.

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    History Part II/II
    gathered by haeressiarch & hamsha

    Battle of Heraclea (280 BC)

    The Battle of Heraclea took place in 280 BC between the Romans under the command of Consul Publius Valerius Laevinus and the combined forces of Greeks from Epirus, Tarentum, Thurii, Metapontum, and Heraclea under the command of King Pyrrhus of Epirus.
    Pyrrhus decided to help Tarentum because he was in debt to them — they had earlier helped him conquer the island of Corcyra. He also knew that he could count on help from the Samnites, Lucanians, Bruttians, and some Illyrian tribes. His ultimate goal was to re-conquer Macedon he had lost in 285 BC, but did not have enough money to recruit soldiers. He planned to help Tarentum, then go to Sicily and attack Carthage. After winning a war against Carthage and capturing south Italy he would have enough money to organise a strong army and capture Macedon.

    Before he left Epirus, Pyrrhus formed an alliance and borrowed soldiers and money from the pretender to the Macedonian throne,Ptolemy Keraunos. His long time friend and ally Ptolemy II Philadelphus, king of Ptolemaic (kingdom) Egypt, also promised to send 9,000 soldiers and 50 war elephants. He also recruited horsemen from Thessaly and archers from Rhodes — as their rulers wanted to avoid a war with Epirus. In the spring of 280 BC Pyrrhus landed without losses in Italy.
    After hearing of Pyrrhus' arrival in Italy the Romans mobilized eight legions with auxiliares, totalling about 80,000 soldiers. They divided it into four armies:
    One army under the command of Barbula, with orders to distract the Samnites and Lucanians so they could not join Pyrrhus' army. They were placed in Venusia.
    A second army left behind to secure Rome.
    A third army under the command of consul Tiberius Coruncanius marched against Etruscans, to avoid an alliance between them and Pyrrhus.
    A fourth army under the command of Publius Valerius Laevinus marched to Tarentum. They also plundered Lucania.
    Publius Laevinus moved towards Heraclea, a city founded by the Tarentines, with the intention of cutting Pyrrhus from the Greek colonies of Calabria, thus avoiding their uprising against Rome.

    Pyrrhus didn't march against the Romans while he was waiting for his allies' reinforcements. When he understood that reinforcements were not coming, he decided to fight the Romans on a plain near the river Siris (modern Sinni), between Pandosia and Heraclea. Pyrrhus took up position there and waited. Before the fight he sent diplomats to the Roman consul, proposing that he could arbitrate the conflicts between Rome and the population of south Italy. He promised that his allies recognised him as a judge and demanded the same from the Romans. The Romans denied his request, and entered the plains on the right of the Siris river where they set up camp.
    It is unknown how many troops Pyrrhus had left in Tarentum, but he probably had about 25-35,000 troops with him at Heraclea. He took up position on left bank of the Siris, hoping that the Romans would have difficulty crossing the river, which would allow him more time to prepare his attack. He set up some light infantry units near the river to let him know when the Romans began to cross, and planned first to attack them with his cavalry and elephants. Valerius Laevinus had about 30,000 soldiers under his command, including many cavalry, peltasts, and spearmen. It would be the first time in history that two very different juggernauts of war clashed: the Roman Legion, and the Macedonian Phalanx.
    At dawn, the Romans started to cross the river Siris. The Roman cavalry attacked on the flanks the scouts and light infantry, who were forced to flee.
    When Pyrrhus learned that the Romans had begun crossing the river he led his Macedonian and Thessalian cavalry to attack the Roman cavalry. His infantry, with peltasts and archers and heavy infantry, began their march as well. The Epirote cavalry successfully disrupted the Roman battle formation, and then withdrew. Pyrrhus' peltasts and archers began to fire and his phalanxes began to attack. The infantry line was near equal to the Romans' in length. Although Pyrrhus had a small advantage in number, the phalanx was by design deeper than the legion.
    The phalanxes made seven attacks, but failed to pierce the legion. It had met a foe that was stronger than it had ever encountered. The Romans made seven attacks, yet it could not break the phalanx. The battle hung in the air. At one point, the battle became so pitched that Pyrrhus - realizing that if he were to fall in combat, his soldiers would lose heart and reason - switched armor with one of his bodyguards. This bodyguard was subsequently killed, and word spread through the ranks that the Pyrrhus had fallen. His force began to waver, and the Romans gave a thunderous cheer at the turn of events. Grasping the magnitude of the situation, Pyrrhus rode forward, bare-headed, along the lines of his men to show he was still living. This show of bravery strengthened their resolve, and the battle raged on.
    Unable to make any significant gains in action, Pyrrhus deployed his elephants, held in reserve until now. The Roman cavalry was threatening his flank too strongly. Aghast at the sight of these strange and brooding creatures which none had seen before, the horses galloped away and threw the Roman legion into rout. Pyrrhus then launched his Thessalian cavalry among the disorganized legions, which completed the Romans' defeat. The Romans fell back across the river and Pyrrhus held the field.
    In the opinion of Dionysius the Romans lost 15,000 soldiers and had thousands taken prisoner; Hieronymus states 7,000. Dionysius totalled Pyrrhus' losses at around 11,000 soldiers, 3,000 according to Hieronymus. In any rate this could be considered the earliest of his Pyrrhic victories against Rome.
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    Order of battle


    This is a possible order of battle for Heraclea.

    Epirus and Tarentum

    Commander: Pyrrhus
    3,000 hypaspists under Milon command
    20,000 phalangites, Epirotes including 5,000 Macedonian soldiers given by Ptolemy
    6,000 Tarentine levy hoplites
    4,000 horsemen, including the Thessalian contingent and 1,000 Tarentine horsemen
    2,000 archers
    500 Rhodian slingers
    20 war elephants with towers holding troops.

    Roman Republic

    Commander: Publius Valerius Laevinus
    20,000 Roman legionaries, in four legions
    16,800 allied legionaries, in four legions
    2,400 light infantry, Bruttians and Campanians
    1,200 Roman horsemen
    3,600 allied horsemen
    1,200 light horsemen from Southern Italian allies

    Some of these were probably guarding the camp, thus not fighting the battle.

    After the battle reinforcements from south Italy joined Pyrrhus. The Greeks of Rhegium who wanted to join him were massacred by Roman soldiers under the command of Decius Vibelius, who was proclaimed as ruler of the town. Pyrrhus then began to march into Etruria. He captured many small towns in Campania, and his forces plundered Latium. His march was stopped in Anagni, two days from Rome, when he met another Roman army under Corunciatus. Pyrrhus was afraid that he did not have enough soldiers to fight, and knew Laevinus and Barbula were probably marching behind him. Instead he withdrew and the Romans did not follow him.
    This battle proved to be crucial in showing the stability of the Roman republic. Pyrrhus had expected the Italic tribes to rebel against the Romans and join him. However, by now the Romans had stabilized the area, and only a few Italics actually joined the Greeks.

    Battle of Asculum (279 BC)

    This battle was the second encounter between an Alexandrian, phalanx-based army and the Roman legion. The two armies were equally numbered.
    The Romans had more infantry (four legions, 25,000 Romans, plus Dauni allies) and 300 anti-elephant devices. After the Battle of Heraclea, in which the Greek war elephants had a heavy impact on the Romans, the legions were provided with flammable weapons and anti-elephant devices: these were ox-led chariots, equipped with long spikes to wound the elephants, pots of fire to scare them, and screening troops who would hurl javelins at the elephants to drive them away.
    Pyrrhus deployed Macedonian infantry and cavalry, his own troops, Greek mercenary infantry, allied Italian Greeks, including a Tarantine militia, 20 elephants, and Samnite infantry and cavalry. The Greek army had an advantage in cavalry and the 20 elephants. In order to counter the more flexible Roman legion, Pyrrhus had mixed some light Italic troops to his phalanx.

    The battle was fought over two days. As was customary of the warfare of the period, both armies deployed their cavalry on the wings and infantry in the center. Pyrrhus held his Guard cavalry in reserve behind the centre under his personal command. The elephants were also kept initially in reserve.
    On the first day, Pyrrhus' cavalry and elephants were blocked by the woods and hills where the battle was fought, however, the Italic soldiers in the phalanxes fought well. The Macedonians broke the Roman first legion and Latin allies on their left wing but the Roman third and fourth legions defeated the Tarantines, Oscans and Epirotes of Pyrrhus' centre. Meanwhile a force of Dauni attacked his camp. He sent reserve cavalry to deal with the breakthrough, more cavalry and some elephants to drive off the Dauni. When they withdrew to an inaccessible steep hill he deployed the elephants against the third and fourth legions; these too took refuge on wooded heights, but took fire from the archers and slingers escorting the elephants, and could not reply. Pyrrhus sent Athamanian, Acharnian and Samnite infantry to drive the Romans out of the woods, who were intercepted by Roman cavalry. Both sides withdrew at dusk, neither having gained a significant advantage.
    At dawn Pyrrhus sent light infantry to occupy the difficult ground which had proven a weak point the previous day, forcing the Romans to fight a set battle in the open. As at Heraclea, a collision of legion and phalanx followed, until the elephants, supported by light infantry, broke through the Roman line. At this point the anti-elephant wagons were driven against them; having proven effective briefly, these were overwhelmed by psiloi who negated the Roman chariots. The elephants then charged the Roman infantry, which buckled. Pyrrhus simultaneously ordered the Royal Guard to charge, completing the rout. The Romans retreated to their camp.
    The Romans lost 8,000 men, Pyrrhus 3,000, including many of his officers. A narrow Greek victory, it is this battle which gave rise to the term "Pyrrhic victory," meaning a victory at so high a cost as to be worthless. Pyrrhus is later reported to have said, "One more such victory, and we shall be undone."

    Alliance with Carthage

    Pyrrhus next offered to negotiate a truce with Rome, but Rome refused to talk as long as Pyrrhus remained on Italian soil. Appius Claudius, who built the Appian Way, now an old man and blind, exhorted the Romans to refuse negotiations with Pyrrhus, who was really only asking at this point for freedom for Tarentum and her allies.
    Rome formed an alliance with Carthage against Pyrrhus. (A dozen years later, Rome’s interests in the Mediterranean would come into conflict with those of Carthage, and they would be at war.) The terms of the third treaty with Carthage now concluded an effectual alliance between Rome and Carthage against Pyrrhus. The effect was to limit Pyrrhus' career in the west to aggression against the Greek states which he had nominally come to protect, for it destroyed his hopes of allying with either Rome or Carthage against the other. Carthage naturally thought otherwise and sent a squadron up to the Tiber mouth to offer help against Pyrrhus. The Italian dominion was not for him; he had come too late. If Carthage were the real enemy, as he learned from Agathocles of Syracuse, there was nothing to be gained by quarreling with Rome, too.

    Sicilian campaign

    Veterans of Agathocles, settled now at Messana, offered their help, but Campania and most of the south gave Pyrrhus no encouragement. Only Etruria thought the tide had turned against Rome, quickly to discover its mistake.
    After two campaigns in which, though he always won battles, Pyrrhus was losing more men than he could afford, he moved on to Sicily (278 BC) to aid the Greeks there, who were being hard pressed by the Carthaginians. The Romans had little difficulty in dealing with his friends and rear guards on the Italian mainland.
    The Carthaginians had not waited to be attacked. When Pyrrhus sailed for Sicily, they were besieging Syracuse, his necessary base, and looking for him with their fleet. He evaded their ships, however, and drove off their field army, captured the cities of Panormus and Eryx and refused their offer to surrender everything in Sicily except for Lilybaeum, which they direly needed if they sought to keep their hold on Sardinia.
    All the while, his losses had been heavy and his reinforcements few. Tarentum was hard pressed by the Romans, and between them and the Carthaginian fleet he might have been trapped in Sicily. So in a desperate attempt he returned once more to Italy, to fight one more campaign.

    Battle of Beneventum (275 BC)

    Pyrrhus had been drained by his recent wars in Sicily, and by the earlier Pyrrhic victories over the Romans. Although the battle was inconclusive, he decided to end his campaign in Italy and return to Epirus; as a consequence of this, many modern sources wrongly state that Pyrrhus lost the battle. Pyrrhus' departure resulted in the Samnites finally being conquered, and the eventual fall of Magna Graecia three years later, which resulted in Roman dominance of the Italian peninsula.

    A Roman army marched south to meet him and erected a fortified camp near the town of Malventum. Pyrrhus approached Malventum with an army estimated at 20,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry and 20 elephants, but most of the infantry were Italian. The Roman army, weakened by defections of Italian allied troops to Pyrrhus, numbered about 17,000 infantry and 1,200 cavalry. Pyrrhus's scouts located the Roman encampment and he took the risky option of a surprise night attack. In the best traditions of such it went badly wrong. His troops took longer to reach the camp than planned and the Romans detected their approach. They drove off the Epirote attack and Pyrrhus lost half of his irreplaceable elephants. The next day the Romans took to the offensive. Their initial assault failed due to Pyrrhus's skillful use of his remaining elephants and the stalwart resistance of the Epirote hoplites, but a second attack succeeded in stampeding the elephants onto the Epirote phalanx, which withdrew from the battlefield in disorder. The Epirote force was scattered before the battle and the Romans were able to scare Pyrrhus's war elephants (presumably with fire arrows) and send them crashing back to the Epirote ranks. Pyrrhus was left with no choice but to retreat.
    Defeated and running out of allies Pyrrhus abandoned the Italian Greeks to Rome, taking back 8,000 infantry and 500 cavalry to Epirus. His last words before leaving Italy are said to have been, 'What a battlefield I am leaving for Carthage and Rome'. In 272 BC Tarentum surrendered to Rome. In 270 BC Rome conquered the last independent Italian Greek city, Rhegium. She was now mistress of the whole of what is now called Italy, except for the part north of the river Po, known then as Cisalpine Gaul.
    Although they never defeated Pyrrhus on the field, the Romans were able to win a war of attrition against what was the best general of his time, and one of the greatest in antiquity. In doing so, they established themselves as a strong power in the Mediterranean. The Roman battles with Pyrrhus also foreshadowed the superiority of the Roman legion over the Macedonian phalanx, due to the greater mobility of the legion (though many point out the weakening of the cavalry arm in the times of the diadochi). Also, the Hellenistic world would never again have a general like Pyrrhus to challenge the Romans.

    Pyrrhus parting words were memorable: "What a battlefield I am leaving for Carthage and Rome!" Leaving a sufficient force to garrison Tarentum, Pyrrhus now set sail for Epirus. He had scarcely embarked before Tarentum surrendered to the Romans (272 BC). Rome treated the defeated Tarentum leniently, allowing Tarentum the same local self-rule it allowed other cities. Tarentum in turn recognized Rome's hegemony in Italy and became another of Rome's allies, while a Roman garrison remained in Tarentum to ensure its loyalty. Other Greek cities and the Bruttian tribes with their valuable forest-country surrendered likewise, undertaking to supply Rome with ships and crews in future. Some Greek cities may still have seen themselves as mere allies of Rome...


    Mid-Republic (274 BC - 148 BC)

    The supremacy of the new nobility (287-133 BC)

    The great accomplishment of the Hortensian Law was in that it deprived the patricians of their last weapon over the plebeians. Thus, the last great political question of the earlier era had been resolved. As such, no important political changes would occur between 287 BC and 133 BC. The critical laws of this era were still enacted by the senate. In effect, democracy was satisfied with the possession of power, but did not care to use it. The senate was supreme during this era because the era was dominated by questions of foreign and military policy. This era was the most militarily active era of the Roman Republic.
    The final decades of this era saw a worsening economic situation for many plebeians. The long military campaigns had forced citizens to leave their farms to fight, only to return to farms that had fallen into disrepair. The landed aristocracy began buying bankrupted farms at discounted prices. As commodity prices fell, many farmers could no longer operate their farms at a profit. The result was the ultimate bankruptcy of countless farmers. Masses of unemployed plebeians soon began to flood into Rome, and thus into the ranks of the legislative assemblies. Their economic state usually led them to vote for the candidate who offered the most for them. A new culture of dependency was emerging, which would look to any populist leader for relief.

    The prior era saw great military successes, and great economic failures. The patriotism of the plebeians had kept them from seeking any new reforms. Now, the military situation had stabilized, and fewer soldiers were needed. This, in conjunction with the new slaves that were being imported from abroad, inflamed the unemployment situation further. The flood of unemployed citizens to Rome had made the assemblies quite populist. The ultimate result was an increasingly aggressive democracy.


