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Thread: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

  1. #1

    Icon4 RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI



    Introduction
    by Bigus Dickus, Peter Morrison

    To Juba's standard: Moors of swarthy hue
    As though from Ind; Numidian nomads there
    And Nasamon's needy hordes; and those whose darts
    Equal the flying arrows of the Mede:
    Dark Garamantians leave their fervid home;
    And those whose coursers unrestrained by bit
    Or saddle, yet obey the rider's hand
    Which wields the guiding switch.
    Lucan, The Civil War

    Now the fate of nomadic Berbers is in your hands.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    "For it was remarkable to what extent the enemy light infantry had occasioned worry and anxiety among our men [Caesar's Romans]. Their constant javelin fire caused casualties among the horses and kept the cavalry from engaging while their speediness wore out the legionaries; for as soon as any of the heavy infantry, under pursuit, halted and attacked them, they easily ran out of danger. Consequently, Caesar was seriously worried; for whenever there was an engagement he found himself totally unable to match the enemy cavalry and light infantry with his own cavalry unsupported by legionaries....And yet another source of anxiety was the persistent feeling of panic engenderedin his men by the size and numbers of the elephants"
    Pseudo-Caesar, The African War.


    "The forces [Caesar] had were accustomed to fighting in Gaul, on level terrain, and against the Gauls, an open-natured people and not at all given to guile, who were accustomed in warfare to rely on their valour, not on trickery. Now, however, he had to try to accustom his men to recognize the guiles, traps and ruses of the enemy, and know when they should pursue and when to give them a wide berth."

    ".... and the Numidians, with the light armed infantry, who are wonderfully nimble, and accustom themselves to fight intermixed with the horse, with whom they keep an equal pace, either in advancing or retiring, fell a second time upon our foot. As they repeated this often, pressing upon our troops when we marched, and retiring when we endeavored to engage, always keeping at a certain distance, and with singular care avoiding a close fight, and considering it enough to wound us with their darts...."
    "Meanwhile, both the main bodies advancing to engage, the enemy's cavalry, intermixed with some light-armed Numidians, suddenly sprang forward, from their crowded troops, and attacked the legions with a shower of darts. Our men, preparing to return the charge, their horse retreated a little, while the foot continued to maintain their ground, till the others, having rallied, came on again, with fresh vigor, to sustain them."
    Caesar, The African War


    "Jugurtha would not fight except from ambush or on ground of his own choosing."

    "Meanwhile, as soon as Rutilius had marched past him, Bomilcar, who, as related above, had been placed by Jugurtha in command of the elephants and a part of the infantry, slowly led his men down into the plain, and, while the Roman officer continued his hasty advance towards the river to which he had been dispatched, marshalled his army as noiselessly as the occasion demanded, and kept ceaseless watch on every movement of the enemy..... In his [Bomilcar's] distrust of his men's courage he had drawn up his line in close order, but he now extended it so as to block the enemy's march, and in this order advanced against the camp of Rutilius.... At last [the Romans], understanding what was really happening, they hastily seized their arms, and, in obedience to order, took up a position in front of the camp. The distance between the two armies diminished, and they charged each other with a loud shout. The Numidians stood their ground only as long as they thought to find help in their elephants; as soon as they saw them entangled in the branches of the trees and thus scattered and surrounded, they took to flight, and most of them, with the loss of their arms, escaped whole and sound under cover of the hill and of the night, which was now falling. Of the elephants four were captured, the rest, to the number of forty, were killed."
    Sallust, The Jugurthine War.


    "Dolabella. then fortified suitable positions, and at the same time beheaded some chiefs of the Musulamii, who were on the verge of rebellion. Next, as several expeditions against Tacfarinas had proved the uselessness of following up the enemy's desultory movements with the attack of heavy troops from a single point, he summoned to his aid King Ptolemaeus [of the Moors] and his people, and equipped four columns, under the command of his lieutenants and tribunes. Marauding parties were also led by picked Moors, Dolabella in person directing every operation."
    Tacitus Annuals, Book 4.


    Welcome in FACTION PREVIEW. This is our third attempt to show you how we work on the wholeness of things that faction needs to work properly in RotN. We will show you units, their detailed descriptions and screens, great amount of descriptions including buldings, important provinces and cities, their wealth, valouable resources and lot's of other features included.

    We are also dependant of your opinions friends. Remember that we are not working alone, but we always take under consideration everything you sugest and ask for.

    Feel free to comment and enjoy.

    RotN Team.



    team:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Thread Director:
    pirates_say_arrgg
    Coordinator: haeressiarch, hamsha
    Picture updates: haeressiarch, hamsha
    Description updates: pirates_say_arrgg, hamsha, bigus_dickus, magpie, haeressiarch, Sunbird Alkibjad
    Last edited by hæressiarch; May 13, 2010 at 06:11 AM.
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  2. #2

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI


    History
    gathered by haeressiarch, hamsha and bigus_dickus

    They belong to a powerful, formidable, brave and numerous people;
    a true people like so many others the world has seen - like the Arabs, the Persians, the Greeks and the Romans.
    The men who belong to this family of peoples have inhabited the Maghreb since the beginning."

    -Ibn Khaldun, 14th century Arab historian



    Earliest references

    The first reference to ancient Berbers goes back to the Predynastic Period of Egypt, where they are mentioned on on the so-called " Libyan Palette" which is still preserved in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. This ceremonial palette is considered to be the oldest source wherein Berbers have been mentioned.
    The second source is known as Narmer Palette. This palette is more recent than the first source, and it depicted the Tjehenu Libyans as captives.
    The second oldest name is Tjemehu. This name was mentioned for the first time in the period of the first king of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt and was referred to in other sources after that period. According to Oric Bates, those people were white-skinned, blondish, and with blue eyes.

    Egyptian hieroglyphs from early dynasties testify to Libyans, the Berbers of the "western desert". First mentioned as the Tehenou during the pre-dynastic reigns of Scorpion (c. 3050) and of Narmer (on an ivory cylinder), their appearance is later shown in a bas relief of the Fifth Dynasty temple of Sahure. Ramses II (r.1279-1213) placed Libyan contingents in his army. Tombs of the 13th century contain paintings of Libu leaders wearing fine robes, with ostrich feathers in their "dreadlocks", short pointed beards, and tattoos on their shoulders and arms. Evidently, Osorkon the Elder (Akheperre setepenamun), a Berber leader of the Meshwesh tribe, became the first Libyan pharaoh. Several decades later, his nephew Shoshenq I (r.945-924) became Pharaoh of Egypt, and the founder of its Twenty-second Dynasty (945-715). In 926 Shoshenq (Shishak of the Bible) successfully campaigned to Jerusalem then under Solomon's heir. For several centuries Egypt was governed by a decentralized system based on the Libyan tribal organization of the Meshwesh. Becoming acculturated, Libyans also served as high priests at centers of Egyptian religion. Hence during the classical era of the Mediterranean, all of the Berber peoples of North Africa were often known collectively as Libyans.



    The people of many names

    It was believed in ancient times that Africa was originally populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both were nomadic people. The demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians went to the West and inter married with the Gaetulians and became the Numidians. The Medes settled and were known as Mauri latter Moors. Sallust's version of African history must be considered with reservations. These stories more likely recall Aryan invasions from Spain.

    The Origins of the Berbers lies in the Capsian stone industries of the eastern Maghreb or modern southern Tunisia. The Wet period after 7000 BCE allowed for this area to be inhabited by a population composed of various racial elements. The increase in productivity of the land allowed for population growth and a subsequent western expansion. Berber languages are all strikingly similar, suggesting a uniform movement of peoples in a relatively short period of time.