    Beginning of Foreign Conquests

    Outbreak of the War in Sicily (B.C. 264)

    Sicily was at this time divided between three powers. Carthage held all the western part of the island, with the important cities of Agrigentum on the south, Panormus on the north, and Lilybaeum at the extreme point. The southeastern part of the island was under the control of the king of Syracuse, who ruled not only this city, but also some of the neighboring towns. The northeastern corner of the island was in the possession of a body of Campanian soldiers, who had been in the service of the king of Syracuse, and who, on returning home, had treacherously seized the city of Messana.
    These Campanian mercenaries, who called themselves Mamertines, or Sons of Mars, murdered the inhabitants and ravaged the surrounding country. The king of Syracuse attacked them, laid siege to their city, and reduced them to such an extremity that they felt obliged to look for help. The choice lay between Rome and Carthage. They finally decided to call upon Rome for help. The Roman senate hesitated to help these robbers against Syracuse, which was a friendly power. But when the question was left to the assembly, the people fearing that Carthage would be called upon if they refused, it was decided to help the Mamertines, and thus prevent the Carthaginians from getting possession of this part of Sicily... In this way began the first Punic war.

    Rome and Carthage

    The ambition and the resources of Rome were not exhausted with the conquest of Italy. It was but a step from the Greek cities of Italy to the Greek cities of Sicily. But when Rome ventured to cross the Sicilian Strait, she was drawn into a struggle which was not ended until she was mistress of the Mediterranean. In passing beyond the limits of her own peninsula, she became one of the great world powers. The strength which she had acquired in her wars with the Latins and Etruscans and Samnites, she was now to use in the greater conflicts with Carthage and Macedonia and Syria.
    Rome and Carthage were nearly equal in strength and resources. Carthage had greater wealth, but Rome had a better organization. Carthage had a more powerful navy, but Rome had a more efficient army. Carthage had more brilliant leaders, while Rome had a more steadfast body of citizens. The main strength of Carthage rested in her wealth and commercial resources, while that of Rome depended upon the character of her people and her well-organized political system. The greatness of the Carthaginians was shown in their successes, while the greatness of the Romans was most fully revealed in the dark hours of disaster and total war...

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  4. #4

    Icon4 Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME PART I/III



    Roman Early Republican Army
    by haeressiarch & hamsha


    The core of the campaign history of the Roman Republican military is the account of the Roman military's land battles. Despite the encompassing of lands around the periphery of the Mediterranean sea, naval battles were typically less significant than land battles to the military history of Rome.
    As with most ancient civilisations, Rome's military served the triple purposes of securing its borders, exploiting peripheral areas through measures such as imposing tribute on conquered peoples, and maintaining internal order. From the outset, Rome's military typified this pattern and the majority of Rome's campaigns were characterised by one of two types. The first is the territorial expansionist campaign, normally begun as a counter-offensive, in which each victory brought subjugation of large areas of territory. The second is the civil war, of which examples plagued the Roman Republic in its final century.
    Roman armies were not invincible, despite their formidable reputation and host of victories. Over the centuries the Romans "produced their share of incompetents" who led Roman armies into catastrophic defeats. Nevertheless, it was generally the fate of even the greatest of Rome's enemies, such as Pyrrhus and Hannibal, to win the battle but lose the war. The history of Rome's campaigning is, if nothing else, a history of obstinate persistence overcoming appalling losses.

    Tribal forces (c. 800 BC – c. 578 BC)

    According to the historians, Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, writing at a far later date, the earliest Roman army existed in the 8th century BC. During this period Rome itself was probably little more than a fortified hill-top settlement and its army a relatively small force, whose activities were limited "mainly [to] raiding and cattle rustling with the occasional skirmish-like battle". Historian Theodor Mommsen referred to it as Rome's curiate army, named for the presumed subdivision of the army along the divisions of Rome's three founding tribes (Latin: curiae), the Ramnians, Tities and Luceres. The army's exact structure is not known, but it is probable that it loosely resembled a typical Bronze-Age warrior band[citation needed] led by a warrior chieftain. Mommsen believes that Roman military organization of this period was regimented by the "Laws of [the apocryphal] King [V]Italus" but these laws, though referred to by Aristotle, have been lost.

    The army (Latin: legio) consisted, according to Livy, of exactly 3,000 infantry and 300 horsemen, one third from each of Rome's three founding tribes. Warriors served under six "leaders of division" (Latin: tribuni) who in turn served under a general, usually in the person of the reigning King. Mommsen uses philological arguments and references from Livy and others to suggest that the greater mass of foot-soldiers probably consisted of pilumni (javelin-throwers), with a smaller number possibly serving as arquites (archers). The cavalry was far smaller in number and probably consisted solely of the town's richest citizens. The army may also have contained the earliest form of chariots, hinted at by references to the flexuntes ("the wheelers").
    By the beginning of the 7th century BC, the Iron-Age Etruscan civilization (Latin: Etrusci) was dominant in the region. Like most of the other peoples in the region, the Romans warred against the Etruscans. By the close of the century, the Romans had lost their struggle for independence, and the Etruscans had conquered Rome, establishing a military dictatorship, or kingdom, in the city.

    Etruscan-model hoplites (578 BC – c. 315 BC)

    Although several Roman sources including Livy and Polybius talk extensively about the Roman army of the Roman Kingdom period that followed the Etruscan capture of the city, no contemporary accounts survive. Polybius, for example, was writing some 300 years after the events in question, and Livy some 500 years later. Additionally, what records were kept by the Romans at this time were later destroyed when the city was sacked. The sources for this period cannot therefore be seen as reliable, as they can be for later military history, e.g. from the First Punic War onwards.
    According to our surviving narratives, the three kings of Rome during the Etruscan occupation were Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, and Tarquinius Superbus. During this period the army underwent a reformation into a centurial army based on socio-economic class. This reformation is traditionally attributed to Servius Tullius, the second of the Etruscan kings. Tullius had earlier carried out the first Roman census of all citizens. Livy tells us that Tullius reformed the army by transplanting onto it the structure derived originally for civil life as a result of this census. At all levels, military service was, at this time, considered to be a civic responsibility and a way of advancing one's status within society.
    However, Rome's social classes were qualified rather than created by the census. It is perhaps more accurate to say therefore that the army's structure was slightly refined during this period rather than radically reformed. Prior to these reforms, the infantry was divided into the classis of rich citizens and the infra classem of poorer citizens. The latter were excluded from the regular line of battle on the basis that their equipment was of poor quality. During the reforms, this crude division of poorer and richer citizens was further stratified. The army thereafter consisted of a number of troop types based upon the social class of propertied citizens, collectively known as adsidui. From the poorest in the "fifth class" to the richest in the "first class" and the equestrians above them, military service was compulsory for all. However, Roman citizens at this time generally viewed military service as a proper undertaking of duty to the state, in contrast to later views of military service as an unwelcome and unpleasant burden. Whereas there are accounts of Romans in the late empire mutilating their own bodies in order to exempt themselves from military service, there seems to have been no such reluctance to serve in the military of early Rome. This may in part be due to the generally lower intensity of conflict in this era; to the fact that men were fighting close to and often in protection of their own homes, or due to - as posited by later Roman writers - a greater martial spirit in antiquity.
    The equestrians, the highest social class of all, served in mounted units known as equites. The first class of the richest citizens served as heavy infantry with swords and long spears (resembling hoplites), and provided the first line of the battle formation. The second class were armed similarly to the first class, but without a breastplate for protection, and with an oblong rather than a round shield. The second class stood immediately behind the first class when the army was drawn up in battle formation. The third and fourth classes were more lightly armed and carried a thrusting-spear and javelins. The third class stood behind the second class in battle formation, normally providing javelin support. The poorest of the propertied men of the city comprised the fifth class. They were generally too poor to afford much equipment at all and were armed as skirmishers with slings and stones. They were deployed in a screen in front of the main army, covering its approach and masking its manoeuvres.
    Men without property, who were thereby excluded from the qualifying social classes of the adsidui, were exempted from military service on the grounds that they were too poor to provide themselves with any arms whatsoever. However, in the most pressing circumstances, even these proletarii were pressed into service, though their military worth was probably questionable. Troops in all of these classes would fight together on the battlefield, with the exception of the most senior troops, who were expected to guard the city.
    The army is said to have increased from 3,000 to 4,000 men in the fifth century, and then again from 4,000 to 6,000 men sometime before 400 BC. This later army of 6,000 men were then divided into 60 centuries of 100 men each.

    Manipular legion (315 BC – 107 BC)

    The army of the early Republic continued to evolve, and although there was a tendency among Romans to attribute such changes to great reformers, it is more likely that changes were the product of slow evolution rather than singular and deliberate policy of reform. The manipular formation was probably copied from Rome's Samnite enemies to the south, perhaps as a result of Roman defeats in the Second Samnite War.
    During this period, an army formation of around 5,000 men was known as a legion (Latin: legio). However, in contrast to later legionary formations of exclusively heavy infantry, the legions of the early and middle Republic consisted of both light and heavy infantry. The term manipular army, an army based on units called maniples (Latin manipulus singular, manipuli plural, from manus, "the hand"), is therefore used to contrast the later legionary army of the Empire that was based around a system of cohort units. The manipular army was based partially upon social class and partially upon age and military experience. It therefore represents a theoretical compromise between the earlier class-based army and the class-free armies of later years. In practice, even slaves were at one time pressed into the army of the Republic out of necessity. Normally a single legion was raised each year, but in 366 BC two legions were raised in a single year for the first time.
    The manipular army got its name from the manner in which its heavy infantry was deployed. Maniples were units of 120 men each drawn from a single infantry class. The maniples were small enough to permit tactical movement of individual infantry units on the battlefield within the framework of the greater army. The maniples were typically deployed into three discrete lines (Latin: triplex acies) based on the three heavy infantry types of hastati, principes and triarii. The first type, the hastati, typically formed the first rank in battle formation. Each hastati maniple was formed 40 men across by three men deep. They were leather-armoured infantry soldiers who wore a brass cuirass and brass helmet adorned with three feathers approximately 30 cm (12 in) in height and carried an iron-clad wooden shield, 120 cm (4 ft) tall and a convex rectangle in shape. They were armed with a sword known as a gladius and two throwing spears known as pila: one the heavy pilum of popular imagination and one a slender javelin.
    The second type, the principes, typically formed the second rank of soldiers back from the front of a battle line. They were heavy infantry soldiers armed and armoured as per the hastati, except that they wore a lighter coat of mail rather than a solid cuirass. Each principes maniple was formed 12 men across by 10 men deep. The triarii, who typically formed the third rank when the army was arrayed for battle, were the last remnant of hoplite-style troops in the Roman army. They were armed and armoured as per the principes, with the exception that they carried a pike rather than two pila. A triarii maniple was divided into two formations each six men across by 10 men deep. A manipular legion typically contained 1,200 hastati, 1,200 principes and 600 triarii. The three classes of unit may have retained some slight parallel to social divisions within Roman society, but at least officially the three lines were based upon age and experience rather than social class. Young, unproven men would serve as hastati, older men with some military experience as principes, and veteran troops of advanced age and experience as triarii.

    The heavy infantry of the maniples were supported by a number of light infantry (Latin: velites) and cavalry (Latin: equites) troops, typically 300 horsemen per manipular legion. The cavalry was drawn primarily from the richest class of equestrians, but additional cavalry and light infantry were drawn at times from the socii and Latini of the Italian mainland. The equites were still drawn from the wealthier classes in Roman society. There was an additional class of troops (Latin: accensi, also adscripticii and later supernumerarii) who followed the army without specific martial roles and were deployed to the rear of the triarii. Their role in accompanying the army was primarily to supply any vacancies that might occur in the maniples, but they also seem to have acted occasionally as orderlies to the officers.

    The light infantry of 1,200 velites consisted of unarmoured skirmishing troops drawn from the youngest and lower social classes. They were armed with a sword and buckler (90 cm (3 ft) diameter), as well as several light javelins, each with a 90 cm (3 ft) wooden shaft the diameter of a finger, with a c. 25 cm (10 in) narrow metal point.[28] Their numbers were swollen by the addition of allied light infantry and irregular rorarii.
    The Roman levy of 403 BC was the first to be requested to campaign for longer than a single season, and from this point on such a practice became gradually more common, if still not typical.

    A small navy had operated at a fairly low level after the Second Samnite War, but it was massively upgraded during this period, expanding from a few primarily river- and coastal-based patrol craft to a full maritime unit. After a period of frenetic construction, the navy mushroomed to a size of more than 400 ships on the Carthaginian pattern. Once completed, it could accommodate up to 100,000 sailors and embarked troops for battle. The navy thereafter declined in size. This was partially because a pacified Roman Mediterranean called for little naval policing, and partially because the Romans chose to rely during this period on ships provided by Greek cities, whose peoples had greater maritime experience.

    Scipio's Reforms of the Army

    One man who made a great contribution to the running of the army, and thereby also to the wellfare and survival of Rome, was Scipio Africanus (Publius Cornelius Scipio).
    He is believed to have been present at the military disasters of Trebia and Cannae where he learnt the lesson that the Roman army needed a drastic change in tactics. With only 25 years of age he assumed command of the troops in Spain and began training them harder than so far anyone had done. Undoubtedly the Roman legionaries were the best troops of their day. But if tactical movements, as Hannibal performed them on the battlefield, were supposed to be possible then the soldiers needed to be trained for it.
    If Scipio was doing the right thing, then his victory over Hannibal at Zama clearly confirmed it.
    Young, bright upcoming Roman commanders were quick to see the wisdom of Scipio's approach and adopted his military style.
    Scipio's revolution changed the way of the legions. Rome was now to use proper tactics on the battlefield, rather than merely relying on the fighting superiority of the legionaries. Henceforth the Roman soldiers would be led by clever men seeking to outmanoeuvre their foe rather than merely being lined up and marched at the enemy.
    If Rome had the best soldiers it now should also acquire the best generals.

    Proletarianisation of the infantry (217 BC – 107 BC)

    The extraordinary demands of the Punic Wars, in addition to a shortage of manpower, exposed the tactical weaknesses of the manipular legion, at least in the short term. In 217 BC, Rome was forced to effectively ignore its long-standing principle that its soldiers must be both citizens and property owners when slaves were pressed into naval service; around 213 BC, the property requirement was reduced from 11,000 to 4,000 asses. Since the Romans are unlikely to have preferred to employ slaves over poor citizens in their armies, it must be assumed that, at this point, the proletarii of the poorest citizens must also have been pressed into service despite their lack of legal qualification. By 123 BC, the financial requirement for military service was slashed again from 4,000 asses to just 1,500 asses. By this time, therefore, it is clear that many of the property-less former proletarii had been nominally admitted into the adsidui.
    During the second century BC, Roman territory saw an overall decline in population, partially due to the huge losses incurred during various wars. This was accompanied by severe social stresses and the greater collapse of the middle classes into lower classes of the census and the proletarii. As a result, both the Roman society and its military became increasingly proletarianised. The Roman state was forced to arm its soldiers at the expense of the state, since many of the soldiers who made up its lower classes were now impoverished proletarii in all but name, and were too poor to afford their own equipment.

    For the second century BC we have accounts of a slightly reorganized legion.
    The hastati were still up front, carrying bronze breastplates, or the more wealthy ones among them wore chain mail coats. They now also wore purple and black feather plumes on their helmets, 18 inches in height, to increase their apparent height and appear more intimidating to the enemy. They carried a pilum, a well-crafted wooden spear with iron tip. The javelins that were carried now were short ones, only about four feet long, but with a head nine inches long, well hammered, but so fashioned that it bent on impact and could not be returned by the enemy.
    The other ranks of the legion were equipped in much the same manner except that they carried a long spear, the hasta, rather than the shorter pilum.
    The rorarii and accensii appear by now to have been done away with, having become velites. The velites did not form their own battle line but were divided up equally among all the maniples to compliment their numbers. It emerges that now it was the velites who were the more mobile troops who operated in the front of the army, stinging the enemy with their javelins, before retiring through the ranks of the hastati and principes.
    The divisions were now of ten maniples. The figures are a bit unclear, but what is known is that the hastati maniple consisted of 120 men.
    Subdivisions of all three ranks (hastati, principes, triarii) was one of ten maniples. A maniple is defined as consisting of 160 men. (Although the hastati are supposedly had 120 per maniple. The figures are confusing. I assume that the maniple was brought its full numbers by the addition of velites. i.e. 120 hastati + 40 velites = 160 men = 1 maniple)
    The soldier now used the gladius, also known as 'the Spanish sword' to the Romans, apparently due to its origin. The iron helmets had now been replaced by bronze ones again, though of thicker metal.
    Each maniple was commanded by two centurions, the first centurion commanding the right, the second the left of the maniple.
    The cavalry force of 300 men was divided into ten squadrons (turmae), each with three decuriones in command.
    As more of the east came under Roman control, it was inevitable that an increasing number of citizens became involved in commercial enterprises and enforced army service would have been a considerable nuisance. Rome could no longer rely on a regular supply of legionaries from the simple sturdy country population. Service in Spain was particularly unpopular. The continuous series of local wars and uprisings, bad Roman leadership and heavy losses all meant hardship, possible death and little loot.

    The distinction between the heavy infantry types of hastati, principes and triarii began to blur, perhaps because the state was now assuming the responsibility of providing standard-issue equipment to all but the first class of troops, who alone were able to afford their own equipment. By the time of Polybius, the triarii or their successors still represented a distinct heavy infantry type armed with a unique style of cuirass, but the hastati and principes had become indistinguishable.
    In addition, the shortage of available manpower led to a greater burden being placed upon its allies (socii) for the provision of allied troops. Where accepted allies could not provide the required force types, the Romans were not averse during this period to hiring mercenaries to fight alongside the legions.

    In 152 BC popular pressure in Rome was such that the time-honoured method of enlistment was modified and men were chosen by lot for a period of six years continuous service.
    Another effect was an increased use of allied forces. When Scipio Aemilianus took Numantia in 133 BC Iberian auxiliaries accounted for two-thirds of his force. In the east the critical Battle of Pydna which ended the third Macedonian War was probably won by the allies, who with elephants crushed the left wing of Perseus and enabled the legionaries to split and outflank the Macedonian phalanx.
    The overseas expansion also had a serious effect on the citizens of the upper classes. New opportunities of enrichment and rising corruption saw to it that competent leadership became more and more difficult to find.
    The Gracchi Brothers attempted to halt the decline in the numbers recruitable for the army with land distribution and by extending the franchise to the Italian allies. But as this failed and the two brothers both were killed, the scene was set for the Social War and the arrival of Marius and Sulla.



    Roman Units

    In Rise of the Nations - Prelude to War the Romans have been showed in 4 texture options. they represent 4 roman factions: Senate and people of Rome (SPQR) which remains unplayable and three great roman gens - Julii, Cornelii and Claudii. Our goal was to give You the ability to recreate their rise to power and struggle for the title of Roman Emperor...

    RotN team portrayed following units we considered as most representative for this nation:

    UNIT LIST: REPUBLIC OF ROME

    Roman Infantry:
    1. DONE Accensi
    2. DONE Rorarii
    3. DONE Funditores
    4. DONE Archers
    4. DONE Velites
    6. DONE Hastati
    7. DONE Principes
    8. DONE Triarii

    Roman Cavalry:
    1. DONE Equites Consulares
    2. DONE Equites Legionis
    3. DONE Equites Confederatii


    Roman command

    ROMAN CONSUL
    Roman Republican General

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    A consul served in the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic.
    During the republican period of ancient Rome, the consuls were the highest civil and military magistrates, serving as joint heads of government for the Republic. Each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term. Each consul was given veto power over his colleague and the officials would alternate each month. This political office was not unique to the Roman Republic; in fact, Thucydides (c. 460 B.C. – c. 395 B.C.) narrates, in the History of the Peloponnesian War, about the Caoni, "a people who don't recognize the authority of a king, that was ruled, in accordance of a year lasting office, by Fozio and Nicarone, member of a dominant family" (book II, 80).

    After the legendary expulsion of the last Etruscan King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and the end of the Roman Kingdom, most of the powers and authority of the king were ostensibly given to the newly instituted consulship. Originally, consuls were called praetors ("leader"), referring to their duties as the chief military commanders. In 305 BC the name of the office was changed to consul; in Latin, consulere means "to take counsel". The title of praetor was given to an entirely new office.

    The office of consul was believed by the Romans to date back to the traditional establishment of the Republic in 509 BC but the succession of consuls was not continuous in the 5th century. Consuls had extensive capacities in peacetime (administrative, legislative and judicial), and in wartime often held the highest military command. Additional religious duties included certain rights which, as a sign of their formal importance, could only be carried out by the highest state officials. Consuls also read auguries, an essential step before leading armies into the field.

    Two consuls were elected each year, serving together, each with veto power over the other's actions, a normal principle for magistracies. It is thought that originally only patricians were eligible for the consulship. Consuls were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, which had an aristocratic bias in its voting structure which only increased over the years from its foundation.[citation needed] However, they formally assumed powers only after the ratification of their election in the older Comitia Curiata, which granted the consuls their imperium by enacting a law, the "lex curiata de imperio".

    According to tradition, the consulship was initially reserved for patricians and only in 367 BC did plebeians win the right to stand for this supreme office, when the Lex Licinia Sextia provided that at least one consul each year should be plebeian. The first plebeian consul, Lucius Sextius, was thereby elected the following year. Modern historians have questioned the traditional account of plebeian emancipation during the Early Republic (see Conflict of the Orders), noting for instance that about thirty percent of the consuls prior to Sextius had plebeian, not patrician, names. It is possible that only the chronology has been distorted, but it seems that one of the first consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, came from a plebeian family. Another possible explanation is that during the 5th century social struggles, the office of consul was gradually monopolized by a patrician elite

    During times of war, the primary qualification for consul was military skill and reputation, but at all times the selection was politically charged. With the passage of time, the consulship became the normal endpoint of the cursus honorum, the sequence of offices pursued by the ambitious Roman. When Sulla regulated the cursus by law, the minimum age of election to consul became, in effect, 41 years of age.
    Beginning in the late Republic, after finishing a consular year, a former consul would usually serve a lucrative term as a proconsul, the Roman Governor of one of the (senatorial) provinces. The most commonly chosen province for the proconsulship was Cisalpine Gaul.
    Consul suffectus
    If a consul died during his term (not uncommon when consuls were in the forefront of battle) or was removed from office, another would be elected to serve the remainder of the term as consul suffectus, or suffect consul.

    After the expulsion of the kings and the establishment of the Republic, all the powers that had belonged to the kings were transferred to two offices: that of the consuls and the Rex Sacrorum. While the Rex Sacrorum inherited the kings’ position as high priest of the state, the consuls were given the civil and military responsibilities (imperium). However, to prevent abuse of the kingly power, the imperium was shared by two consuls, each of whom could veto the other’s actions.
    The consuls were invested with the executive power of the state and headed the government of the Republic. Initially, the consuls held vast executive and judicial power. In the gradual development of the Roman legal system, however, some important functions were detached from the consulship and assigned to new officers. Thus, in 443 BC, the responsibility to conduct the census was taken from the consuls and given to the censors. The second function taken from the consulship was their judicial power. Their position as chief judges was transferred to the praetors in 366 BC. After this time, the consul would only serve as judges in extraordinary criminal cases and only when called upon by decree of the Senate.

    For the most part, power was divided between civil and military spheres. As long as the consuls were in the pomerium (the city of Rome), they were at the head of government, and all the other magistrates, with the exception of the tribunes of the plebians, were subordinate to them, but retained independence of office. The internal machinery of the republic was under the consuls’ superintendence. In order to allow the consuls greater authority in executing laws, the consuls had the right of summons and arrest, which was limited only by the right of appeal from their judgment. This power of punishment even extended to inferior magistrates.
    As part of their executive functions, the consuls were responsible for carrying into effect the decrees of the Senate and the laws of the assemblies. Sometimes, in great emergencies, they might even act on their own authority and responsibility. The consuls also served as the chief diplomat of the Roman state. Before any foreign ambassadors reached the Senate, they met with the consuls. The consul would introduce ambassadors to the Senate, and they alone carried on the negotiations between the Senate and foreign states.
    The consuls could convene the Senate, and presided over its meetings. Each consul served as president of the Senate for a month. They could also summon any of the three Roman assemblies (Curiate, Centuriate, and Tribal) and presided over them. Thus, the consuls conducted the elections and put legislative measures to the vote. When neither consul was within the city, their civic duties were assumed by the praetor urbanus.
    Each consul was accompanied in every public appearance by twelve lictors, who displayed the magnificence of the office and served as his bodyguards. Each lictor held a fasces, a bundle of rods that contained an axe. The rods symbolized the power of scourging, and the axe the power of capital punishment. When inside the pomerium, the lictors removed the axes from the fasces to show that a citizen could not be executed without a trial. Upon entering the Comitia Centuriata, the lictors would lower the fasces to show that the powers of the consuls derive from the people (populus romanus).

    Outside the walls of Rome, the powers of the consuls were far more extensive in their role as commanders-in-chief of all Roman legions. It was in this function that the consuls were vested with full imperium. When legions were ordered by a decree of the Senate, the consuls conducted the levy in the Campus Martius. Upon entering the army, all soldiers had to take their oath of allegiance to the consuls. The consuls also oversaw the gathering of troops provided by Rome’s allies.
    Within the city a consul could punish and arrest a citizen, but had no power to inflict capital punishment. When on campaign, however, a consul could inflict any punishment he saw fit on any soldier, officer, citizen or ally.

    Each consul commanded an army, usually two legions strong, with the help of military tribunes and a quaestor who had financial duties. In the rare case that both consuls marched together, each one held the command for a day respectively. A typical consular army was about 20.000 men strong and consisted of two citizen and two allied legions. In the early years of the republic, Rome's enemies were located in central Italy, so campaigns lasted a few months. As Rome's frontiers expanded, in the 2nd century BC, the campaigns became lengthier. Rome was a warlike society, and very seldom did not wage war. So the consul upon entering office was expected by the Senate and the People to march his army against Rome's enemies, and expand the Roman frontiers. His soldiers expected to return to their homes after the campaign with spoils. If the consul won an overwhelming victory, he was hailed as imperator by his troops, and could request to be granted a triumph.
    The consul could conduct the campaign as he saw fit, and had unlimited powers. However, after the campaign, he could be prosecuted for his misdeeds (for example for abusing the provinces, or wasting public money, as Scipio Africanus was accused by Cato in 205 BC).

    Equipment:

    The legate and his staff officers were distinguished by their fine cloaks, dyed according to rank. They had their own, individual armour and uniform which was suited to their personal tastes.
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    MILITARY TRIBUNE
    Roman Republican Commander

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 10 elected officials in the Roman Republic. Tribunes had the power to convene the Plebeian Council and to act as its president, which also gave them the right to propose legislation before it. Also, the tribune could summon the Senate and lay proposals before it. The tribune's power, however, was only in effect while he was within Rome. His ability to veto did not affect provincial governors, and his right to sacrosanctity and to help only extended to a mile outside the walls of Rome. In about 450 BC the number of tribunes was raised to ten.
    Each year the Tribal Assembly elected 24 young men in their late twenties with senatorial ambitions to serve as Tribunes of the Soldiers (tribunes militium). These 24 were distributed six to each of the consuls' four legions as the legions' commanding officers.

    All middle-ranking officers of the legions were also titled tribunes, though they were unelected and junior to the tribunum militi.

    Equipment:

    The legate and his staff officers were distinguished by their fine cloaks, dyed according to rank. They had their own, individual armour and uniform which was suited to their personal tastes.
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    Roman Officers

    CENTURION
    Roman Infantry Officer

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    A centurion (Latin: centurio; Greek: κεντυρίων), also hecatontarch in Greek sources (Greek: ἑκατόνταρχος or, in Byzantine times, κένταρχος) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC. Most centurions commanded 83 men despite the commonly assumed 100, but senior centurions commanded cohorts, or took senior staff roles in their legion.
    Centuries, or Centuriae, means tribe or company. Theoretically, this word traces its roots to centum which is latin for one-hundred, but that connection is widely disputed or disregarded.
    In the Roman infantry, centurions initially commanded a centuria or "century", which means company or tribe. Centuries, or Centuriae, developed from the Roman Tribal system under the Servian reforms and could contain anywhere from 80 to 100 men. This became 100, at full strength, under the Marian reforms.
    Centurions often suffered heavy casualties in battle, generally fighting alongside the legionaries they commanded. They usually led from the front, occupying a position at the front right of the century formation. They led and inspired their men by example. They also sought to display the skill and courage that may have gotten them to their rank in the first place. It is for these reasons that they often suffered a disproportionate number of casualties.
    Being held personally responsible for the training and discipline of the legionaries under their command, centurions had a well deserved reputation for dealing out harsh punishment. In The Annals, Tacitus tells the story of one known as 'Cedo Alteram' - which roughly translates to, 'Gimme Another': "The mutinous soldiers thrust out the tribunes and the camp-prefect; they plundered the baggage of the fugitives, and then killed a centurion, Lucilius, to whom, with soldier's humour, they had given the nickname 'Gimme Another', because when he had broken one vine-stick across a soldier's back, he would call in a loud voice for another... and another."

    Each century had a precedence within the cohort. Centurions' seniority within the cohort and legion depended on their century. Centurions begun by leading junior centuries before being promoted to leading more senior ones. Centurions were referred to by the name of their century.
    The precedence during the times of manipular legion commanded sixty men and were organized like this:

    Hastati: Ten junior and Ten senior
    Principes: Ten junior and Ten senior
    Triarii: Five junior and Five senior


    Vegetius about the qualities necessary for the centurion:
    The centurion in the infantry is chosen for his size, strength and dexterity in throwing his missile weapons and for his skill in the use of his sword and shield; in short for his expertness in all the exercises. He is to be vigilant, temperate, active and readier to execute the orders he receives than to talk; Strict in exercising and keeping up proper discipline among his soldiers, in obliging them to appear clean and well-dressed and to have their arms constantly rubbed and bright. (Vegetius. De Re Militari, II, 14 )

    Equipment:

    A centurion's equipment was notably different from that of a legionary. He wore a transverse, side to side, crest along his helmet that would serve as an easily recognized point of reference for the men. The crest was made either of feathers or horsehair and colors could signify various ranks. They would wear either chain or scale armor. It was generally about waist length with a lower edge similar to the muscled cuirass. The armor and helmet could be silver-plated as well. They also wore a cloak, of fine material, which hung from the left shoulder and oftenly a very ornate belt.
    Additionally the wearing of bronze greaves on the shins set them apart from the rank & file. They generally wore their swords on the left and daggers on the right, opposite of the common soldiers. They carried a Vitis, vine staff, in his right hand as a symbol of his rank. It was made of grapevine and about 3 feet long.
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    DECURION
    Roman Cavalry Officer

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    A decurion (Latin: decurio, plural form decuriones) was a Roman cavalry officer in command of a squadron (turma) of cavalrymen in the Roman army.
    During the Roman Republic a "Polybian" legion (ca. 300 - 88 BC) of citizen-levies had a cavalry complement of 300 horse, divided into 10 turmae (squadrons) of 30 men each. Each turma was led by 3 decurions, who were elected by the squadron members themselves. Although decurio literally means "leader of 10 men", it does not appear that a turma was sub-divided into 3 troops of 10 men each. Instead, one decurion would act as squadron commander and the other two as his deputies. All decurions were members of the Roman equestrian order of nobility (as were many of their subordinates).

    Equipment:

    ... ...

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    Standard Bearers and Units Symbols

    The Century, Cohort and allied units of a Roman Legion, carried several different styles of Vexilla (banners), Signums and other types of "Standards" to identify themselves. These various standards were considered as sacred objects representing the spirit and soul of the unit. They were decorated with garlands and sacred oils on special days and occasions. The honor of carrying these "Standards" was entrusted to veteran legionaries who generally were serving their extended enlistments after 20 years of service. In Republican times, several icons such as the Eagle, Wolf, Bear, Boar or Minotaur were carried as the symbols of Republican Legions. Consul Marius established the Eagle or Aquila as the sole symbol of a Roman Legion as part of his "Reforms" of the Roman Military in 106 BC.

    SPEAR BEARER/SIGNIA BEARER (SIGNIFIER)
    Roman Standard Bearer

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Each century had a signifer (thus, there were 59 in a legion) and within each cohort the first centuries signifer would be the senior. He was standard-bearer for the centurial signum, a spear shaft decorated with medallions and topped with an open hand to signify loyalty, which was a rallying point for the soldiers. In addition to carrying the signum, the signifer also assumed responsibility for the financial administration of the unit and functioned as the legionaries' banker. He was paid twice the basic wage.