    Around 3000 BCE contacts with the Mediterranean islands begin and by 1000 BCE North Africa is not very different from the rest of the Western Mediterranean. Most communities were farmers with a strong pastoral element in their economy and fairly elaborate cemeteries. By this time Berber languages were established throughout North Africa but there's no evidence of how this took place. The population at this time is a range of Mediterranean types.

    Since antiquity the desert has been the dominant factor in the North African environment, though the region has not always been as dry as it is today. At various times during the past million years there have been periods of abundant precipitation, the last occurring about the 6th millennium bc at the beginning of the Neolithic Period (New Stone Age). A major trade route connecting the Mediterranean with the African world existed along the Ahaggar-Tibesti ridge in the central Sahara, and it is probable that communications existed across the western Sahara also. Nevertheless, the Sahara always constituted a formidable barrier to the movement of technology and peoples. In ancient historical times much of North Africa was evergreen forest or scrub, and the fauna included such animals as elephants, zebras, and ostriches.

    The Maghrib provides the paradox of being an area in which various cultures have imposed some measure of uniformity, while political unity has been rare; for this geography is largely responsible. The area of settlement is of vast length but little breadth and has no natural centre from which political uniformity could be imposed; its natural communications have never been easy, and the mountain blocks have been large enough to maintain populations to a greater or lesser degree independent of and hostile to those that controlled the plains.

    By five kya (thousand years ago) a neolithic culture was evolving among the Berbers of northwest Africa, characterized by agriculture and animal domestication, pottery and finely chipped stone implements including arrowheads. Wheat and barley were sown, beans and chick peas cultivated. Ceramic bowls and basins, goblets, large plates, dishes elevated by a central stem, were in daily use; they were hung up on the wall. Evidence indicates hooded cloaks, and cloth woven into stripes of different color. Sheep, goats, and cattle measured wealth. From physical evidence unearthed in Tunisia archaeologists present the Berbers as already "farmers with a strong pastoral element in their economy and fairly elaborate cemeteries," well over a thousand years before the Phoenicians arrived to found Carthage.

    As the desert surrounding them began to dry up around 2000 BC, the people who occupied the plains and mountains of northwest Africa became virtually isolated. They remained at an early form of cultural development, hunting wild animals, herding stock, or settling to simple agriculture. The Greek called them Libyans, Romans referred to them as Africans, Numidians and Moors; the Arabs would dub them Berbers...

    North Africa (with the exception of Cyrenaica) entered the mainstream of Mediterranean history with the arrival in the 1st millennium bc of Phoenician traders, mainly from Tyre and Sidon in modern Lebanon. The Phoenicians were looking not for land to settle but for anchorages and staging points on the trade route from Phoenicia to Spain, a source of silver and tin. Points on an alternative route by way of Sicily, Sardinia, and the Balearic Islands also were occupied. The Phoenicians lacked the manpower and the need to found large colonies as the Greeks did, and few of their settlements grew to any size. The sites chosen were generally offshore islands or easily defensible promontories with sheltered beaches on which ships could be drawn up. Carthage (its name derived from the Phoenician Kart-Hadasht, “New City”), destined to be the largest Phoenician colony and in the end an imperial power, conformed to the pattern.



    The Berbers

    Originally, Berber was a generic name given to numerous heterogeneous ethnic groups by the Romans that shared similar cultural, political, and economic practices. It was not a term originated by the group itself. Although their origins are unknown, Berber-speaking peoples are thought to have moved into North Africa, probably from the Near East, before 2000 BC.
    The Berbers have lived in North Africa for thousands of years and their presence has been recorded as early as 3000BC. Greeks, Romans, and ancient Egyptians have indicated the presence of Berbers in their records. There is no complete certitude about the origin of the Berbers; however, various disciplines shed light on the matter.
    The Neolithic Capsian culture appeared in North Africa around 9,500 BC. and lasted until possibly 2700 BC. Linguists and population geneticists alike have identified this culture as a probable period for the spread of an Afro-Asiatic language (ancestral to the modern Berber languages) to the area. The origins of the Capsian culture, however, are archeologically unclear. Some have regarded this culture's population as simply a continuation of the earlier Mesolithic Ibero-Maurusian culture, which appeared around 22,000 BC., while others argue for a population change; the former view seems to be supported by dental evidence.

    Historically, it is not clear how the name "Berber" evolved, supposedly from the word "barbarian." The Berbers were known as "Libyans" to the ancient Greeks, and they were known under many names, such as "Numidians" and "Moors" to the Romans.
    The Amazigh which means "free humans" or "free men" are known to the world as Berbers. In fact, the word Berbers is offensive to these ancient inhabitants of north Africa and the Sahara desert. The name "Berber" is another one of many peccadilloes of the Romans who threw names at people left and right. They, along with the Greeks referred to every people they could not understand with the same unintelligible Berber language whether they were in the East or the West.

    People commonly known today as the Berbers were anciently more often known as Libyans; yet many "Berbers" have for long self-identified as Imazighen or "free people" (etymology uncertain). Mommsen, a widely acclaimed historian of the 19th century, wrote:

    "They call themselves in the Riff near Tangier Amâzigh, in the Sahara Imôshagh, and the same name meets us, referred to particular tribes, on several occasions among the Greeks and Romans, thus as Maxyes at the founding of Carthage, as Mazices in the Roman period at different places in the Mauretanian north coast; the similar designation that has remained with the scattered remnants proves that this great people has once had a consciousness, and has permanently retained the impression, of the relationship of its members."

    Other names were used by their ancient neighbors: Libyans (by Egyptians and later by Greeks), Nomades (by Greeks), hence Numidians (by Romans), and later Berbers (by Arabs); also the self-descriptive Mauri in the west; and Gaetulians in the south.
    In the Greek period the Berbers were mainly known as "Libyans" and their lands as "Libya" that extended from modern Morocco to the western borders of ancient Egypt. (Modern Egypt contains Siwa, historically part of Libya, where the Berber Siwi language is still spoken.)
    Both names, "Amazigh" and "Berber", are relatively recent names in historical sources, since the name "Berber" appeared first in Arab-Islamic sources, and the name "Amazigh" was never used in ancient sources. It is no less important to keep in mind that the Berbers were known by various names in different periods.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Due to the fact that the Berbers were called "El-Barbar" by the Arabs, it is very probable that the modern European languages adopted it from the Arabic language. The Arabs didn't use the name "El-Barbar" as a negative, not being aware of the origin of that name; they supposedly created some myths or stories about the name. The most notorious myth considers "Barbar" as an ancestor of the Berbers. According to that myth, the Berbers were the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah, the son of Barbar, the son of Tamalla, the son of Mazigh, the son of Canon…
    ([Ibn Khaldun]/ The History of Ibn Khaldun - Chapter III)

    The fact that the name "Berber" is a strange name to the Berbers leads to confusion. Some sources claim that the Berbers are several ethnic groups who are not related to each other. That is not accurate, because the Berbers refer to themselves as "Imazighen" in Morocco, as well as in Libya, Egypt (Siwa) and other areas of North Africa.
    Not only is the origin of the name "Berber" unclear, but also is the name "Amazigh." The most common explanation is that the name goes back to the Egyptian period when the Ancient Egyptians mentioned an ancient Libyan tribe called Meshwesh. The Meshwesh are supposed by some scholars to be the same ancient Libyan tribe that was mentioned as "Maxyans" by the Greek Historian Herodotus.


    The Berbers apeared north Africa long before the arrival of the Arabs, and their culture probably dates back more than 4,000 years. Berber states known as Mauritania and Numidia existed in classical times.
    Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are discontinuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke various Berber languages, which together form a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.