    Equipment:

    Roman standards were held in awe and fiercely protected. They were symbols of Roman honour. This tall standard served as a rallying point for the men in battle. It is composed of a number of philarae (disks), along with a number of other elements mounted on a pole, topped with a manus (human hand) image.
    The standard bearers wore animal skins over their uniforms. The heads of the animals were carried over the bearers' helmets so that the teeth were actually seen on the forehead. A Lion (leo) pelt is thought to have been generally worn only by the Aqualifer, Signifer or Vexillarius of a legion (legio unit. Bear (ursus) and Wolf (lupus) pelts were frequently worn by the standard bearers of century and cohort units.
    Resto of his equipement was no different than the other legionaries.

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    EAGLE BEARER (AQUILIFIER)
    Roman Eagle Bearer

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    An aquilifer was a senior signifer bearing the eagle standard of a Roman legion. The name derives from the type of standard, aquila meaning "eagle", which was the universal type used since 104 BC; before that time the wolf, boar, bull and horse were also used. The eagle standard was the most important possession of the legion and its loss was a terrible disgrace.
    The Aquila emblem generally had up-raised wings surrounded by a laurel wreath. It was mounted on a narrow trapezoidal base and mounted on a pole that was held aloft.

    The aquilifer's position was accordingly one of enormous prestige, and he was ranked immediately below the centurions and above the optiones, receiving twice the pay of an ordinary legionary.

    Equipment:

    The standard of the first legion was the aquila, or golden eagle - made of silver or bronze and showing the bird with outstretched wings. It was the greatest disgrace if the eagle was captured.
    Unlike other standard bearers (such as signifers), the aquilifer probably did not wear an animal skin and went bareheaded (no contemporary depiction of an aquilifer shows him with a headdress or helmet). He carried a small circular shield called parma that could be strapped on if his hands were already full with the standard and a weapon.

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    CORNICEN/AENEATOR/TUBICEN
    Roman Infantry/Cavalry Musician

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    SPQR/Gens Julia/Gens Claudia/Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Cornicen (Horn blower) worked hand in hand with the signifer drawing the attention of the men to the centurial signum and issuing the audible commands of the officers. He was paid twice the basic wage.
    A horn-player called blew his horn to give signals to tell the soldiers what to do. For example, he might give the signal for soldiers to gather around their standard or to begin a charge.

    The late Roman writer Vegetius, in his work De Re Militari, wrote: The music of the legion consists of trumpets, cornets and buccinae. The trumpet sounds the charge and the retreat. The cornets are used only to regulate the motions of the colors; the trumpets serve when the soldiers are ordered out to any work without the colors; but in time of action, the trumpets and cornets sound together. The classicum, which is a particular sound of the buccina or horn, is appropriated to the commander-in-chief and is used in the presence of the general, or at the execution of a soldier, as a mark of its being done by his authority. The ordinary guards and outposts are always mounted and relieved by the sound of trumpet, which also directs the motions of the soldiers on working parties and on field days. The cornets sound whenever the colors are to be struck or planted. These rules must be punctually observed in all exercises and reviews so that the soldiers may be ready to obey them in action without hesitation according to the general's orders either to charge or halt, to pursue the enemy or to retire. For reason will convince us that what is necessary to be performed in the heat of action should constantly be practiced in the leisure of peace.

    An aeneator (Latin: aēneātor or ahēneātor) refers to a classical Roman professional performer of the buccina, cornu, or lituus. The word comes from Latin aēneus or ahēneus, "brazen", from aes, "copper alloy". Military aeneators were known as cornicines, because they blew cornus (military buccinae). Aeneators who blew buccinae were called buccinators or bucinators.

    The basic cavalry soldier was almost always armed with a shield and stabbing spear, supplemented by a sword. The Romans were never noted for using mounted archers, for example. The appearance of the cavalry soldier would surely have changed over time but the figure below would be a good generalization of the soldier at almost any time in Rome's history. Each Ala had an Aeneator with a curved cavalry horn and an officer and a Vexillarius with a red banner.
    The size of the century varied from time to time in the history of the legion. There were noticeable differences between actual and theoretical legion strength as well. For the purpose of the models I have considered the century to be 80 men: 8 contubernia, 1 centurion, a signifer and an aeneator (either a cornicen or a tubicen). The camp models do not allow room for the aeneatores or signiferi to tent with the centuries, they may have been camped together at the center. Wherever they were camped, they would require one tent for each 8 or 10 soldiers. The number of tents for these units is considered later.

    Equipment:

    The musicians wore animal skins over their uniforms. The heads of the animals were carried over the bearers' helmets so that the teeth were actually seen on the forehead. Rest of his equipment was no different than the other legionaries.
    A buccina (Latin: buccina) or bucina (Latin: būcina), anglicized buccin or bucine, is a brass instrument used in the ancient Roman army similar to the Cornu. An aeneator who blew a buccina was called a "buccinator" or "bucinator" (Latin: buccinātor, būcinātor).
    It was originally designed as a tube measuring some 11 to 12 feet in length, of narrow cylindrical bore, and played by means of a cup-shaped mouthpiece. The tube is bent round upon itself from the mouthpiece to the bell in the shape of a broad C and is strengthened by means of a bar across the curve, which the performer grasps while playing, in order to steady the instrument; the bell curves over his head or shoulder.
    The buccina was used for the announcement of night watches and various other purposes in the camp.
    The instrument is the ancestor of both the trumpet and the trombone. The German word for trombone, Posaune, is linguistically derived from Buccina.
    In the final section of his orchestral work Pines of Rome (The Pines of the Appian Way), Respighi calls for six instruments of different ranges notated as "Buccine" (Italian plural), although he expected them to be played on modern saxhorns or flugelhorns.

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    Roman Camillian Infantry

    ACCENSI
    Roman Leves

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    SPQR/Gens Julia/Gens Claudia/Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Accensi (Singular: accensus) were light infantry in the armies of the early Roman Republic. They were eventually phased out by the time of second Punic war.
    Accensi appear to have evolved from the old fifth class of the army under the Etruscan kings when it was reformed by Marcus Furius Camillus. The fifth class was made up of the poorest soldiers in the legion. They acted as skirmishers, screening their own formations and disrupting the enemy. It is likely that engagements with the Samnites and a crushing defeat at the hands of the Gauls taught the Romans the importance of flexibility and the inadequacy of the phalanx on the rough, hilly ground of central Italy.

    In the early Camillan system of organisation of the 3rd and 4th centuries BC, men were sorted into classes according to wealth, the accensi being the poorest. Accensi were armed with javelins which they used to hurl stones at enemy formations. They fought as skirmishers, wearing only a tunic and sometimes carrying a small round shield. Their role as a kind of supernumerary soldier was to fill the places of those who were killed or disabled by their wounds in battle.

    In this type of legion, the 900 accensi formed 15 maniples, military units of 60 men each, which were in turn part of 15 ordi, larger units made up of a maniple of triarii, a maniple of rorarii and a maniple of accensi. The accensi stood in the last line of the legion, behind the front line of hastati, the second line of principes, the third of triarii and the fourth of rorarii. In a pitched battle, the leves, javelin armed skirmishers who were attached to maniples of hastati, would form up at the front of the legion and harass the enemy with javelin fire and cover the advance of the hastati, spear armed infantry. If the hastati failed to break the enemy, they would fall back and let the principes, heavier and more experienced infantry, take over. If the principes did not break them, they would retire behind the triarii, who would then engage the enemy in turn — hence the expression rem ad Triarios redisse, "it has come to the triarii" — signalling an act of desperation. The equites, cavalrymen, were used as flankers and to pursue routing enemies. The rorarii, the poorer reserve soldiers, and accensi, the least dependable troops armed with slings, would be used in a support role, providing mass and supporting wavering areas of the line.

    By the time of the later Polybian system of the 2nd century BC, accensi had been phased out. Velites, light skirmishers, would now fulfill skirmishing duties and troops that would usually have gone into the accensi would now be excluded from service.

    Equipment:

    They were the poorest men in the legion, and could not afford much equipment. They did not wear armour or carry shields, and their usual position was part of the third battle line. They fought in a loose formation, supporting the heavier troops. Later on they were most probably equipped with slings and perhaps a small shield.

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    RORARII
    Roman Light Reserves

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    SPQR/Gens Julia/Gens Claudia/Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Rorarii were soldiers which formed the final lines, or else provided a reserve thereby, in the ancient pre-Marian Roman army. They may have been used with the triarii in battle near the final stages of fighting, since they are recorded as being located at the rear of the main battle formation.

    They may have been similar in role to the accensi, acting as supernumeraries and filling the places of fallen soldiers as a battle or campaign wore on, or they may have been skirmishers akin to velites. Unfortunately, the evidence is so limited that it is difficult to understand what direct role the rorarii may have had, if any, in fighting. It seems most likely that they were not part of the line in the same way as triarii, principes and hastati were.

    Equipment:

    Since they served as the reserve force of spearmen, they were equipped with spears and various types of shields for protection (clipeus and scuta)

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    FUNDITORES
    Roman Slingers

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    SPQR/Gens Julia/Gens Claudia/Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    The slingers were one of the poorest troops in the roman army. Funditori, are described as being trained to swing their slings once around their heads and release.
    The general function of the skirmishers was to harass the main body of the enemy infantry, not the enemy skirmishers. Since the missiles were being directed against a large compact body of troops the model postulates the use of the missile weapons at their maximum ranges, sacrificing accuracy for distance.
    Estimates of the likely range of the slingers are guesswork. Some authors claim range of 42.6m (140’) but do not give a rationale. This number seems low. To a certain extent the sling might be compared to the Olympic hammer throw, both throw an object from a whirling circle. While modern Olympic hammer throwers can reach over 76m (250’) with a 7.25kg (16 Lb.) hammer; the winning hammer throw in the 1900 games reached only 49.68m (163’). Though the ancient slingers used a much smaller weight they are said to have only twirled the sling once; this would not generate the same velocity as hammer throwers achieve with several rotations. Nevertheless, the range should have been considerably more than 42m (140’). It does not seem unrealistic to assign a range comparable to that of bowfire, 183m (200 yards).
    In favor of a range similar to that of the bow is that, if the bow had a significantly greater range than the sling, then bowfire would have been clearly superior and slingers would not have been utilized. Unless the ranges of the weapons was similar the slingers would have been unable to defend themselves against opposing archers who could have decimated them from a safe distance.

    Equipment:

    Some Funditori may have carried shields, but mostly they are shown without shields. Their supply of missiles is carried in a fold of their garment or leather bags.
    The sling shot was either lead or clay or small stones. The lead shot recovered averages about 4cm (1.75") long and weighs about 113 grams (1/4 pound).

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    ROMAN ARCHERS (SAGITTARII)
    Levy Archers

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    SPQR/Gens Julia/Gens Claudia/Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Archers were a major part of most ancient countries war machines. The Romans didn't use them to the same extent as other ancient civilizations. The Roman sagittarii or archers were either formed out of allies or were trained members of the Legion. Roman archers were skirmishers deployed to soften up the enemy with their arrows. Being drawn from poorer classes, their equipment consisted of little more than a tunic and (rarely) a small wooden buckler.

    Equipment:

    The normal weapon of Roman archers was the composite bow, although Vegetius recommends training recruits "arcubus ligneis", with wooden bows, which may have been made in the northern European longbow tradition. It has been suggested that most Roman composite bows may have been asymmetric, with lower limbs shorter than the upper. Roman archers usually carried about forty arrows in their quivers.

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    ROMAN VELITES
    Roman Skirmishers

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Velites (singular: veles) were a class of infantry in the Polybian legions of the early Roman republic. Velites were light infantry and skirmishers who were armed with a number of light javelins, or hastae velitares, to fling at the enemy, and also carried short thrusting swords, or gladii for use in melee. They rarely wore armour, as they were the youngest and poorest soldiers in the legion and could not afford much equipment. They did carry small wooden shields for protection though, and wore a headdress made from wolf skin to allow officers to differentiate between them and other heavier legionaries.
    Velites were descended from an earlier class of light infantry, leves, dating from the Camillan legion of the 5th century BC, who had a very similar role to the velites. They were also the poorer and younger soldiers in the legion, though the rorarii and accensi classes were considerably poorer and were eventually done away with, having insufficient equipment to be effective soldiers. Leves were likewise armed with a number of javelins, but carried a spear rather than a sword. Like the velites, leves did not have their own units, but were attached to units of hastati.
    Velites were first used at the siege of Capua in 211 BC, and were made up of citizens who would normally be too poor to join the hastati but where called up due a shortage of manpower. They were trained to ride on horseback with the Equites and jump down at a given signal to fling javelins at the enemy. After the siege, they were adopted into the legions as a force of irregular light infantry for ambushing and harassing the enemy with javelins before the battle began in earnest

    In the legion, the velites were attached to each maniple of hastati, principes and triarii. They usually formed up at the front of the legion before battle to harass the enemy with javelin fire and to prevent the enemy doing the same before retiring behind the lines to allow the heavier infantry to attack. In a pitched battle, the velites would form up at the front of the legion and harass the enemy with javelin fire and cover the advance of the hastati, who were armed with swords, and were the first line of attack. If the hastati failed to break the enemy, they would fall back and let the principes, similarly equipped though more experienced infantry, take over. If the principes failed, they would retire behind the triarii, heavily armoured, spear armed legionaries and let them carry on.. They were typically used as a screening force, driving off enemy skirmishers and disrupting enemy formations with javelin fire before retiring behind the lines to allow the heavier armed hastati to attack. They were normally the ones who engaged war elephants and chariots if they were present on the field; their high mobility and ranged weaponry made them much more effective against these enemies than heavy infantry. An early Roman legion contained approximately 1,000 velites. Velites were eventually done away with after the Marian reforms. With the formal military reforms of Gaius Marius in 107 BC, designed to combat a shortage of manpower due to wars against Jugurtha, the different classes of units were done away with entirely. The wealth and age requirements were scrapped. Now soldiers would join as a career, rather than as service to the city, and would all be equipped as medium infantry with the same, state purchased equipment. Auxilliae, local irregular troops would now be used to fulfill other roles such as archery, skirmishing and flanking.

    Equipment:

    Velites were the youngest and usually the poorest soldiers in the legion, and could rarely afford much equipment. They were armed with hastae velitares, light javelins with tips designed to bend on impact to prevent it being thrown back, similar to the heavier pila of other legionaries. As a backup weapons, they also carried gladii, relatively short thrusting swords 74 centimetres (29 inches) in length that were the main weapons of the hastati and principes. They fought in a very loose, staggered formation like most irregular troops and carried small round shields, 90 cm (3 feet) in diameter.

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    HASTATI
    Roman Camillian Legionary/First Line Infantry

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    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Hastati (singular: Hastatus) were a class of infantry in the armies of the early Roman Republic who originally fought as spearmen, and later as swordsmen. They were originally some of the poorest men in the legion, and could afford only modest equipment — light armour and a large shield, in their service as the lighter infantry of the legion. Later, the hastati contained the younger men rather than just the poorer, though most men of their age were relatively poor. Their usual position was the first battle line. They fought in a quincunx formation, supported by light troops. They were eventually done away with after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
    Hastati appear to have been remnants of the old third class of the army under the Etruscan kings when it was reformed by Marcus Furius Camillus. The third class stood in some of the last few ranks of a very large phalanx were equipped in a similar manner to hastati, but more often than not were relegated to providing missile support to the higher classes rather than fighting themselves. It is probable that engagements with the Samnites and a crushing defeat at the hands of the Gallic warlord Brennus, who both used lots of smaller military units rather than a few very large ones, taught the Romans the importance of flexibility and the inadequacy of the phalanx on the rough, hilly ground of central Italy

    By the 4th century BC the military the Romans had inherited from the Etruscans was still in use. Though its efficiency was doubtful, it proved effective against Rome's largely local adversaries. When Gauls invaded Etruria in 390 BC, the inhabitants requested help from Rome. The small contingent Rome sent to repel the Gallic invaders provoked a full scale attack on Rome. The entire Roman army was destroyed at the Battle of the Allia in a crushing defeat that prompted reforms by Marcus Furius Camillus. Under the new system, men were sorted into classes based on wealth; the hastati were the third poorest, with the rorarii being slightly poorer and the principes slightly wealthier. Hastati were armed with short spears, or hastae, up to 1.8 metres (6 ft) long, from which the soldiers acquired their name. They fought in quincunx formation, usually carrying scuta, large rectangular shields, and bronze helmets, often with a number of feathers fixed onto the top to increase stature. They wore light armour, the most common form being small breastplates, called "heart protectors".

    In this type of legion, the 900 hastati formed 15 maniples, military units of 60 men each. Attached to each maniple were about 20 leves, javelin-armed light infantry. The hastati stood in the first battle line, in front of the principes of the second line and the triarii of the third. In a pitched battle, the leves would form up at the front of the legion and harass the enemy with javelin fire to cover the advance of the hastati. If the hastati failed to break the enemy during their engagement, they would fall back and let the heavier principes take over. If the principes could not break them, they would retire behind the triarii spearmen, who would then engage the enemy in turn. The equites, cavalrymen, were used as flankers and to pursue routing enemies. The rorarii and accensi in the final battle line were some of the least dependable troops, and were used in a support role, providing mass and reinforcing wavering areas of the line.

    By the time of the Punic wars of the 3rd century BC, the Camillan system of organisation was found to be inefficient. In a new Polybian system, infantry were sorted into classes according to age and experience rather than wealth, the hastati being the youngest and least experienced.
    The hastati had been increased in number to 1200 per legion, and formed 10 maniples of 120 men each. The rorarii and accensi had been done away with. Leves had been replaced with velites, who had a similar role but were now also attached to principes and triarii. Pitched battles were conducted in a similar fashion; the velites would gather at the front and fling javelins to cover the advance of the hastati. If the hastati failed to break the enemy, they would fall back on the principes, who had also been re-armed with swords. If the principes could not break them, they would retire behind the triarii, who would then engage the enemy.
    This order of battle was almost always followed, the battle of the Great Plains and the battle of Zama being among the few notable exceptions. At the Great Plains, Scipio, the Roman general, formed his men up in the usual manner, but once the hastati had begun to engage the enemy, he used his principes and triarii as a flanking force, routing the opposing Carthaginian troops.
    At Zama, Scipio arranged his men into columns, side by side, with large lanes in between. The opposing Carthaginian elephants were drawn into these lanes where many were killed by velites without inflicting many casualties on the Romans. Once the surviving elephants had been routed, he formed his men into a long line with his triarii and principes in the centre and hastati on the flanks, ready to engage the Carthaginian infantry.

    Equipment:

    Their equipment and role was very similar to the previous system, except they now carried swords, or gladii, instead of spears. Each hastatus also carried 2 pila, heavy javelins that bent on impact to prevent them being removed from the victim or thrown back. They used scutum - oval, semi-cylindrical body shield for protection.
    The Greek writer Polybius described the early scutum in his Histories: "The Roman panoply consists firstly of a shield (scutum), the convex surface of which measures two and a half feet in width and four feet in length, the thickness at the rim being a palm's breadth. It is made of two planks glued together, the outer surface being then covered first with canvas and then with calf-skin. Its upper and lower rims are strengthened by an iron edging which protects it from descending blows and from injury when rested on the ground. It also has an iron boss (umbo) fixed to it which turns aside the most formidable blows of stones, pikes, and heavy missiles in general". They also used bronze pectoral plates for body protection and montefortino helmets of Canosa or Rieti type (was the first to evince inscriptions identifying them clearly as Roman). The Hastati wore tall upright feathers to increase their apparent height and intimidate the opposing army.

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    PRINCIPES
    Roman Camillian Legionary/Second Line Infantry

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Principes (Singular: Princeps) were spearmen, and later swordsmen, in the armies of the early Roman Republic. They were men in the prime of their lives who were fairly wealthy, and could afford decent equipment. They were the heavier infantry of the legion who carried large shields and wore good quality armour. Their usual position was the second battle line. They fought in quincunx formation, supported by light troops. They were eventually done away with after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
    Principes appear to have been remnants of the old second class of the army under the Etruscan kings when it was reformed by Marcus Furius Camillus. The second class stood in some of the first few ranks of a very large phalanx were equipped in a similar manner to principes, and would support the heavier first class in the front ranks. It is probable that engagements with the Samnites and a crushing defeat at the hands of the Gallic warlord Brennus, who both used lots of smaller military units rather than a few very large ones taught the Romans the importance of flexibility and the inadequacy of the phalanx on the rough, hilly ground of central Italy.

    In the early Camillan system of organisation of the 3rd and 4th centuries BC, men were sorted into classes based on wealth, the principes being the wealthiest after the triarii. Principes were armed with short spears, or hastae, up to 1.8 metres (6 ft) long.
    In this type of legion, the 900 principes formed 15 maniples, military units of 60 men each. The principes stood in the second battle line, behind hastati of the first line and in front of the triarii in the third. In a pitched battle, the leves, javelin armed light infantry would form up at the front of the legion and harass the enemy with javelin fire to cover the advance of the hastati, light spearmen. If the hastati failed to break the enemy during their engagement, they would fall back and let the heavier principes take over. If the principes could not break them, they would retire behind the heavy triarii spearmen, who would then engage the enemy in turn. The equites, cavalrymen, were used as flankers and to pursue routing enemies. The rorarii and accensi in the final battle line were some of the least dependable troops, and were used in a support role, providing mass and reinforcing wavering areas of the line.
    By the time of the Punic wars of the 2nd century BC, this form of organisation was found to be inefficient. In a new Polybian system, infantry were sorted into classes according to age and experience rather than wealth, the principes being older veterans with a greater degree of experience.

    The principes had been increased in number to 1200 per legion, and formed 10 maniples of 120 men each. The rorarii and accensi had been done away with. Leves had been replaced with velites, who had a similar role, with forty of them being attached to each maniple in the legion. Pitched battles were conducted in a similar fashion; the velites would gather at the front and fling javelins to cover the advance of the hastati, who had also been re-armed with swords. If the hastati failed to break the enemy, they would fall back on the principes. If the principes could not break them, they would retire behind the triarii who would then engage the enemy.
    This order of battle was almost always followed, the battle of the Great Plains and the battle of Zama being among the few notable exceptions. At the Great Plains, Scipio, the Roman general, formed his men up in the usual manner, but once the hastati had begun to engage the enemy, he used his principes and triarii as a flanking force, routing the opposing Carthaginians. At Zama, Scipio arranged his men into columns, side by side, with large lanes in between. The opposing Carthaginian elephants were drawn into these lanes where many were killed by velites without inflicting many casualties on the Romans. Once the surviving elephants had been routed, he formed his men into a long line with his triarii and principes in the centre and hastati on the flanks, ready to engage the Carthaginian infantry.

    Equipment:

    Their equipment and role was very similar to the previous system, except they now carried swords, or gladii, instead of spears. Each princeps also carried 2 pila, heavy javelins that bent on impact to prevent them being removed from the victim or thrown back.
    They fought in quincunx formation, usually carrying scuta, large rectangular shields, and bronze helmets (montefortino), often with a number of feathers fixed onto the top to increase stature. They wore heavier armour types, the most common form being chainmail, which offered a good degree of protection without hindering movement.

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    TRIARII
    Roman Camillian Legionary/Third Line Infantry

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    Triarii (Singular: Triarius) were one of the elements of the early Roman military Manipular legions of the early Roman Republic (509 BC – 107 BC). They were the oldest and among the wealthiest men in the army, and could afford good quality equipment. They wore heavy metal armour and carried large shields, their usual position being the third battle line. During the Camillan era, they fought in a shallow phalanx formation, supported by light troops. In most battles triarii were not used because the lighter troops usually defeated the enemy before the triarii were committed to the battle. They were eventually phased out after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.

    Triarii may have evolved from the old first class of the army under the Etruscan kings. The first class comprised the richest soldiers in the legion who were equipped with spears, breastplates and large shields, like heavy Greek hoplites. They served as heavy infantry in the early Roman army, and were used at the front of a very large phalanx formation. After a time, engagements with the Samnites and Gauls appear to have taught the Romans the importance of flexibility and the inadequacy of the phalanx on the rough, hilly ground of central Italy.

    By the 4th century BC, the military formations the Romans had inherited from the Etruscans were still in use. Though their efficiency was doubtful, they proved effective against Rome's largely local adversaries. When Gauls invaded Etruria in 390 BC, the inhabitants requested help from Rome. The small contingent Rome sent to repel the Gallic invaders provoked a full-scale attack on Rome. The entire Roman army was destroyed at the Battle of the Allia. This crushing defeat prompted reforms by Marcus Furius Camillus. Under the new system, men were sorted into classes according to wealth, the triarii being the richest after the mounted equites.

    In this type of new Roman legion, the 900 triarii formed 15 maniples, military units of 60 men each, which were in turn part of 15 ordines, larger units made up of a maniple of triarii, a maniple of rorarii and a maniple of accensi.
    The triarii stood in the third line of the legion, behind the front line of hastati and the second line of principes, and in front of the rorarii and accensi. In a pitched battle, the leves, javelin-armed skirmishers who were attached to maniples of hastati, would form up at the front of the legion and harass the enemy with javelin fire and cover the advance of the hastati, spear armed infantry. If the hastati failed to break the enemy, they would fall back and let the principes, heavier and more experienced infantry, take over. If the principes did not break them, they would retire behind the triarii, who would then engage the enemy in turn—hence the expression rem ad Triarios redisse, "it has come to the triarii"—signalling an act of desperation. The equites, cavalrymen, were used as flankers and to pursue routing enemies. The rorarii, the poorer reserve soldiers, and accensi, the least dependable troops armed with slings, would be used in a support role, providing mass and supporting wavering areas of the line.

    By the time of the second Punic war of the late 3rd century BC, this system proved inefficient against enemies such as Carthage. After a series of more "organic" changes as opposed to a single intentional reform, a new system gradually came into being. Infantry were sorted into classes according to age and experience rather than wealth, the triarii being the most experienced. Their equipment and role was very similar to the previous system, except they now carried scuta, large rectangular shields that offered a greater degree of protection than the old round clipeus.
    The number of triarii had been reduced to 600 per legion, now forming 10 maniples of 60 men each. The triarii still made up the third line in the legion, behind the front line of hastati and the second line of principes, but the rorarii and accensi had been phased out. Leves had been replaced with velites, who had a similar role but were also attached to principes and triarii. Pitched battles were conducted in a similar fashion: the velites would gather at the front and fling javelins to cover the advance of the hastati. If the hastati failed to break the enemy, they would fall back on the principes, who now carried swords rather than spears. If the principes could not break them they would retire behind the triarii, who would then engage the enemy.

    This order of battle was almost always followed, the battle of the Great Plains and the battle of Zama being among the few notable exceptions. At the Great Plains, Scipio, the Roman general, formed his men up in the usual manner, but once the hastati had begun to engage the enemy, he used his principes and triarii as a flanking force, routing the opposing Carthaginians. At Zama, Scipio arranged his men into columns, side by side, with large lanes in between. The opposing Carthaginian elephants were drawn into these lanes where many were killed by velites without inflicting many casualties on the Romans. Once the surviving elephants had been routed, he formed his men into a long line with his triarii and principes in the centre and hastati on the flanks, ready to engage the Carthaginian infantry.

    Equipment:

    Triarii were armed with spears, or hastae, about 2 metres (6½ feet) long. They also carried swords, or gladii, about 74 centimetres (29 inches) long, in case the spear broke or the enemy drew too close. They fought as hoplites, carrying clipei, large round Greek shields or more oftenly oval shield called the Scutum , and bronze helmets, often with a number of feathers fixed onto the top to increase stature. Heavy plate armour was favoured, with mail also being popular. Many would paint or engrave portraits of ancestors onto their shield, believing that it would bring them luck in battle. Bronze grieves were widely used by the triarii.

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    PEDITES EXTRAORDINARIA
    Roman Allies Picked Men/Heavy Infantry

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    Origin:

    Itali Socii Extraordinarii Pedites is an unique body of men recruited by the Roman Republic only from the very best of Rome,s Italian Allies. They were picked by the roman consuls inside the whole allied army and under their direct command. They were given a special place in both the camps and the ranks, close to the Roman Consuls. Leaving camp the Extraordinaria would be in the vanguard of the march and would always hold a special position in the order of battle. They numbered about the same as a Roman Legion, Armed and equipped with pilum,and sword these heavy infantry were the trouble shooters of the Republic,s armies, and were possibly the forerunners of the later Pratorian Guard.
    They were heavily armed but agile, highly skilled, and much more capable than lighter scouts in close battle. The Marius Antesignani (also a picked men force) replaced them in time.

    Equipment:

    They were recruited amongst hoplitic early units equipped with two javelins instead of the usual hasta spear. They wore bronze cuirasses and decorative helmets, mostly chalcidian or apulo-corinthian ones, with crests and feathers on them. They were trained swordsmen, very dangerous in close quarters.

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    Roman Camillian Cavalry

    EQUITES CONSULARES
    Roman General Mounted Bodyguards

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    General's bodyguards were first mentoned in the legends of the foundation of Rome. They were known as Celeres and they were a personal armed guard of 300-500 men maintained by Romulus, the mythical founder of ancient Rome. The Celeres were associated with Celer, the lieutenant of Romulus responsible for Remus' slaying in some stories. Livy mentions that they served in peacetime and in war, unlike the short terms of service in most ancient armies (including Rome's). It is unknown whether they were infantry or cavalry; Dionysius claims the former, while Livy and other sources argue that the Celeres were a cavalry unit. The latter seems more plausible given that celeres means literally "the swift".
    They were an elite recruitment of Roman citizens. It was a habit of many Roman generals to choose from the ranks a private force of soldiers to act as guards of the tent or the person. They consisted of both infantry and cavalry. In time, this unit came to be known as the cohors praetoria, and various notable figures possessed one, including Julius Caesar, Mark Antony and Augustus (Octavian).

    Equipment:

    They wore the best equipment they could afford. Most of them wore lorica Musculata (muscle curiass) reinforced by pteruges worn under armor. Their weaponry was very similar to the Legionary Equites, but their shields and helmets were far more decorative.

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    EQUITES ROMANI
    Roman Cavalry

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    SPQR

    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    It appears that, during the Roman kingdom and the first century of the Republic, legionary cavalry was recruited exclusively from the ranks of the patricians, who were expected to provide 6 centuriae of cavalry (300 horses for each consular legion). At some stage in the regal era, patrician cavalry recruits were granted the right to a horse at public expense (equus publicus). Until ca. 400 BC, therefore, equites were synonymous with patricii. At some stage, however, most likely around 400 BC, 12 more centuriae of cavalry were established, probably because the patrician class was no longer numerous enough to fulfil the levy requirement. These 12 also admitted non-patricians (plebeians), most likely on the basis of a wealth requirement whose level is uncertain. They shared the patricians' right to an equus publicus. At this point, the order of equites was no longer limited to patricians, although the latter remained a distinct elite with special privileges and, probably, their own centuriae (the original 6 regal ones).

    Around 300 BC the Samnite Wars obliged Rome to double the normal annual military levy from 2 to 4 legions, and thus also double the cavalry levy to 1,200 horse. It is probably at this time that the legionary cavalry started to recruit wealthier citizens from outside the 18 centuriae, as the latter were no longer numerous enough to fulfil the levy requirement. However, these new recruits (from the First Class of commoners in the centuriate organisation) were never admitted to the 18 centuriae of equo publico knights nor granted the latters' privileges. At this point, therefore, equites (knights) were no longer fully synonymous with equites (cavalry). Eventually, by the time of the Second Punic War (218-01 BC), all the members of the First Class of commoners were required to serve as cavalrymen. The presence of the equites in the Roman cavalry diminished steadily in the period 200-88 BC. This is because only equites could serve as the army's senior officers, and as the number of legions proliferated, there were ever fewer available for cavalry service. After ca. 88 BC, equites were no longer drafted into the legionary cavalry, although they remained technically liable to such service throughout the Principate era (to AD 284). Equites continued to supply the senior officers of the army throughout the Principate.