    The Berbers have lived in North Africa between western Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean for as far back as records of the area go. The earliest inhabitants of the region are found on the rock art across the Sahara. References to them also occur often in ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman sources. Berber groups are first mentioned in writing by the ancient Egyptians during the Predynastic Period, and during the New Kingdom the Egyptians later fought against the Meshwesh and Libu tribes on their western borders. From about 945 BCE the Egyptians were ruled by Meshwesh immigrants who founded the Twenty-second Dynasty under Shoshenq I, beginning a long period of Berber rule in Egypt. They long remained the main population of the Western Desert.

    Ancient chroniclers typically depicted the Berbers as barbaric enemies, troublesome nomands, or ignorant peasants. They were, however, to play a major role in the area's history. Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 B.C. and established Carthage ( in present-day Tunisia) around 800 B.C. By the sixth century B.C., a Phoenician presence existed at Tipasa (east of Cherchell in Algeria). From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements (called emporia in Greek) along the North African coast; these settlements eventually served as market towns as well as anchorages. Hippo Regius (modern Annaba) and Rusicade (modern Skikda) are among the towns of Carthaginian origin on the coast of present-day Algeria.

    Two diferent opinions about berbers apearance exists. Both are claimed to be based on historical, archeological and genetic evidence:

    1st. The Berber were fair skinned people, closer to Indo-Germanic than Semitic, who gathered in tribes and practiced subsistence economy, either through basic farming or transhumance herding (the movement of flocks and herds from winter and summer pastures, some up to 200 miles apart!). It is thought that loose alliances were formed between farming and herding tribes to avoid the conflict of one tribe bringing their cattle through the crops of another.

    2nd. All the early major Berber tribes including the Masmuda, Sanhaja, Ketama Zenata and Nafusa are described as dark reddish brown like the “Indi’ or as “blacks” or Ethiopians in early documents. The notion of the early Berbers as being “whites” or Caucasoid is a new and racist one related to the concept of the African “Hamite”. Certainly the original Berber-speakers were never referred to as anything but “black” or something near it until the 12th century and were otherwise considered the color of Abyssinians and other so called “Indi”.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Berbers are defined as Mediterraneans with moderate Alpinid & Nordic admixture closer to Europeans than to Africans. This is supported by a scientific study done on Rif Berbers showing that 38.6% of the Rif Berbers have blue or green eyes a percentage higher than that found in Sicilians or Spaniards.

    The genetic proximity observed between the Berbers and southern Europeans is because both these groups shared a common ancestor either in the Upper Paleolithic, in the Neolithic or alternatively during history with the invasion and the occupation during nearly seven centuries of the Iberian Peninsula by Moorish troops.

    Prior to written records about them, sedentary rural Berbers apparently lived in semi-independent farming villages, composed of small tribal units under a local leader. Yet seasonally the villagers might have left to find pasture for their herds and flocks. Modern conjecture is that feuding between neighborhood clans at first impeded organized political life among these ancient Berber farmers, so that social coordination did not develop beyond the village level. On the more marginal lands, pastoral Berbers roamed to find grazing for their animals. Tribal authority was strongest among the latter wandering pastoralists, much weaker among the agricultural villagers, and would attenuate with the advent of cities. By particularly fertile regions, larger villages arose. In the west of the Maghrib, the Berbers reacted to a growing military threat from colonies started by Phoenician traders. Eventually Carthage and its sister city-states would inspire Berber villages to join together in order to marshall large-scale armies, which naturally called for strong centralizing leadership. Punic social techniques from the nearby polities were adopted by the Berbers, to be modified for their own use. To the east, the Berbero-Libyans had interacted with the Egyptians during the earlier rise of the ancient Nile civilization.

    The name Numidia was first applied by Polybius and other historians during the third century BC to indicate the territory west of Carthage, including the entire north of Algeria as far as the river Mulucha (Muluya), about 100 miles west of Oran. The Numidians were conceived of as two great tribal groups: the Massyli in eastern Numidia, and the Massaesyli in the west.
    The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from which the Berbers are descended. The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe.
    The Numidian landscape was composed of villages, mixed farming, and paying tribute, which is the only real connection between villages and the monarchy. The bulk of their cities were coastal and their main market language was Punic. Tribal social structures remained strong.



    Berber tribal affiliations

    The grand tribal identities of Berber antiquity were said to be the Mauri, the Numidians, and the Gaetulians. The Mauri inhabited the far west (ancient Mauritania, now Morocco and central Algeria). The Numidians were located between the Mauri and the city-state of Carthage. Both had large sedentary populations. The Gaetulians were less settled, with large pastoral elements, and lived in the near south on the margins of the Sahara. The medieval historian of the Maghrib Ibn Khaldun is credited or blamed for theorizing a causative dynamic to the different tribal confederacies over time. Issues concerning tribal social-economies and their influence have generated a large literature, which critics say is overblown. Abdallah Laroui discounts the impact of tribes, declaring the subject a form of obfuscation which cloaks suspect colonial ideologies. While Berber tribal society has made an impact on culture and government, their continuance was chiefly due to strong foreign interference which usurped the primary domain of the government institutions, and derailed their natural political development. Rather than there being a predisposition for tribal strutures, the Berber's survival stratey in the face of foreign occupation was to figuratively retreat into their own way of life through their enduring tribal networks. On the other hand, as it is accepted and understood, tribal societies in the Middle East have continued over millennia and from time to time flourish.

    Farther west, foreigners knew of some Berbers as Gaetulians (who lived in remote areas); those Bebers more familiar were known as Numidians, and also as the Mauri or Maurisi (later the Moors). The western Berbers are mentioned in ancient literature regarding specific military events during the fifth century B.C., and thereafter they are entering into the early light given us by various Greek and Roman historical works; apart from the Punic inscriptions, little Carthaginian literature has survived. During this period, however, the Berbers of the western regions traded and interacted most frequently with Carthage, founded by Phoenicians; the name Libyphoenicians was coined for the cultural and ethnic mix surrounding the city. Political skills and civic arrangements encountered in Carthage, as well as material culture, were adopted by the Berber for their own use. In the fourth century Berber kingdoms are mentioned; Agathocles (361-289), a Greek ruler in Sicily, dealt with the Libyo-Berber king Aelymas.

    Another important tribe was the Libu. This tribe was associated with the so-called Sea People between the sixth and the fourth century BC. Nevertheless, the Libou were not considered as "Sea People" but as indigenous people, and the emigrating people allied with them. The name "Libu" would later be used, by the Greeks to refer to all Berbers, and not only what is now the modern North African country of Libya.
    The Sea People and the Libyan tribes attacked Egypt but were defeated by the ancient Egyptians. Some Libyan/Berber tribes continued to emigrate into the Nile Delta where they served in the Egyptian army until a Libyan leader from the Meshwesh tribe, Shoshenq I, became pharaoh and founded the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt, although his uncle, Osorkon the Elder had ruled Egypt earlier during Dynasty 21. Other Libyan dynasties include Dynasty 23, Dynasty 24, and Dynasty 26.

    The Sahara and the Garamantes were a Neolithic civilization combining fishing and stock raising. They were Negroid peoples with a pastoral economy. Domestication of the horse gave Mediterranean groups in North Africa greater mobility. New technology and a stratified society allowed them to subjugate the existing black population, who had been put under stress by the drying out of the Sahara. A Warrior aristocracy subsequently gained ascendancy over the black groups of the Sahara.