    Equipment:

    Pictorial evidence for the equipment of Republican cavalry is scant and leaves several uncertainties. The earliest extant representations of Roman cavalrymen are found on a few coins dated to the era of the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). In one, the rider wears a variant of a Corinthian helmet and appears to wear greaves on the legs. His body armour is obscured by his small round shield (parma equestris). It was probably a bronze breastplate, as a coin of 197 BC shows a Roman cavalryman in Hellenistic composite cuirass and helmet. But the Roman cavalry may already have adopted chain mail armour (lorica hamata) from the Celts, who are known to have been using it as early as ca. 300 BC. Mail had certainly been adopted by ca. 150 BC, as Polybius states that the First Class were expected to provide themselves with chain mail cuirasses, and the monument erected at Delphi by L. Aemilius Paullus to commemorate his victory at the battle of Pydna (168 BC) depicts Roman cavalrymen in mail. However, a coin of 136 BC and the Lacus Curtius bas-relief of the same period show knights in composite bronze cuirasses.

    There is similar uncertainty as to whether cavalryman carried shields (not generally used by Greek cavalry until after ca. 250 BC) and the related question of whether they carried long lances (which normally precluded shields, as they would often be held double-handed) or shorter spears, the doru mentioned by Polybius. Most representations show cavalrymen with the small parma equestris type of shield, but the Ahenobarbus monument of 122 BC and the coin of 136 BC shows cavalrymen without shields. Sidnell suggests that, since equites were expected to provide their own equipment, they may have chosen their own type and combination of armour and weapons e.g. long lance with no shield or short spear with shield. But the evidence is too scant to draw any firm conclusions.

    Although there is no pictorial evidence, it is certain from literary accounts that equites carried swords, most likely the same gladii hispanienses (Spanish swords) used by the infantry. The Ahenobarbus monument also shows a cavalrman with a dagger (pugio). There is no evidence that equites carried bows and arrows and the Romans probably had no mounted archers before they came into contact with Parthian forces after 100 BC.

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    EQUITES ALARII (SOCIORUM)
    Italic Allies Cavalry

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    Gens Julia

    Gens Claudia

    Gens Cornelia

    Origin:

    The mainstay of the Roman republic's war machine was the manipular legion, a heavy infantry unit suitable for close-quarter engagements on more or less any terrain, which was probably adopted sometime during the Samnite Wars (343–290 BC). Despite its formidable strength, the legion had a number of deficiencies, especially a lack of cavalry. Around 200 BC, a legion of 4,200 infantry had a cavalry arm of only 300 horse (just 7% of the total force). This was because the class of citizens who could afford to pay for their own horse and equipment – the equestrian order, the second rank in Roman society, after the senatorial order – was relatively small. In addition the legion lacked missile forces such as slingers and archers. Until 200 BC, the bulk of a Roman army's cavalry was provided by Rome's regular Italian allies (socii), commonly known as the "Latin" allies, which made up the Roman military confederation. This was Rome's defence system until the Social War of 91–88 BC. The Italian forces were organised into alae (literally: "wings", because they were generally posted on the flanks of the Roman line of battle). An allied ala, commanded by 3 Roman praefecti sociorum, was similar or slightly larger in infantry size (4–5,000 men) to a legion, but contained a more substantial cavalry contingent: 900 horse, three times the legionary contingent. Since a pre-Social War consular army always contained an equal number of legions and alae, 75% of its cavalry was provided by the Latin allies. The overall cavalry element, ca. 12% of the total force (2,400 out of a normal consular army of ca. 20,000 total effectives), was greater than in most peninsular Italian forces, but well below the overall 21% cavalry component that was typical of the Principate army (80,000 cavalry out of 380,000 total effectives in early the 2nd century).

    Equipment:

    Latin allies armed themselves similar to the roman equites. They wore bronze breastplates or Lorica Hamata, round shield and bronze helmet (more decorative than the infantry). They used spears and swords in combat most likely of the greek origin.

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    hamsha, haeressiarch: roman army units list, units descriptions, research.
    haeressiarch: units designs, models, textures, units descriptions.
    hamsha: units designs advices, textures, units descriptions advices, research.
    magpie: advices, support.
    Credits: Wikipedia
    Last edited by hæressiarch; February 22, 2011 at 02:19 AM. Reason: updates under hamshas' directions
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  5. #5

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME (EARLY)



    ROMAN ALLIES

    In one respect roman republic differed significantly from the early-modern states, since the latter were sovergin in a well defined and clearly delimited territory. Roman authorities claimed sovereignty not only within their own political community, but also outside roman territory (Ager Romanus). In other words, Ager Romanus was not identical with the roman state. In at least one important respect, the state comprised also the communities of the latins and other allies. Moreover, modern states are perceived as territories, while ancient states were predominantly communities of citizens.
    Rome Claimed sovereignty over other states in the sense that, from the late fourth century BC onwards, citizens of various communities served in her army. Half of them were the citizens (Cives) of rome itself. These citizens either lived in the city of Rome or in towns of roman citizen status within the Ager Romanus. The other soldiers either were citizens of communities that shared a common Latin status (nomen Latinum) or of communities that each had made a unilateral treaty with Rome (Socii). In the third century BC, consular armies consisted normally of two legions of roman citizens and two units of similar size that were manned by Latins and other allies. Italy was perceived as a perpetual military alliance under Roman Hegemony. The Italic Allies were therefore clearly distinguished from the non-italic troops, such as Cretean Archers or Numidian Horsemen. Rome was clearly Sovereign, since the latin and allied communities only contributed troops to the roman army and never fielded armies independently. In other words, the Latin and allied states had lost sovereignty over their troops. In all other respects, though, the Latin and allied communities functioned as independent communities, but that largely holds true for the towns of Roman citizens as well. Two things are noteworthy. First, since sovereignty in the roman republic was a multi-layered affair, the roman state of the republic had no clearly defined territory. Second, this complex structure has its origin in war.

    The alliance had its origin in the foedus Cassianum ("Treaty of Cassius", 493 BC) signed by the fledgling Roman republic with its neighbouring Latin city-states shortly after the overthrow of the Roman monarchy in 510 BC. This provided for mutual defence by the two parties on the basis of an equal contribution to the annual military levy, which was probably under Roman overall command. The terms of the treaty were probably more acceptable to the Latins than the previous type of Roman hegemony, that of the Tarquin kings, as the latter had probably required the payment of tribute and not a simple military obligation.
    The Roman military alliance had fully evolved by 264 BC and remained for 200 years the basis of Roman military organisation. From 338 BC to 88 BC, Roman legions were invariably accompanied on campaign by an equal number of somewhat larger allied units called alae (literally: "wings", as allied troops would always be posted on the flanks of the Roman battle-line, with the Roman legions holding the centre). 75% of a normal consular army's cavalry was supplied by the Italian socii. Although the socii provided around half the levies raised by Rome in any given year, they had no say in how those troops were used. Foreign policy and war were matters exclusively in the hands of the Roman Consuls and the Roman Senate. The latter, in turn, was a narrow, self-perpetuating 300-strong clique of wealthy men who monopolised power in the Roman republic, despite the theoretical sovereignty of the Roman people.
    Despite the loss of independence and heavy military obligations, the system provided substantial benefits for the socii. Most importantly, they were freed from the constant threat of aggression from their neighbours that had existed in the anarchic centuries prior to the imposition of the pax Romana. In addition, the Roman alliance protected the Italian peninsula from external invasion, such as the periodic and devastating incursions of Gauls from the Po Valley. Although no longer in control of war and foreign policy, each socius remained otherwise fully autonomous, with its own laws, system of government, coinage and language. Moreover, the military burden was only half that shouldered by Roman citizens, as the latter numbered only about half the population of the socii, but provided around half the total levies. Despite this, allied troops were allowed to share war booty on a 50-50 basis with Romans.

    Despite these benefits, many socii rebelled against the alliance whenever the opportunity arose. The best opportunities were provided by the invasions of Italy by the Greek king Pyrrhus in 281-75 BC and by the Carthaginian general Hannibal in 218-03 BC. During these, many socii joined the invaders, mostly Oscan-speakers of southern Italy, most prominently the Samnite tribes, who were Rome's most implacable enemy. At the same time, however, many socii remained loyal, motivated primarily by antagonisms with neighbouring rebels. Even after Rome's disaster at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC), over half the socii (by population) did not defect and Rome's military alliance was ultimately victorious.

    Allied and Mercanary Infantry:

    1. DONE Italic Skirmishers
    2. DONE Etruscan Hoplite
    3. DONE Ligurian Warriors
    4. DONE Lucanian Infantry
    5. DONE Celtiberian Heavy Infantry
    6. DONE Massilian Hoplites
    7. DONE Umbrian Warriors
    8. DONE Hellenic Peltasts
    9. DONE Samnite Spearmen
    10. DONE Gaulic Spearmen
    11. DONE Gaulic Swordsmen
    12. DONE Cretean Archers

    [SIZE=1]13. DONE

    Allied and Mercanary Cavalry:

    1. DONESamnite Cavalry
    2. DONE Tarentine Cavalry
    3. DONE Numidian Cavalry
    4. DONE Campanian Cavalry
    4. DONE Gaulic Cavalry




    Roman Allied and Mercenary Infantry

    ITALIC SKIRMISHERS
    Italic Socii Light Infantry

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    Origin:

    The citizen troops serving in the legions were supplemented by troops drawn from allied and conquered communities, the socii. Another term in general use for the socii was auxilia, supporting troops, or cohortes alariae. These forces were divided in several types but the most important were the Italic socii or allies. Among these the socii nominis Latinis, the allies of the Latin league, were the most prominent. Generally the majority of these Italic allies were staunchly loyal to the Roman cause. Even after the series of disastrous defeats inflicted by Hannibal only a minority of Italic communities defected to the enemy. The Italic socii were occasionally rewarded for their services by the granting of Latin rights or Roman citizenship. The increasing rarity of these grants in the second century BC was one of the main causes of the Social War fought between Rome and her Italic allies.
    The Italic allies were organised in alae sociorum, one of which was attached to each Roman legion. The name of ala or wing was derived from their usual position on the flanks of the citizen troops. As with the legions the establishment strength of these units was variable and adjusted to the requirements of the envisaged campaigns. Few allied communities were large enough to supply a full sized ala sociorum and therefore these units were usually composed of a number of contingents supplied by various allies.
    The exact structure of the allied alae is somewhat unclear. However most modern authorities assume that the units of the socii were generally similar in composition to the citizen troops with a mix of both light and heavy infantrymen and cavalrymen drawn from the same community. However some passages in the sources mention allied contingents consisting solely of skirmishers. This may indicate that there was no generalised pattern and the type as well as number of forces supplied varied for each ally.

    Equipment:

    Bearing the Negau-pylos like helmet, these italic skirmisher was a a rather common style of light infantry. Their weapons were javelins and a kopis sword, which was quite popular amongst the southern italic allies of Rome. It was also a current feature to bear a bronze belt, made of several bronze plaques on a thick leather strap, as an abdominal extra protection. They wore short tunics the basic colour of which is usually red or white but could also be red-brown, ochre, light grey or blue-grey. The tunics were decorated along the hems, sleeves, neck and across the shoulders. The colours used for this were as for the tunic base colour plus black, yellow and blue. Bronze helmets and belts were worn, the helmets having crests and feathers. The richer warriors would have a bronze plate protecting their chest. This could be round, square, square with fake muscles or made of three discs arranged in a triangle. A variety of shields were used ranging from large round Hoplite style ones, smaller round ones, oval ones and asymetrical scutum.

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    ITALIC SPEARMEN
    Italic Socii Heavy Infantry

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    Origin:

    As Rome expanded its control in Italy, those who lived in communities with Latin Rights (a status originally granted the cities of Latium) or in municipia (autonomous communities) governed their own local affairs while enjoying most rights of Roman citizenship except the right to vote. Also, Latin allies who moved to Rome permanently gained full citizenship, including the franchise. The socii (allies), bound to Rome by treaty, ordinarily did not then have the rights of Roman citizens, yet they were bound to do military service and to pay taxes or tribute, depending on the treaty’s terms. Unhappy with their increasingly inferior status, the socii revolted; the ensuing conflict was called the Social War (90–88 bc), at the close of which full citizenship was conferred on all of Italy south of the Po River.

    Equipment:

    The armour is typical of the italic warriors living in the Apennines area. The Oscan-Sabellas language as well as the Sannitic language were common to these populations that historically had to withstand the Roman expansion between the VI and the III century BC. The chest is protected by the kardiophylax (literally hart protector) a bronze disc (front and back) often showing an episema which is the mythogical representation of a doubled protome animal. This kind of equipment survived long time after roman wars for domination in the italic peninsula. Shortly after the Punic Wars and roman repressions over her unfaithful allies there was only one force in italy - Roman Legion with it's own panoply. Italic warriors oftenly used spear (hasta) and cross hilted sword, which has the shape of a lengthened willow leaf. An extra weapon could sometime be the straight axe slipped through the belt.

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    ETRUSCAN HOPLITE
    Etruscan Heavy Spearmen

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    Origin:

    The Etruscans adopted the hoplite warfare when it was all the rage and favoured this peculiar Greek way of fighting for a long time. They even exported it to the early Romans, who were indeed delighted to beat the Etruscans at their own hoplite game.
    Etruscans were accustomed to using a census - resulting in the introduction of the census to Rome by one of its Etruscan kings, Servius Tullius. The Etruscan census determined recruitment of cavalry, hoplites (heavy infantry) and light infantry, as each was drawn from the appropriate class of wealth. Each city-state produced its own army, and the states very rarely fought together as one.
    Etruscan lands and colonies included those areas rich in ferrous metal mines, and as a result they could produce iron weapons, giving them a distinct advantage over their enemies.
    As with most armies, the infantry was the key element of Etruscan forces, and the hoplites fought using the phalanx formation - a dense line of soldiers armed with spears and round shields, overlapping one another. As hoplites supplied their own arms, and there was no state uniformity, the phalanx may have contained many differently armed hoplites. However, its strength (and sometimes its weakness) lay in its cohesion as one unit.

    It is ironic that the methods by which the Etruscans were eventually subjugated by Roman military force were heavily influenced by the Etruscans in the first place. The Roman fighting techniques, their armour and their arms were all adopted and adapted from the Etruscans (who in turn had adapted them from the Greeks), and the Etruscan period of rule in Rome was a vital part of the development of the Roman army as the most effective fighting force in the world.

    Equipment:

    The traditional Image of the Etruscan hoplite shows much evidence of Greek influence. Examples of muscled cuirasses survive, although not all cuirasses would have been muscled. Cuirasses were often bronze, or fabric with metal studs for strength. They had shoulder flaps and often short skirts of armour. Etruscan helmets were usually bronze, and varied in shape, some with high crests, and others with round heads and nose guards. There were protective flaps to cover the cheeks, which could be raised on some helmets. Hoplites wore bronze greaves, and carried a shield made from wood, bronze or leather. The most common image of the Etruscan shield shows it as being round, though rectangular shields were also used.
    Swords were fairly rare, and highly prized, and the most common Etruscan weapons were the spear and battle axe (which was used for throwing as well as for striking). Etruscans were also skilled archers, and many bows and spears have been found in Etruscan tombs. Etruscans also used daggers and short blades for fighting.

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    LIGURIAN WARRIORS
    Celto-Ligurian Infantry (Tribes Loyal to Rome)

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    Origin:

    The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria, which once stretched from Northern Italy into southern Gaul. According to Plutarch they called themselves Ambrones which means ¨people of the water¨. The Ligures inhabited what now corresponds to Liguria, northern Tuscany, and parts of Piedmont, Emilia-Romagna, Lombardy, Switzerland, Austria, Bavaria, and southern France. They were hardy warriors valued by Celts, Romans and Carthaginians for their fighting skills.

    Classical references and toponomastics suggest that the Ligurian sphere once extended further into central Italy (Taurisci): according to Hesiod's Catalogues (early 6th century BC) they were one of the three main "barbarian" peoples ruling over the Western border of the known world (the others being Aethiopians and Scythians). Avienus, in a translation of a voyage account probably from Marseille (4th century BC) speaks of the Ligurian hegemony extending up to the North Sea, before they were pushed back by the Celts. Ligurian toponyms have been found in Sicily, the Rhône valley, Corsica and Sardinia.
    It is not known for certain whether they were a pre-Indo-European people akin to Iberians; a separate Indo-European branch with Italic and Celtic affinities; or even a branch of the Celts or Italics. Kinship between the Ligures and Lepontii has also been proposed. Another theory traces their origin to Baetica (modern Andalusia) and southern Lusitania (modern Algarve and Alentejo).