    Berber tribal identities survived undiminished during the long period of dominance by the city-state of Carthage. Under centuries of Roman rule also tribal ways were maintained. The sustaining social customs would include: communal self-defense and group liability, marriage alliances, collective religious practices, reciprocal gift-giving, family working relationships and wealth. Abdallah Laroui summarizes the abiding results under foreign rule (here, by Carthage and by Rome) as: Social (assimilated, nonassimilated, free); Geographical (city, country, desert); Economic (commerce, agriculture, nomadism); and, Linguistic (e.g., Latin, Punico-Berber, Berber).
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Both names, "Amazigh" and "Berber," are relatively recent names in historical sources, since the name "Berber" appeared first in Arab - Islamic sources, and the name "Amazigh" was never used in ancient sources. It is no less important to keep in mind that the Berbers were known by various names in different periods. The first reference to the Ancient Berbers goes back to a very ancient Egyptian period. They were mentioned in the pre-dynastic period, on the so-called " Stele of Tehenou" which is still preserved in the Cairo museum in Egypt. That tablet is considered to be the oldest source wherein the Berbers have been mentioned. The second source is known as The Stele of King Narmer. This tablet is newer than the first source, and it depicted the Tehenou as captives.
    The second oldest name is Tamahou. This name was mentioned for the first time in the period of the first king of the "Sixth Dynasty" and was referred to in other sources after that period. According to Oric Bates, those people were white-skinned, with blond hair and blue eyes.
    In the Greek period the Berbers were mainly known as "The Libyans" and their lands as "Libya" that extended from modern Morocco to the western borders of ancient Egypt. Modern Egypt contains Siwa, part of historical Libya, where they still speaks the Berber language.
    During the Roman period, the Berbers would become known as Numidians, Maures and Getulians, according to their tribes or kingdoms. The Numidians founded complicated and organized tribes, and thereafter began to build a stronger kingdom. Most scholars believe that "Alyamas" was the first king of the Numidian kingdom. Massinissa was the most famous Numidian king, who made Numidia a strong and civilized kingdom.



    Ancient Berber religion

    The religion of the ancient Berbers, of course, is difficult to uncover sufficiently to satisfy the imagination. Burial sites provide early indication of religious beliefs; more than sixty thousand tombs are located in the Fezzan alone. The construction of many tombs indicates their continuing use for ceremonies and sacrifices. A grand tomb for a Berber king, traditionally assigned to Masinissa (238-149) but perhaps rather to his father Gala, still stands: the Medracen in eastern Algeria. Architecture for the elegant tower tomb of his contemporary Syphax shows some Greek or Punic influence.[73] Much information about Berber beliefs comes from classical literature. Herodotus (c.484-c.425) mentions that Libyans of the Nasamone tribe, after prayers, slept on the graves of their ancestors in order to induce dreams for divination. The ancestor chosen being regarded the best in life for uprightness and valor, hence a tomb imbued with spiritual power. Oaths also were taken on the graves of the just. In this regard, the Numidian king Masinissa was widely worshipped after his death.

    Early Berbers beliefs and practices are often characterized as a religion of nature. Procreative power was symbolized by the bull, the lion, the ram. Fish carvings represented the phallus, a sea shell the female sex, which objects could become charms. The supernatural could reside in the waters, in trees, or come to rest in unusual stones (to which the Berbers would apply oils); such power might inhabit the winds. Herodotus writes that the Libyans sacrificed to the sun and moon. The moon (Ayyur) was conceived as being masculine.

    Later many other supernatural entities became identified and personalized as gods, perhaps influenced by Egyptian or Punic practice; yet the Berbers seemed to be "drawn more to the sacred than to the gods." Early worship sites might be in grottoes, on mountains, in clefts and cavities, along roadways, with the "altars casually made of turf, the vessels used still of clay with the deity himself nowhere," according to Apuleius. Often only a little more than the names of the Berber deities are known, e.g., Bonchar, a leading god. Julian Baldick, culling literature covering many eras and regions, provides the names and roles of many Berber deities and spirits.

    The Berbero-Libyans came to adopt elements from ancient Egyptian religion. Herodotus writes of the divine oracle, sourced in the Egyptian god Ammon, located among the Libyans at the oasis of Siwa. The god of the Siwa oracle, however, may be a Libyan deity. Later, Berber beliefs would influence the religion of Carthage, the city-state founded by Phoenicians. George Aaron Barton suggested that the prominent goddess of Carthage Tanit originally was a Berbero-Libyan deity whom the newly arriving Phoenicians sought to propitiate by their worship. Later archeological finds show a Tanit from Phoenicia. From linguistic evidence Barton concluded that before developing into an agricultural deity, Tanit probably began as a goddess of fertility, symbolized by a tree bearing fruit. The Phoenician goddess Ashtart was supplanted by Tanit at Carthage.

    The royal cult of Baal Hammon was mainly for royal court, while a vast number of local gods were for the tribes of the Hellenistic Kings. The cult of the dead is a distinguishing characteristic of the Berbers in antiquity. They connected their dead with notions of fertility of the soil and control of the future. Tombs had special rooms in them for sleeping because they believed that dreams of those who slept in their tombs were responses from the dead. These tombs were major monuments to Berber kings.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Berber beliefs concerning death changed over time, as evidenced by differing burial customs and tomb types.

    Funerary practices

    Archaeological research on pre-historic tombs in Northwestern Africa shows that the body of the dead were painted with red ochre. While this practice was known to the Ibero-maurussians, this culture seems to have been primarily a Capsian culture. The dead were also sometimes buried with shells of ostrich eggs, jewelry, and weapons. Bodies were sometimes placed on one side and folder, while others where buried in a fetal position.
    Unlike the Berbers, the Guanches mummified the dead. Additionally, Fabrizio Mori discovered a Libyan mummy older than any comparable Ancient Egyptian mummy in 1958.

    Cult of the dead

    The authors of the book The Berbers stated that the cult of the death was one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Berbers in antiquity. Pomponius Mela reported that the Augelae (Modern Awjila in Libya) considered the spirits of their ancestors to be gods. They swore by them and consulted them. After making requests, they slept in their tombs to await responses in dreams.

    Herodotus (484 BC–ca.425 BC) noted the same practice among the Nasamones who inhabited the deserts around Siwa and Augila. He wrote:

    [..]They swear by the men among themselves who are reported to have been the most righteous and brave, by these, I say, laying hands upon their tombs; and they divine by visiting the sepulchral mounds of their ancestors and lying down to sleep upon them after having prayed; and whatsoever thing the man sees in his dream, this he accepts.

    The worship of saints still exists among the modern Berbers in the form of Maraboutism, which is wide spread in northwest Africa, especially in Morocco. The Berbers worshipped their kings, too. The tombs of the Numidian kings are among the most notable monuments left by the Classical Berbers.

    Ancient Berber Tombs

    The tombs of the early Berbers and their ancestors indicate that the Berbers and their ancestors (the Ibero-maurussians and Capsians) believed in life after death. The prehistoric men of northwest Africa buried bodies in little holes. When they realized that bodies buried in unsecured holes were dug up by wild animals, they began to bury them in deeper ones. Later, they buried the dead in caves, tumuli, tombs in rocks, mounds, and other types of tombs.
    These tombs evolved from primitive structures to much more elaborate ones, such as the pyramidal tombs spread throughout Northern Africa. The honor of being buried in such a tomb appears to have been reserved for those who were most important to their communities.

    These pyramid tombs have attracted the attention of some scholars, such as Mohammed Chafik who wrote a book discussing the history of several of the tombs that have survived into modern times. He tried to relate the pyramidal Berber tombs with the great Egyptian pyramids on the basis of the etymological and historical data. The best known Berber pyramids are the 19-meter pre-Roman Numidian pyramid of Medracen and the 30-meter ancient Mauretanian pyramid. The Mauretanian pyramid is also known as "Kbour-er-Roumia" or "Tomb of the Roman Woman" mistranslated by the French colonizer as "Tomb of the Christian Woman"

    Megalithic Culture

    Rocks were considered to be holy by many prehistoric peoples, including the Berbers. Saint Augustine mentioned that the polytheistic Africans worshipped the rocks. Apuleius stated as well that rocks were worshipped in the second century A.D.. The megalithic culture may have been part of a cult of the dead or of star-worship.
    There are prehistoric megalithic constructs in several North-western African sites, although they have not been studied thoroughly. The Phoenicians had also their megalithic sites, which they called Bethel (House of God). The Mogador monument on the Atlantic coast is sometimes believed to be of Phoenician origin.

    The monument of Mzora (also spelled as Msoura) is the best known megalithic monument in northwest Africa. It is composed of a circle of megaliths surrounding a tumulus. The highest megalith is longer than 5 meters. According to legend, it is the sepulchre of the mythic Libyan king Antaeus. Another megalithic monument was discovered in 1926 to south of Casablanca. The monument was engraved with funerary inscriptions in the Libyco-Berber script known as Tifinagh.

    Solar and lunar worship

    The moon is called Ayyur in the Berber language, a name shared with the Berber moon god.

    Herodotus mentioned that the ancient Berbers (known to him as Libyans) worshipped the moon and sun and sacrificed to them. He reported:

    They begin with the ear of the victim, which they cut off and throw over their house: this done, they kill the animal by twisting the neck. They sacrifice to the Sun and Moon, but not to any other god. This worship is common to all the Libyans.

    Tullius Cicero (105-43 BCE) also reported the same cult in On the Republic (Scipio's Dream):

    When I (Scipio) was introduced to him, the old man (Massinissa, king of Numidia) embraced me, shed tears, and then, looking up to heaven, exclaimed I thank thee, O supreme Sun, and you also, you other celestial beings, that before I departed from this life I behold in my kingdom, and in my palace, Publius Cornelius Scipio ...

    There were some Latin inscriptions found in Northwest Africa dedicated to the sun-god. An example is the inscription found in Souk Ahras (The birthplace of Saint Augustine: Tagaste in Algeria) written as: Solo Deo Invicto. Samuel the Confessor appears to have suffered from the sun-worshiping Berbers who tried unsuccessfully to obligate him worshiping the sun.

    In addition, Thor Heyerdahl believed that the Tenerifian pyramids were built by the sun-worshiping Berbers who brought this culture from the Mediterranean to the Canary Islands. The Guanches worshipped a god called Achaman to whom animal sacrifices and libations were made in caves and whose physical manifestation was thought to be the sun. This Canarian deity may be related to the god Amon.

    The Guanches worshipped a sun-god in Las Palmas, too. It was given the name Magec as well as the name Amen, which seems to have meant "Lord". In Awelimmiden Tuareg, the name Amanai is believed to have the meaning of "God". The Ancient Libyans may have worshipped the setting sun, which was impersonated by Amon, who was represented by the ram's horns.
    The sun was worshipped besides the mountains (eg: Atlas), rocks, caves, and rivers.

    A Large number of inscriptions with the Libyan alphabet emerge at this time. Libyan language and script soon comes into its own as a form of expression.

    Egyptian-Berber beliefs

    The Ancient Egyptians were the neighbours of the Berbers. They may even have had an ancient common central saharan origin. Therefore, it is sometimes supposed that some deities were originally worshipped by the Ancient Egyptians, and the Ancient Libyans (Berbers) as well. The Egyptian-Berber deities can be distinguished according to their origin.

    Egyptian deities

    The Eastern ancient Berbers worshipped Isis and Set. That was reported by Herodotus when saying:

    [i]Cow's flesh, however, none of these tribes (Libyan Tribes) ever taste, but abstain from it for the same reason as the Egyptians, neither do they any of them breed swine. Even at Cyrene, the women think it wrong to eat the flesh of the cow, honoring in this Isis, the Egyptian goddess, whom they worship both with fasts and festivals. The Barcaean women abstain, not from cow's flesh only, but also from the flesh of swine.

    Those Berbers supposedly didn't eat the swine's flesh, because it was associated with Set, while they didn't eat the cow's flesh, because it was associated with Isis.

    Osiris was among the Egyptian deities who were venetrated in Libya. However, Dr. Budge (in addition to a few other scholars) believed that Osiris was originally a Libyan god saying of him that "Everything which the texts of all periods recorded concerning him goes to show that he was an indigenous god of North-east Africa, and that his home and origin were possibly Libyan."

    Berber deities

    The Egyptians considered some Egyptian deities to have had a Libyan origin, such as Neith who has been considered, by Egyptians, to have emigrated from Libya to establish in the Nile Delta. Some legends tell that Neith was born around Lake Tritons (In modern Tunisia).

    It is also notable that some Egyptian deities were depicted with Berber (ancient Libyan) characters, such as "Ament" who was depicted with two feathers which were the normal ornaments of the Ancient Libyans as they were depicted by the Ancient Egyptians.

    Contacts and cultural exchange made Berber pantheon of gods contain a variety of godsfrom all over the mediterranean world.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Berber Pantheon

    The traditional Berber pantheon contains a variety of gods. Although most Berbers are now Muslim (and none profess paganism), vestiges of their previous religion remain, including traditions such as "Tislit" and her husband "Anzar".

    Africa or Ifri or Ifru: a Berber goddess adopted by the Romans.
    Agurzil (alternatively, Gurzil): Berber god of war, represented by a head of bull by the Luwata nomads.
    Ammon: an oracle god.
    Antaeus: a giant from Ancient Libya.
    Anzar: god of the rain.
    Atlas: a mountain worshiped by the Berbers, according to Strabo and Herodotus.
    Ayyur: the moon, but also a Berber god.
    Baal-Hammon or Baal-Ammon: A Carthaginian god worshipped in north-western Africa.
    Ifrikish ibn Kais: the first Berber king - When the Hebrews invaded Jericho, few survived. Ifrikish ibn Kais led some of Jericho's giants to escape to Africa. They killed the king of that country and settled there, according to some Arab sources.
    Iguc or Iyuc (as G often beceomes Y etc in Berber), god of the rain.
    Isis: an Egyptian goddess worshiped by the Libyans according to Herodotus.
    Makurgun: Berber god, of Punico-Berber origin.[citation needed]
    Maqurtum: an Amazigh God of Punico-Berber origin.
    Mastiman: a Moorish deity mentioned by Corippus.
    Neith: a Libyan goddess mentioned by Herodotus.
    Osiris: an Egyptian deity worshiped by the Libyans, according to Herodotus.
    Poseidon: a Libyan god mentioned by Herodotus.
    Saturn: a Roman deity worshiped by the Berbers. He was paid honour by human sacrifices, according to Tertullian.
    Sinifer: God of war among the Luwata.
    Sophox: Son of Heracles and Tinjis according to Plutarch.
    Suggen: or Seggen, name of a Berber divinity, name which is nowadays found in Aïn Me Lila - Algeria.
    Sun-cult: a cult that was widespread among the Berbers.
    Saint worship: a cult which dates back from antiquity.
    Tanit or Tinnit: a Libyan goddess worshiped in Carthage.
    Tililwa: name of a Berber divinity.
    Tinjis: a mythic wife of the demi-god Antaeus.
    Triton: a god the Greeks met in Libya, according to Herodotus.
    Tislit: Bride of the rain-god Anzar.
    Warsisima: an Amazigh Berber god; this name is a composed name: name + prefix: wer+isem (without name)


    Amun as a common deity

    The most remarkable common god between them was Amun. This god is hard to attribute to only one pantheon. Although the most modern sources ignored the existence of Amun in the Berber mythology, he was maybe the greatest ancient Berber god. He was honored by the Ancient Greeks in Cyrenaica, and was united with the Phoenician god Baal due to Libyan influence. Some depictions of the ram across North Africa belong to the lythic period which is situated between 9600 BC and 7500 BC.
    The most famous Amun's temple in Ancient Libya was the temple at the oasis of Siwa. The name of the ancient Berber tribes: Garamantes and Nasamonians are believed by some scholars to be related to the name Amon.