    During the seventh century B.C. the Ligurians entered into cultural contact and exchange with the Etruscans and later with the Greeks in Marseille. In practice, all Ligurians – both those from the coast and those from inland, although there were some differences – were involved in the network of trade in the Mediterranean and between the Mediterranean area and central Europe which was the most outstanding characteristic of the first Iron Age in Europe.
    Finally the Ligures were assimilated by the Romans, and before that by the Gauls, producing a Celto-Ligurian culture.

    Equipment:

    Their armors and weapons were various of types, but they were always decorative. Warriors never avoided personal ornaments – amber and glass necklaces, brooches, bracelets, golden and silver ear-rings. They adopted celtic weapons, but their clothing was of non celtic origin. They wore long sleeved tunics with a broad leather belt and a cloak. These were probably fairly plain for the ordinary warriors but more varied for the richer ones. Their shields were Gallic style but chopped of at the top and bottom. Archaic conical helmets may have been worn.

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    LUCANIAN INFANTRY
    Lucanian Allied Infantry/Swordsmen

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    Origin:

    The Lucani (Lucanians) were an ancient people of Italy who spoke an Oscan language, a member of the Italic languages. According to an unconfirmed theory, their name would derive from the Greek λυκος ("wolf"), referring to the use of the Sabellic people of a totemic animal as a guide during their migrations. According to other scholars, the name would stem from the Latin locus ("sacred wood").
    Strabo reported that they had a democratic constitution, save in time of war, when a dictator was chosen from among the regular magistrates.
    According to Pliny the Elder, the names of their tribe were Atinati, Bantini, Eburini, Grumentini, Numestrani, Potentini, Sontini, Sirini, Tergilani, Ursentini, Volcentani.
    The Lucani spoke a variety of the Umbrian-Oscan language, like their neighbours, the Samnites, who had absorbed the Oscii in the 5th century BC. The few Oscan inscriptions and coins in the area that survive from the 4th or 3rd century BC use the Greek alphabet.

    Around the middle of the fifth century BC, the Lucani moved south into Oenotria, driving the indigenous tribes, known to the Greeks as Oenotrians, Chones, and Lauternoi, into the mountainous interior.

    The Lucanians were engaged in hostilities with the Greek colony of Taras/Tarentum, and with Alexander, king of Epirus, who was called in by the Tarentine people to their assistance, in 326 BC, thus providing a precedent for Epirote interference in the affairs of Magna Graecia.

    In 298, Livy records, they made alliance with Rome, and Roman influence was extended by the colonies of Venusia (291), Paestum (Greek Posidonia, refounded in 273), and above all Roman Tarentum (refounded in 272). Subsequently, however, the Lucanians suffered by choosing the losing side in the various wars on the peninsula in which Rome took part. They were sometimes in alliance with Rome, but more frequently engaged in hostilities, during the Samnite wars. When Pyrrhus of Epirus landed in Italy in 281, they were among the first to declare in his favor, and after his abrupt departure they were reduced to subjection, in a ten year campaign (272). Enmity continued to run deep; they espoused the cause of Hannibal during the Second Punic War (216), and Lucania was ravaged by both armies during several campaigns. The country never recovered from these disasters, and under the Roman government fell into decay, to which the Social War, in which the Lucanians took part with the Samnites against Rome (90 - 88 BC), gave the finishing stroke. In the time of Strabo the Greek cities on the coast had fallen into insignificance, and owing to the decrease of population and cultivation malaria began to obtain the upper hand. The few towns of the interior were of no importance. A large part of the province was given up to pasture, and the mountains were covered with forests, which abounded in wild boars, bears and wolves.

    Equipment:

    The coastal people had adopted more Greek equipment, and therefore the Lucani and Campani generaly look similar to Samnite and Brutti.

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    MASSILIAN HOPLITES
    Hellenistic Hoplites of Massalia/Hellenistic Heavy Infantry

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    Origin:

    Humans have inhabited Marseille and its environs for almost 30,000 years: palaeolithic cave paintings in the underwater Cosquer cave near the calanque of Morgiou date back to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC; and very recent excavations near the railway station have unearthed neolithic brick habitations from around 6,000 BC.

    The founding of Massalia (from Greek: Μασσαλία - modern day Marseille) was settled by the Phoacaeans around 600 BC. In its infancy Massalia’s economic basis was primarily focused on trade.
    The precise circumstances and date of founding remain obscure, but nevertheless a legend survives. Protis, while exploring for a new trading outpost or emporion for Phocaea, discovered the Mediterranean cove of the Lacydon, fed by a freshwater stream and protected by two rocky promontories. Protis was invited inland to a banquet held by the chief of the local Ligurian tribe for suitors seeking the hand of his daughter Gyptis in marriage. At the end of the banquet, Gyptis presented the ceremonial cup of wine to Protis, indicating her unequivocal choice. Following their marriage, they moved to the hill just to the north of the Lacydon; and from this settlement grew Massalia.

    The Greeks introduced staple crops such as olives and grapes to be grown around the colony. Massalia and the colony of Narbonensis itself are famous or notorious for its wine trade. Diodorus Siculus states that the native Gauls had an extreme fondness for wine and excessive drinking. numbers of cups, jugs, and craters found in excavations back up these ancient sources. Recognizing their insatiable desire for the drink, the Greeks and later the Romans would exploit the Gauls by exchanging slaves for amphorae of wine. At any rate, Narbonensis was an important site for trade routes due to its location on the Mediterranean. Geographically, the land and climate mirror Italy. The soil, vegetation, and atmosphere were quite similar to Greek and Latin lands, which most likely inspired colonization.

    Equipment:

    Each hoplite provided his own equipment. Thus, only those who could afford such weaponry fought as hoplites; as with the Roman Republican army it was the middle classes who formed the bulk of the infantry. Equipment was not standardised, although there were doubtless trends in general designs over time, and between city-states. Hoplites had customized armour, and possibly family symbols on his shield. The equipment might well be passed down in families, since it would have been expensive to manufacture.
    Hoplite would have linothorax, armor composed of stitched/laminated linen fabrics that was sometimes reinforced with animal skins and/or bronze scales. The linothorax was the most popular type armor worn by the hoplites since it was cost effective and provided decent protection as well as bronze greaves and other armour. Hoplites carried a circular shield called an aspis (often referred to as a hoplon) made from wood and covered in bronze, measuring roughly 1 meter in diameter. They wore Corinthian helmet - first standardised and a very successful design.

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    UMBRIAN WARRIORS
    Umbrian Hillmen

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    Origin:

    The Umbri are an Italic people of Italy (Pliny, Natural History Vol 3, pp. 112-114). The region they inhabited, is named for the Umbri tribe, who settled there in protohistoric times (6th century BC): 672 BC is the legendary date of foundation of the town of Terni (Interamna). Their language was Umbrian, a relative of Latin and Oscan.
    Most Umbrian cities were settled in the 9th - 4th centuries BC and were located on easily defendable hilltops. The region of Umbria is the land bordered by the Tiber and Nar rivers and the area covered by the Appennine slopes on the Adriatic. Throughout the 9th-4th centuries BC, imported goods from Greece and Etruria became more common, as well as the production of local pottery.
    Talking about Umbri origins, Pliny the Elder wrote:
    The Umbrian people are the oldest in Italy, they were called Ombrici by the Greeks because they survived the deluge. Etruscans submitted more than 300 Umbrians cities
    —Pliny the Elder, Book III, paragraph112, Umbrorum gens antiquissima Italiae existimatur, ut quos Ombrios a Graecis putent dictos, quos inundatione terrarum imbribus superfuissent. Trecenta eorum oppida Tusci debellasse reperiuntur.

    During the 6th – 4th centuries BC Umbrian communities constructed rural sanctuaries as locations to sacrifice to gods. People offered bronze votives shaped as animals or deities at the sanctuaries. Umbrian deities include Feronia, Valentia, Minerva Matusia and Clitumnus. Discovery of the Iguvium tables in 1444 AD occurred at Gubbio, Italy. Composed during the 2nd or 3rd centuries BC, the tables describe religious rituals involving animal sacrifice (Poultney, 1959).
    The political hierarchy of Umbrian society was limited due to the size of Umbri cities. Two men held the supreme magistrate office of uhtur and were responsible for supervising rituals. Other civic offices included the marone, which held a lower status than uhtur, and a religious position named kvestur. The Umbri social structure was divided into distinct groups probably based upon military rank. During the reign of Augustus four Umbrian aristocrats became senators and Emperor Nerva’s family had origins in Umbria (Bradley, 2000).

    he Etruscans were chief enemies of the Umbri, and the Etruscan invasion went from the western seaboard towards the north and east (lasting from about 700 to 500 BC), eventually driving the Umbrians towards the Apenninic uplands and capturing 300 Umbrian towns. Nevertheless, the Umbrian population does not seem to have been eradicated in the conquered districts.
    After the downfall of the Etruscans, Umbrians attempted to aid the Samnites in their struggle against Rome (308 BC); but communications with Samnium were impeded by the Roman fortress of Narni (founded 298 BC). At the great battle of Sentinum (295 BC), which was fought in their own territory, the Umbrians did not substantially help the Samnites.
    The Roman victory at Sentinum started a period of integration under the Roman rulers, who established some colonies (e.g., Spoletium) and built the via Flaminia (220 BC), which became a principal vector for Roman development in Umbria. During Hannibal's invasion in the second Punic war, the battle of Lake Trasimene was fought in Umbria, but the Umbrians did not aid him.

    The Romans first made contact with Umbria in 310 BC and settled Latin colonies there in 299 BC, 268 BC and 241 BC. They completed their conquest of Umbria approximately 260 BC. Incorporation into the Roman state occurred during the 3rd century BC when some Umbri were given full citizenship or citizenship without the right to vote. Also during the 3rd century BC about 40,000 Romans settled the region. The Via Flaminia linked areas of Umbria by 220 BC. Cities in Umbria also contributed troops to Rome for its many wars including offering troops to Scipio Africanus in 205 BC during the Second Punic War. The Praetorian Guard recruited members in Etruria and Umbria. The Umbri played a minor role in the Social War and as a result were granted citizenship in 90 BC. Roman veterans were settled in Umbria during the reign of Augustus (Bradley, 2000).

    Equipment:

    XXX

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    HELLENIC PELTASTS
    Greek Peltasts

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    Origin:

    A peltast (Ancient Greek: πελταστής) was a type of light infantry in Ancient Greece who often served as skirmishers. In the Archaic period, the Greek martial tradition had been focused almost exclusively on the heavy infantry or hoplites. The style of fighting used by peltasts originated in Thrace and the first Greek peltasts were recruited from the Greek cities of the Thracian coast. Peltasts gradually became more important in Greek warfare, in particular during the Peloponnesian War. Xenophon in the Anabasis describes peltasts in action against Persian cavalry at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BCE where they were serving as part of the mercenary force of Cyrus the Younger. In [1.10.7]

    "Tissaphernes had not fled at the first charge (by the Greek troops), but had charged along the river through the Greek peltasts. However he did not kill a single man as he passed through. The Greeks opened their ranks (to allow the Persian cavalry through) and to proceeded to deal blows (with swords) and throw javelins at them as they went through."

    Xenophon's description makes it clear that these peltasts were armed with swords, as well as javelins, but not with spears. When faced with a charge from the Persian cavalry they opened their ranks and allowed the cavalry through while striking them with swords and hurling javelins at them.
    They became the main type of Greek mercenary infantry in the 4th century BCE. Their equipment was less expensive than traditional hoplite equipment and would have been more readily available to poorer members of society. The Athenian general Iphicrates destroyed a Spartan phalanx in the Battle of Lechaeum in 390 BCE, using mostly peltasts. In the account of Diodorus Siculus, Iphicrates is credited with re-arming his men with long spears, perhaps in around 374 BCE. This reform may have produced a type of "peltasts" armed with a small shield, a sword, and a spear instead of javelins. Some authorities, such as J.G.P. Best, state that these later "peltasts" were not truly peltasts in the traditional sense, but lightly-armored hoplites carrying the pelte shield in conjunction with longer spears--a combination that has been interpreted as a direct ancestor to the Macedonian phalanx. However, thrusting spears are included on some illustrations of peltasts before the time of Iphicrates and some peltasts may have carried them as well as javelins rather than as a replacement for them. As no battle accounts actually describe peltasts using thrusting spears it may be that they were sometimes carried by individuals by choice rather than as part of a policy or reform. The Lykian sarcophagas of Payava from about 400 BCE depicts a soldier carrying a round pelte but using a thrusting spear overarm. He wears a pilos helmet with cheekpieces but no armour. His equipment therefore resembles Iphicrates's supposed new troops. 4th century BCE peltasts also seem to have sometimes worn both helmets and linen armour.

    Alexander the Great employed peltasts drawn from the Thracian tribes to the north of Macedonia, particularly the Agrianoi. In the 3rd century BC peltasts were gradually replaced with thureophoroi. Later references to peltasts may not in fact refer to their style of equipment as the word peltast became a synonym for mercenary.

    Peltasts were usually deployed on the flanks of the phalanx providing a link with any cavalry or in rough or broken ground. For example in the Hellenica [3.2.16] Xenophon writes 'When Dercylidas learned this (that a Persian army was nearby), he ordered his officers to form their men in line, eight ranks deep (the hoplite phalanx), as quickly as possible, and to station the peltasts on either wing along with the cavalry. They could also operate in support of other light troops such as archers and slingers.
    When faced by hoplites peltasts operated by throwing javelins at short range. If the hoplites charged they would flee. As they carried considerably lighter equipment than the hoplites they were usually able to evade successfully especially in difficult terrain. They would then return to the attack once the pursuit ended, if possible taking advantage of any disorder created in the hoplites' ranks. At the Battle of Sphacteria the Athenian forces included 800 archers and at least 800 peltasts. Thucydides in the History of the Peloponnesian War [4.33] writes:

    "They (the Spartan hoplites) themselves were held up by the weapons shot at them from both flanks by the light troops.....Though they (the hoplites) drove back the light troops at any point in which they ran in and approached too closely, they (the light troops) still fought back even in retreat, since they had no heavy equipment and could easily outdistance their pursuers over ground where, since the place had been uninhabited until then, the going was rough and difficult and where the Spartans in their heavy armour could not press their pursuit."

    When fighting other types of light troops, peltasts were able to close more aggressively as in melee they had the advantage of possessing shields, swords and helmets.

    Equipment:

    On vases and other images they are generally depicted wearing the costume of Thrace including the distinctive Phrygian cap. This was made of fox-skin and had ear flaps. They also usually wear patterned tunic, fawnskin boots and a long cloak called a zeira decorated with a bright, geometric, pattern. However, many mercenary peltasts were probably recruited in Greece. Some vases have also been found showing hoplites (men wearing Corinthian helmets, greaves and cuirasses, holding hoplite spears) carrying peltes. Often, the mythical Amazons (women warriors) are shown with peltast equipment.
    Peltasts carried a crescent-shaped wicker shield called pelte (Latin: peltarion) as their main protection, hence their name. According to Aristotle the pelte was rimless and covered in goat or sheep skin. Some literary sources imply that the shield could be round but in art it is usually shown as crescent shaped. It also appears in Scythian Art and may have been a common type in Central Europe. The shield could be carried with a central strap and a hand grip near the rim or with just a central hand-grip. It may also have had a carrying strap (or baldric) as Thracian peltasts slung their shields on their backs when evading the enemy. Peltasts' weapons consisted of several javelins, which may have had throwing straps to allow more force to be applied to a throw.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
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    SAMNITE SPEARMEN
    Samnite Heavy Infantrymen

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Origin:

    The land occupied by the Samnites, in the center-south of the italian peninsula, was called from his inhabitants Safinium as they were calling themselves Safineis. In latin it became by assimilation Samnium so called by the Romans, and Samnites their people. The Greeks instead were calling them Saunitai and their territory Saunitis.
    The ancient tradition wants that atavistics folk had migrated in the land once occupied by the Opici or Osci and from them, they assimilated the customs and the oscan language. It is believed that they came to the Samnium from the nearby land of the Sabinis from whom they descented. With this suggestion one may conclude that the Samnites got their greek origin from the Spartans as asserted by the historians Strabo, Plutarch and Dionysos of Halicarnassus.