    Although the Moors came to be associated with Muslims, the name Moor pre-dates Islam. It derives from the small Numidian Kingdom of Maure of the 3rd century BC in what is now northern central and western part of Algeria and a part of northern Morocco. The name came to be applied to people of the entire region. "They were called Maurisi by the Greeks," wrote Strabo, "and Mauri by the Romans." During that age, the Maure or Moors were trading partners of Carthage.



    No unified history

    The amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers. Distinguished primarily by cultural and linguistic attributes, the Berbers, overshadowed by larger empires, tended to be overlooked or marginalized in historical accounts. Roman, Greek, Byzantine, and Arab Muslim chroniclers typically depicted the Berbers as troublesome nomads, or ignorant peasants. They were, however, to play a major role in the area's history...

    The Berbers have never experienced a unified political identity, which makes a review of the "history of the Berbers" somewhat problematic. There have been many strong Berber-led and Berber-populated kingdoms and cultures - often warring among themselves - existing in parallel in various regions of North Africa and Spain, but never a unified "Berber empire". Nor have these cultures used any written Berber language - there are almost no written records in Berber, except for short inscriptions on a few monuments and buildings. Instead, the Berbers have tended to assimilate the culture and adopt the written language of their conquerors - initially Phoenician, Greek and Latin, later Arabic - while continuing to speak spoken Berber among themselves.

    A chronology of some historical events in the Berber area:

    ca 3000 BC - first Egyptian references to the people who are now called Berber
    ca 1100 BC - Phoenicians establish trade centers
    ca 800 BC - Carthage is founded

    Meshwesh - Rulers of Egypt

    The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan (i.e., Berber) tribe from Cyrenaica. During the 19th and 20th Dynasties, the Meshwesh were in almost constant conflict with the Egyptian state. In the late 21st Dynasty, increasing numbers of Meswesh Libyans began to settle in the Western Delta region of Egypt. They would ultimately take control of the country during the late 21st Dynasty first under king Osorkon the Elder. After an interregnum of 38 years, during which the native Egyptian kings Siamun and Psusennes II assumed the throne, they ruled Egypt throughout the 22nd and 23rd Dynasties under such powerful kings as Shoshenq I, Osorkon I, Osorkon II, Shoshenq III and Osorkon III respectively. Their reign only came to an end with the invasion of the Kushite 25th Dynasty in Year 20 of Piye.

    That the Meshwesh were of Libyan origin is explicitly stated in a genealogy contained on the stela of Pasenhor (dated to the reign of Shoshenq V, where the Great Chiefs of the Meshwesh (including the kings of the 22nd Dynasty) are stated to be the descendants of "Buyuwawa the Libyan." The Libyo-Berber origin of the Meshwesh is also indicated in their personal names (such as Osorkon, Takelot, Nimlot, Shoshenq, etc.) and a handful of non-Egyptian titles used by these people that are related to both ancient and modern Berber languages.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    The kings of the Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt were a series of Meshwesh Libyans who ruled from circa 943 BC until 720 BC. They had settled in Egypt since the Twentieth Dynasty. Manetho states that the dynasty originated at Bubastis, but the kings almost certainly ruled from Tanis, which was their capital and the city where their tombs have been excavated.

    Another king who belongs to this group is Tutkheperre Shoshenq, whose precise position within this dynasty is currently uncertain although he is now thought to have ruled Egypt early in the 9th century BC for a short time. The so-called Twenty-Third Dynasty was an offshoot of this dynasty perhaps based in Upper Egypt, though there is much debate concerning this issue. All of its kings reigned in Middle and Upper Egypt including the Western Desert Oases. The next ruler at Tanis after Shoshenq V was Osorkon IV but this king is not believed to be a member of the 22nd Dynasty since he only controlled a small portion of Lower Egypt together with Tefnakhte of Sais--whose authority was recognised at Memphis--and Iuput II of Leontopolis.

    Shoshenq I 943 – 922 BC probably the biblical Shishaq
    Osorkon I 922 – 887 BC
    Shoshenq II 887 – 885 BC enjoyed an independent reign of 2 Years at Tanis according to Von Beckerath
    Takelot I 885 – 872 BC
    Osorkon II 872 – 837 BC an ally of Israel who fought Shalmaneser III of Assyria at the battle of Qarqar in 853 BC.
    Shoshenq III 837 – 798 BC
    Shoshenq (IV)"quartus" 798 – 785 BC not to be confused with Shoshenq VI – the original Shoshenq IV in publications before 1993
    Pami 785 – 778 BC buried two Apis bulls in his reign
    Shoshenq V 778 – 740 BC
    Pedubast II 740 – 730 BC Not mentioned in all King lists
    Osorkon IV 730 – 716 BC Not always listed as a true member of the XXII Dynasty, but succeeded Shoshenq V at Tanis. The biblical Pharaoh So.

    The Twenty-third Dynasty of ancient Egypt was a separate regime of Meshwesh Libyan kings, who ruled ancient Egypt. This dynasty is often considered part of the Third Intermediate Period.

    There is much debate surrounding this dynasty, which may have been situated at Herakleopolis Magna, Hermopolis Magna, and Thebes but monuments from their reign show that they controlled Upper Egypt in parallel with the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt shortly before the death of Osorkon II. The known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-third Dynasty are as follows:

    Harsiese A 880 – 860 BC an independent king at Thebes who ruled during Takelot I's and Osorkon II's reigns
    Takelot II 840 – 815 BC Takelot II Si-Ese Meryamun ruled Middle and Upper Egypt concurrently with the Twenty-Second Dynasty king Shoshenq III, who controlled Lower Egypt.
    Pedubast I 829 – 804 BC His accession as king at Thebes in Year 11 of Takelot II sparked a prolonged civil war between his faction and the forces of king Takelot II/Crown Prince Osorkon B.
    Shoshenq VI 804 – 798 BC Succeeded Pedubast I at Thebes and ruled Upper Egypt for 6 years.
    Osorkon III 798 – 769 BC Involved in a civil war which lasted for 27 long years against Pedubast I and Shoshenq VI. He was the well known High Priest Osorkon B, son of Takelot II
    Takelot III 774 – 759 BC Osorkon III's eldest son, junior coregent and successor.
    Rudamun 759 – 739 BC The younger brother and successor of Takelot III. A poorly attested king.
    Ini 739 – 734 BC Only controlled Thebes during his reign.

    The Meshwesh are known from ancient Egyptian texts as early as the 18th Dynasty, where they are mentioned as a source of cattle provided to king Amenhotep III's palace at Malkata. This indicates there may have been some trade relations between the Meshwesh and the Egyptians at the time. At the very least, it can be said that the Egyptians were familiar with the Meshwesh. For the remainder of the 18th Dynasty, information about Meshwesh or Libyans in general is sketchy. There are, however, representations of Libyans (perhaps Meshwesh) from the reign of Akhenaten, including a remarkable papyrus depicting a group of Libyans slaying an Egyptian. However, the papyrus is fragmentary, so it is not known what the historical context was.

    The relations between the Libyans and the Egyptians during the Ramesside Period were typically one of constant conflict. Battle reliefs at Karnak from the reign of Seti I depict the king in combat with Libyan masses; however the text only describes the Libyans as being Tjehenu, one of the generic terms for "Libyan" in the Egyptian language, rather than a specific tribal designation. During the following reign, that of Ramesses II, the Egyptians constructed a series of coastal fortresses running west to the region of Marsa Matruh, including at al-Alamayn and Zawayat Umm al-Rakham. The presence of these fortresses indicate a serious threat from the west, and Ramesses does claim to have overthrown Libyans in various rhetorical texts. However, as with Seti I, he does not specify if Meshwesh were involved or not.

    During the reign of Merneptah it seems that the early warning system from his father's time had fallen into disrepair as there was an unexpected Libyan invasion into the Nile Delta and the Western Oases in Year 5 of his reign. Unlike his predecessors, Merenptah states in his battle reliefs at Karnak that it was primarily the Libu tribe who led the conflict, but that Meshwesh and Sea People allies were also involved. Indeed, Merenptah claims that "9,100 swords of the Meshwesh" were captured. (This conflict is also described on the Merneptah Stele, also known as the Israel Stele.)

    About twenty-five years later, during the reign of Ramesses III, the growing conflict between the Egyptians and Libyans came to a head. This time, it was the Meshwesh who instigated the conflict, though other Libyan tribes and their Sea People allies were involved in fighting two major campaigns against the Egyptian king, in Ramses III's Regnal Years 5 and 11. The Year 11 campaign was concerned almost exclusively with the Meshwesh, however. Ramesses claimed victory, and settled the Meshwesh in military concentration camps in Middle Egypt in order to force their assimilation into Egyptian culture and press them into military service for the Egyptian state. According to Papyrus Harris I, Ramesses "settled [them] in strongholds of the Victorious King, they hear the language of the [Egyptian] people, serving the King, he makes their language disappear." A Third Intermediate Period text mentions there being at least five "Fortresses of the Meshwesh" in the area of Herakleopolis Magna; these were probably the ones established by Ramesses. However, despite Ramesses III's attempts to deal with Libyan immigration into Egypt, he was unable to put a stop to it. Throughout the 20th Dynasty, various texts on ostraca and papyri mention attacks by Meshwesh tribesmen as far south as Thebes, where the workmen of Deir al-Madinah were forced to seek protection inside the mortuary temple of Medinet Habu.



    Berber people in the Maghreb

    During the pre-Roman era, several successive Independent States (Massyles) existed before the king Massinissa unified the people of Numidia.



    Contacts with Phoenicians

    Around 1000 BC, the Phoenicians began to use the North African coastline as a trade route to Spain from Syria. The Phoenicians, who preferred to sail by day and in sight of land, began to build coastal settlements for their ships to rest at. These ports were chosen by the ease a small population would have defending it. The Phoenicians had no interest in Africa as a resource (other than murex: a shellfish from which purple dye could be extracted), and thought the interior land to be quite hostile.

    By the 5th century bc active military participation in the west by Tyre had doubtlessly ceased; from the latter half of the 6th century Tyre had been under Persian rule. Carthage thus became the leader of the western Phoenicians and in the 5th century formed an empire of its own, centred on North Africa, which included existing Phoenician settlements, new ones founded by Carthage itself, and a large part of modern Tunisia. Nothing is known of resistance from the indigenous North African populations, but it was probably limited because of the scattered nature of local societies and the lack of state formation. The actual stages of the growth of Carthaginian power are not known, but the process was largely completed by the beginning of the 4th century. The whole of the Sharīk (Cap Bon) Peninsula was occupied early, ensuring Carthage a fertile and secure hinterland. Subsequently it extended its control southwestward as far as a line running roughly from Sicca Veneria (El-Kef) to the coast at Thaenae (Thyna, or Thīnah; now in ruins). Penetration occurred south of this line later, Theveste (Tbessa, Tébessa) being occupied in the 3rd century bc. In the Sharīk Peninsula, where the Carthaginians developed a prosperous agriculture, the native population may have been enslaved, while elsewhere they were obliged to pay tribute and furnish troops.

    As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade, and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion also resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early fourth century B.C., Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army.

    From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements (called emporia in Greek) along the North African coast; these settlements eventually served as market towns as well as anchorages. Hippo Regius (modern Annaba) and Rusicade (modern Skikda) are among the towns of Carthaginian origin on the coast of present-day Algeria.
    To the Berber, however, even the smallest settlement became a fascinating place where they could trade and gain knowledge of settled living. The Phoenicians, never being able to turn down the opportunity to wheel and deal, began interacting with the Berber tribes. It was not long before the Berbers had adapted their own form of writing from their civilized neighbors, and gained their first taste of city living.

    By the sixth century BC, the Greek had begun to heavily muscle in on Phoenician trade. Eventually, the Greek city states in Sicily attempted to push the nearby Phoenician settlements off the island. A wholly Greek Sicily was unthinkable, and soon Carthage, the largest of the Phoenician port cities, became the leader and protector of the Phoenician people. The struggle between the Phoenicians and the Greeks lasted over one hundred years.
    In the end, it was the Greeks who triumphed. The Phoenicians, having been dealt a heavy blow, and looking for a place of new resource, began exploring their own African backyard. The success of this fifth century exploration becomes apparent in the renaming of the Phoenicians, to the Carthaginians.

    It was not long before the Carthaginians implemented Berber manpower in their plans, using their farming as a resource and their manpower in the army. This gave the Berbers a smattering of civilization. Word spread, and not long thereafter, chieftains were organizing their tribesmen into agricultural kingdoms in the Numidian mountains.

    The foundation of Carthage by the Phoenicians made a lasting cultural impact on the northern Maghreb. By 310 BCE Carthage controlled much of Northern Tunisia employing rich estates and slaves. By the third century a full-fledged empire was established, controlling much of Tunisia and eastern Algeria. The empire's effect on the population was a process of emulation and competition, which slowly transformed Berber society

    The reaction to the growing territorial consolidation of Carthage was the formation of larger territorial entities by the Berbers. The Carthaginians named them Numidians. The Numidians divided themselves into three kingdoms without significant influence from elsewhere: the kingdoms of Massyli, Masaesyli and Mauri.

    The Phoenicians were originally a Semitic people that once inhabited the coasts of modern Lebanon. They were seafarers and they founded Carthage in 814 BC. They later gave birth to the so-called Punic culture which had its roots in the Berber and Phoenician cultures. Some scholars distinguish the relationships between the Phoenicians and the Berbers in two phases:
    Before the Battle of Himera (480 BC) when the Phoenicians established in Northwest Africa, they stayed in the coastal regions to avoid wars with the Berbers. They maintained their deities which they brought from their homelands. The early Carthaginians had two important deities, Baal and Astarte.
    After the Battle of Himera Carthage began to ally with the Berber tribes after the battle of Himera, in which the Carthaginians were defeated by the Greeks. In addition to political changes, the Carthaginians imported some of the Berber deities.

    Baal was the primary god worshipped in Carthage. Later, Baal was united with the Libyan god Amon to become Baal-Hammon. Depictions of this deity are found in several sites across northwest Africa. The goddess Astarte was replaced by a native goddess, Tanit, which is thought to be of Berber origin. The name itself, Tanit, has a Berber (Tamazight) linguistic structure. Feminine names begin and end with "T" in the Berber language. Some scholars believe that the Egyptian goddess Neith was related to the Libyan goddess Tanit (Ta-neith). There are also Numidian and Phoenician names that apparently contain roots from the god Baal, such as Adherbal and Hannibal.



    Contacts with the Greeks

    The well-known connections between the ancient Berbers and the ancient Greeks were in Cyrenaica where the Greeks had established colonies. The Greeks influenced the eastern Berber pantheon, but they were also influenced by the Berber culture and beliefs. Generally, the Libyan-Greek relationships knew two different periods. In the first period, the Greeks had peaceful relationships with the Libyans. Later, there existed wars between them. These social relationships were mirrored in their beliefs.