    The earliest written record of the people is a treaty with the Romans from 354 BC, which set their border at the Liris River. Shortly thereafter the Samnite Wars broke out; they won an important battle against the Roman army in 321 BC, and their imperium reached its peak in 316 BC after further gains from the Romans. By 290 BC, the Romans finally broke the Samnites' power, but even so they would join Hannibal during the 2nd Punic War.
    Instead in the battle of Cannae in the 216 b.C. the Samnites, very tough customers for Hannibal, were the ones included in military spheres of Rome especially when around the town of Geronium, the Fabiis' magister equitum, M. Munucius Rufus, was saved from defeat just for the intervention of the Samnites commanded by Lucius Decimius the Samnite.

    Equipment:

    The descriptions of offence and defence weapons adopted by the Sabellian people and particularly by Samnites, come from the few literary sources of annals as Livy, or from novelists such as Pliny the Elder and a few others, but also from the frescoes found in the Caudinans and Hirpinans areas, wall paintings from chamber tombs in the northern Lucania, graves goods from the necropolis in "Campo Consolino" ad Alfedena, "Traccole" in Pietrabbondante.
    Polybius (VI, 23 2-3) considers the Roman scutum derived from the Samnitic shield, whose form was to be sometimes rectangular and sometimes trapezoidal (Liv. IX, 40, 2).. The upper part of the shield was larger than the rest to protect chest and and shoulders and horizontal at the very top. The lower section was more pointed to facilitate freedom of motion.
    In order to protect the chest, they used pectoral armor called "kardiophylakes" and wore shin-guards to shield the left or both legs. Plumed helmets to better emphasize one's height.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
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    GALLIC SPEARMEN
    Xxx

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Origin:

    XXX

    Equipment:

    XXX

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable


    GALLIC SWORDSMEN
    Xxx

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Origin:

    XXX

    Equipment:

    XXX

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable


    CRETEAN ARCHERS
    Xxx

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Origin:

    XXX

    Equipment:

    XXX

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable




    Roman Allied and Mercenary Cavalry

    SAMNITE CAVALRY
    Xxx

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Origin:

    XXX

    Equipment:

    XXX

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable


    TARENTINE CAVALRY
    Xxx

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Origin:

    XXX

    Equipment:

    XXX

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable


    NUMIDIAN LIGHT CAVALRY
    Numidian Allied Skirmisher Cavalry

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Origin:

    The Numidians were semi-nomadic Berber tribes who lived in Numidia, in Algeria east of Constantine and in part of Tunisia . The Numidians were one of the earliest natives to trade with the settlers of Carthage. As Carthage grew the relationship with the Numidians blossomed. Carthage's military used the Numidian cavalry as mercenaries. Numidia provided some of the highest quality cavalry of the Second Punic War, and the Numidian cavalry played a key role in a number of battles, both early on in support of Hannibal and later in the war after switching allegiance to the Roman Republic.

    Numidian cavalry was a type of light cavalry developed by the Numidians, most notably used by Hannibal during the Second Punic War. They were described by the Roman historian Livy as "by far the best horsemen in Africa."
    he Numidian cavalry's horses, ancestors of the Arabian horse, were smaller than those of the contemporary Roman cavalry and were well adapted for faster movement. To conserve weight the cavalrymen did not use a saddle or bridle, did not wear armor, and carried smaller shields.
    Due to their expert horsemanship and agility, they were most suitable for charging and then dispersing, an effective tactic for harassing the enemy and breaking up their formations. Hannibal's invasion of Rome during the Second Punic War is best known for his use of slow-moving war elephants, but he also employed Numidian cavalry where faster movement was needed, such as luring the Romans into a trap at the Battle of Trebia and for fighting on his right flank.

    Numidian cavalry were widely known and not only fought in the Carthaginian army, but in other armies of the time as well – the Romans even employed Numidian cavalry against Hannibal's own in the battle of Zama, where the "Numidian Cavalry turned the scales."
    For centuries thereafter, the Roman army employed Numidian light cavalry in separate units (equites Numidarum or Maurorum).

    Equipment:

    Their weaponry consisted mainly of spears and javelins, in addition to a short sword. Two types of basic light cavalry both armed with a round shield and javelins are described, being distinguished by riding bridled or unbridled horses. It is not made clear which of the two were superior if indeed either were. Livy refers to Roman cavalry releasing their bridles so their horses would ride right through a Celtiberian wedge, but it is unlikely the Numidians did not ride without bridles for this reason. Those that rode in this fashion relied on their knees plus a riding crop\ prod. Armor was not worn, nor were hand weapons generally carried. One other cavalry group existed. It is customary to consider the Numidians as being entirely skirmishing cavalry

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable


    CAMPANIAN CAVALRY
    Xxx

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Origin:

    XXX

    Equipment:

    XXX

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable


    CENOMANI CAVALRY
    Allied Cavalry - Cisalpine Gaul Celts

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Origin:

    The Cenomani (Greek: Κενομάνοι, Strabo, Ptol.; Γονομάνοι, Polyb.), was an ancient tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls, who occupied the tract north of the Padus (modern Po River), between the Insubres on the west and the Veneti on the east. Their territory appears to have extended from the river Addua (or perhaps the Ollius, the modern Oglio) to the Athesis (modern Adige). Whether these Cenomani are the same people as the Cenomani in Gallia Celtica encountered by Julius Caesar is a subject of debate.

    According to Arbois de Jubainville, the Cenomni of Italy are not identical with the Cehomni (or Cenomanni) of Gaul. In the case of the latter, the survival of the syllable man in Le Mans is due to the stress laid on the vowel; had the vowel been short and unaccented, it would have disappeared. In Italy, Cenomani is the name of a people; in Gaul, merely a surname of the Aulerci.

    Both Polybius and Livy expressly mention them among the tribes of Gauls which had crossed the Alps within historical memory, and had expelled the Etruscans from the territory in which they established themselves and subsequently continued to occupy. (Pol. ii. 17; Liv. v. 35.) Livy relates that about 400 BC, under the leadership of Elitovius (Livy V.35), a large number of the Cenomani crossed into Italy, drove the Etruscans southwards, and occupied their territory. The statement of Cato (in Pliny, Nat. Hist. III.130), that some of them settled near Massilia in the territory of the Volcae, may indicate the route taken by them. It is remarkable that they appear in history almost uniformly as friendly to the Romans, and refusing to take part with their kindred tribes against them. Thus, during the great Gaulish war in 225 BC, when the Boii and Insubres took up arms against Rome, the Cenomani, as well as their neighbours the Veneti, concluded an alliance with the Roman Republic, and the two nations together furnished a force of 20,000 men, with which they threatened the frontier of the Insubres. (Pol. ii. 23, 24, 32; Strab. V. p. 216.) Even when Hannibal invaded Cisalpine Gaul they continued faithful to the Romans, and furnished a body of auxiliaries, who fought with them at the Battle of the Trebia. (Liv. XXI. 55.) After the close of the Second Punic War, however, they took part in the revolt of the Gauls under Hamilcar (200 BC), and again a few years later joined their arms with those of the Insubres: but even then the defection seems to have been but partial, and after their defeat by the consul Gaius Cornelius Cethegus (197 BC), they hastened to submit, and thenceforth continued faithful allies of the Romans. (Liv. xXXXI. 10, xxxii. 30, XXXIX. 3.) From this time they disappear from history, and became gradually merged in the condition of Roman subjects, until in 49 BC they acquired, with the rest of the Transpadane Gauls, the full rights of Roman citizens. (Dion Cass. XLI. 36.)

    The limits of the territory occupied by them are not very clearly defined. Strabo omits all notice of them in the geographical description of Gallia Cisalpina, and assigns their cities to the Insubres. Livy speaks of Brixia (modern Brescia) and Verona as the chief cities in their territory. Pliny assigns to them Cremona and Brixia: while Ptolemy gives them a much wider extent, comprising not only Bergamum (modern Bergamo) and Mantua, but Tridentum also, which was certainly a Rhaetian city. (Strab. v. p. 213; Liv. v. 35; Plin. III. 19. s. 23; Ptol. III. 1. § 31.) It is singular that Polybius, in one passage (II. 32), appears to describe the river Clusius (modern Chiese), as separating them from the Insubres: but this is probably a mistake. The limits above assigned them, namely, the Addua on the west, the Athesis on the east, and the Padus on the south, may be regarded as approximately correct.

    The Alpine tribes of the Camunni and the Triumpilini, which bordered on them on the north, are expressly described by Pliny as of Euganean race, and were not therefore nationally connected with the Cenomani, though in his time at least united with them for administrative purposes.

    Equipment:

    XXX

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable
    Last edited by hæressiarch; February 09, 2011 at 01:01 PM.
    click?

  6. #6

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III



    ROMAN INFANTRY (UPDATE)

    COHORS REFORMATA
    Roman Reformed Heavy Infantry

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    SPQR [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Gens Julia [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Gens Claudia [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Gens Cornelia [IMG]XXX[/IMG]

    Origin

    One man who made a great contribution to the running of the army, and thereby also to the wellfare and survival of Rome, was Scipio Africanus (Publius Cornelius Scipio). He is believed to have been present at the military disasters of Trebia and Cannae where he learnt the lesson that the Roman army needed a drastic change in tactics. With only 25 years of age he assumed command of the troops in Spain and began training them harder than so far anyone had done. Undoubtedly the Roman legionaries were the best troops of their day. But if tactical movements, as Hannibal performed them on the battlefield, were supposed to be possible then the soldiers needed to be trained and equipped for it. If Scipio was doing the right thing, then his victory over Hannibal at Zama clearly confirmed it.
    Young, bright upcoming Roman commanders were quick to see the wisdom of Scipio's approach and adopted his military style. Scipio's revolution changed the way of the legions. Rome was now to use proper tactics on the battlefield, rather than merely relying on the fighting superiority of the legionaries. Henceforth the Roman soldiers would be led by clever men seeking to outmanoeuvre their foe rather than merely being lined up and marched at the enemy.

    In 152 BC popular pressure in Rome was such that the time-honoured method of enlistment was modified and men were chosen by lot for a period of six years continuous service.
    Another effect was an increased use of allied forces. When Scipio Aemilianus took Numantia in 133 BC Iberian auxiliaries accounted for two-thirds of his force. In the east the critical Battle of Pydna which ended the third Macedonian War was probably won by the allies, who with elephants crushed the left wing of Perseus and enabled the legionaries to split and outflank the Macedonian phalanx.
    The overseas expansion also had a serious effect on the citizens of the upper classes. New opportunities of enrichment and rising corruption saw to it that competent leadership became more and more difficult to find.
    The Gracchi Brothers attempted to halt the decline in the numbers recruitable for the army with land distribution and by extending the franchise to the Italian allies. But as this failed and the two brothers both were killed, the scene was set for the Social War and the arrival of Marius and Sulla.

    After the second century BC we have accounts of a slightly reorganized legion. Subdivisions of the first two ranks in roman legion remained, but the gear of the troops was now identical. The other ranks of the legion were equipped in much the same manner except that they carried a long spear, the hasta, rather than the shorter pilum. They perserved the name of triarii.
    The rorarii and accensii appear by now to have been done away with, having become velites. The velites did not form their own battle line but were divided up equally among all the maniples to compliment their numbers. It emerges that now it was the velites who were the more mobile troops who operated in the front of the army, stinging the enemy with their javelins, before retiring through the ranks of the hastati and principes.

    Equipment

    The hastati and principes were still up front, both carrying the chain mail coats. They now also wore purple and black feather plumes on their helmets, 18 inches in height, to increase their apparent height and appear more intimidating to the enemy. They carried a pilum, a well-crafted wooden spear with iron tip. The javelins that were carried now were short ones, only about four feet long, but with a head nine inches long, well hammered, but so fashioned that it bent on impact and could not be returned by the enemy.
    The soldier now used the gladius, also known as 'the Spanish sword' to the Romans, apparently due to its origin. The iron helmets had now been replaced by bronze ones again, though of thicker metal.
    Each maniple was commanded by two centurions, the first centurion commanding the right, the second the left of the maniple.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable


    we hope you will enjoy it. it's not complete yet, but it will be updated constantly, and hopefully, we will be able to show you all early roman republican units in no longer than week or two

    best regards!

    RotN team
    Last edited by hæressiarch; February 22, 2011 at 02:55 AM.
    click?

  7. #7
    magpie's Avatar Artifex
    Join Date
    Jun 2006
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    Ireland,Co Kilkenny
    Posts
    10,179

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    Fantastic work so far, The historical write up and units displayed so far is superb.
    My thanks to hamsha and haer .
    I love that tough Roman consul reminds me of someone.
    regards, mags

    sponsered by the noble Prisca

  8. #8

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    Awesome work, one of the best romans I've ever seen.

  9. #9

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    @ magpie

    i am glad you've recognized your ancestor . it's still much to do. skinning work this week

    @ Svyatoslav

    thank you
    click?

  10. #10

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    Absolutely some of the best Romans yet! When is this mod coming?

  11. #11

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    thank you Fabricus

    well, it's lots of work still to be done, but with our friends and supporters help we think we will be able to develop it...
    "soon"
    click?

  12. #12
    pacco's Avatar -master-of-none-
    Join Date
    Dec 2006
    Location
    Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Posts
    4,759

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    Really nice work!

    Skinner and modeller for Roma Surrectum
    Under the patronage of Tone
    my shield collection




  13. #13

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    @ pacco

    yeah i know thanx

    EQUITES CONSULARES updated. i wasn't satisfied with their look, so i've made some changes. currently working on italic allies . post about allies updated. if anyone has any suggestions about roman pre-marian army list, post away here or in units thread

    thank you all for your support. i was going to launch this preview a little later, but now i will have an opportunity to discuss it better with you .
    Last edited by hæressiarch; January 20, 2010 at 01:13 PM.
    click?

  14. #14

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    Great work ROTN team. First class.


    Under patronage of Spirit of Rob; Patron of Century X, Pacco, Cherryfunk, Leif Erikson.

  15. #15

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    @ tone

    thank you .
    click?

  16. #16

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    This are the best Romans EVER. Masterpiece, well done Rotn team.
    Not only storical background, quality and acurate units. Also Art beyond compare . What an honour to see this work
    To add to that 3 roman factions , more romans, more diversity


    xhaxhi Skenderbeu

  17. #17
    Athenogoras's Avatar Campidoctor
    Join Date
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    1,785

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    Masterpiece, well done Rotn team.
    Agreed
    Especially the faces. For example the consul of the gens cornelia. Looks like a real roman portrait.

  18. #18

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    @ Shqiponja_Hayabusa

    you have noticed a good thing. diversity. we had more than one reason to leave 4 roman factions (and make some of their units aviable to reb's/slaves).
    if you will read the faction background ou will easily find more reasons than i can give now, but i will try (i will avoid the "gameplay improves" reasons) to point them for camillian model of an army.

    1. you will have 4 consular armies (signia are designed for 4 roman legions and they contain numbers I, II, III, IIII (not IV!) to challenge if yu will play against rome. this will be quite historical
    2. you will cooperate with 3 other roman factons on italic paeninsula in the initial stage of the campaign, which is quite historical and realistic.
    3. you will be under the direct command of the senate and people of rome, and you will compete for their attention and rewards with other roman gentlemen of the era
    4. you will meet more historical characters and you will have an opportunity to play them or challenge them
    5. you will face the socii revolt and you will face your former allies (reason why to have more skins for slave/rebs and more variety of wargear for each unit)
    6. roman factions will really work like satelites of Rome. they will fight and die for rome and their own land as well
    7. hannibal will have to sweat a bit more to conquer italy. destruction of roman army will only cause to face another and another and another...
    8. social developement and exploatation of human resources will be realistic as it was in ancient italy
    ... and more and more and more

    i hope that you will agree that we have made a right choice to leave roman factions as they were - 4. i am sure this will work even better when pompey will face caesar and octavian will challenge marc anthony . not to mention that claudii and julii are really liking each other

    @ Athenogoras

    i am glad you like it. the face of SPQR Consul for example looks almost like...
    click?

  19. #19

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    These units are so beautiful I ve been attached to the screen for 2 hours. thx a lot Haer.

    Also I see a great campaign coming via 3 Roman families as you explain. This is just too good to be true
    Last edited by Shqiponja_Hayabusa; January 20, 2010 at 06:30 PM.


    xhaxhi Skenderbeu

  20. #20

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - REPUBLIC OF ROME - PART I/III

    You have totally made the right decision! Scripted Hannibal invasion and the unification if Italy!! This truly will be the best rtr mod!

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