    Before the battle of Irassa the first notable appearance of the Libyan influence on the Cyrenaican-Greek beliefs is the name Cyrenaica itself. This name was originally the name of a legendary (mythic) Berber woman warrior who was known as Cyre. Cyre was ,according to the legend, a couragious lion-hunting woman. She gave her name to the city Cyrenaica. The emigrating Greeks made her as their protector besides their Greek god Apollo.

    The Greeks of Cyrenaica seemed also to have adopted some Berber customs and intermarried with the Berber women. Herodotus (Book IV 120) reported that the Libyans taught the Greeks how to yoke four horses to a chariot. The Cyrenaican Greeks built temples for the Libyan god Amon instead of their original god Zeus. They later identified their supreme god Zeus with the Libyan Amon. Some of them continued worshipping Amon himself. Amon's cult was so widespread among the Greeks that even Alexander the Great decided to be declared as the son of Zeus in the Siwan temple by the Libyan priests of Amon.

    The ancient historians mentioned that some Greek deities were of Libyan origin. The daughter of Zeus Athena was considered by some ancient historians, like Herodotus, to have been of Libyan origin. Those ancient historians stated that she was originally honored by the Berbers around Lake Tritonis where she has been born from the god Poseidon and Lake Tritonis, according to the Libyan legend. Herodotus wrote that the Aegis and the clothes of Athena are typical for Libyan woman.

    Herodotus stated also that Poseidon (an important Greek sea god) was adopted from the Libyans by the Greeks. He emphasized that no other people worshipped Poseidon from early times than the Libyans who spread his cult:

    [..]these I think received their naming from the Pelasgians, except Poseidon; but about this god the Hellenes learnt from the Libyans, for no people except the Libyans have had the name of Poseidon from the first and have paid honour to this god always.

    Some other Greek deities were related to Libya. The goddess Lamia was believed to have originated in Libya, like Medusa and the Gorgons. The Greeks seem also to have met the god Triton in Libya. The Greeks may have believed that the Hesperides was situated in modern Morocco. Some scholars situate it in Tangier where Antaios lived, according to some myths. The Hesperides were believed to be the daughters of Atlas a god that is associated with the Atlas mountains by Herodotus. The Atlas mountain was worshipped by the Berbers.

    After the Battle of Irassa the Greeks and the Libyans began to break their harmony in the period of the Battus II. Battus II began secretly to invite other Greek groups to Libya. The Libyans considered that as a danger that has to be stopped. The Berbers began to fight against the Greeks, sometimes in alliance with the Egyptians and other times with the Carthaginians. Nevertheless, the Greeks were the victors.

    Some historians believe that the myth of Antaios was a reflection of those wars between the Libyans and Greeks. The legend tells that he was the undefeatable protector of the Libyans. He was the son of the god Poseidon and Gaia. He was the husband of the Berber goddess Tinjis. He used to protect the lands of the Berbers until he was slain by the Greek hero Heracles who married Tingis and fathered the son Sufax (Berber-Greek son). Some Libyan kings, like Juba I, claimed to be the descendants of Sufax. While some sources described him as the king of Irassa, Plutarch reported that the Libyans buried Antaios in Tangier:

    In this city (Tangier) the Libyans say that Antaeus is buried; and Sertorius had his tomb dug open, the great size of which made him disbelieve the Barbarians...
    (Plutarch, The Parallel Lives)


    In the Greek iconography, Antaeus was clearly distinguished from the Greek appearance. He was depicted with long hair and beard that was typical for the Eastern Libyans.



    Rising Kingdoms

    Paradoxically, it was a people quite far away from Carthage who were the first to emerge into history with an indigenous kingdom. These were the Mauri who formed a tribal federation sometime in the fourth century BC. Their eastern limit was somewhere near the Moulouya river, in what is now eastern Morocco. Perhaps because they were pastoral people or perhaps simply because they were further away, little is known about their society.

    These Africans are shadowy figures to our modern eyes. They have left only the slightest historic trace. In the Eastern Maghreb, Carthage was threatened from the desert by people whom Herodotus knew as the Garamantes; to the Egyptians, whom they also fought, they were the “Libu.” These earliest groups seem to be the origins of the Berbers. They cultivated bread wheat and barley, they tended sheep, and they had horses with which they made war. As the Carthaginians spread their rule in the fifth century BC, they employed many “Libyans” as mercenary soldiers.

    What really spread Carthaginian influence into the African interior was war with the Greek city states, particularly in Sicily. The war lasted, almost continuously, for over a century and the booty and the Greek prisoners who were taken to Carthage as slaves made the city extremely wealthy. This took Carthage into the mainstream of Mediterranean civilisation, which was largely Greek. The Greek prisoners brought Hellenic art and Greek architecture and even Greek gods. But it was still a Carthaginian civilisation, which had one enormous strength: the Punic language could be written in an alphabetical script. Very little material written in Punic has survived, but it is clear why it recommended itself to the people of the African interior. As the mercenaries returned home after the war, they took the Punic language with them, at least to some places, as well as Carthaginian agricultural methods. Then they began to construct their own political kingdoms.

    By the third century BC another, more settled, kingdom (or perhaps just one that is better known) had emerged in what is now Algeria. The territory of the Masaeslyi stretched from the river Moulouya to the country around the modern city of Constantine. Nearer still to Carthage were the Massyli. Together these kingdoms made up what the Romans would call Numidia; they would play their part in the eventual destruction of Carthage.

    Numida was the name given by the Romans to that part of Africa which is now Algeria, and reaching south to the Atlas Mountains. The inhabitants were of the race from which the Berbers are descended; were warlike, faithless, dishonest, yet excellent horsemen.

    The Numidians were of mixed Berber and Ethiopian ancestry. The Berbers claimed descent from the Mazoi, the Negro soldiers of ancient Egypt. Their numbers, like others of the peoples of northern Africa, were continually reinforced by Negro peoples from the south brought in as captives and slaves. The great strength of both Numidia and Carthage was the renowned Numidlan cavalry.

    The Massylian kingdom emerged in the late fourth century BC and moved their capital to Cirta somewhere in the early third century. Massylia was both an ally and an enemy of Carthage during its existence but in the end chose the side of the Romans under the leadership of Massinissa.
    In the third century BC Massinissa was king of the Numidians. His Father, Gaia, was king of the Massylies.

    Algeria was divided into three kingdoms, each led by a military chief, an aguellid. Those kingdoms were Massylia in the east, Masaessylia in the west, and Guetulia in the South.
    By the time Rome started to come into contact with the Berber aguellids, Gaïa was the aguellid of Massylia and Syphax of the Masaessylians, also known as the Western Maures. The kindom of Syphax covered a huge territory with two capital cities: Siga in the west, and Korta or Cirta (today's Constantine), taken from the Massyles. Thus, the territory of Gaïa was deprived of one of its fertile lands.

    In 213 B.C, a war started between Syphax and Carthage, Gaïa immediately gave support to Carthage by sending his son, Masinissa, at the head of his military troops, hoping to recover his lost territories. The war ended one year after the beginning of the hostilities, but the hopes of Gaïa were not fullfiled. In spite of that, he kept his alliance with Carthage and helped them in the Second Punic War, with Carthage in opposition to Rome
    in Spain. This war turned to the benefit of Rome since Carthage lost all of its possessions in Spain, except for Gades.

    Romans wanted to destroy the power of Carthage, not only in Spain, but also in North Africa. Therefore, they sent Scipion the African to Siga in order to win Syphax over to their camp. Knowing about the Romans' plan, the Carthaginians did the same; they promised Syphax they would forget his usurpation of their ally's territory, if he remained neutral. Syphax proposed to both antagonists to meet on his land in order to discuss and reach a peaceful compromise. This proposal did not satisfy Scipion and thus, he went back to Rome. Meanwhile, the Carthaginians continued their mission until they won from Syphax the promise that he would not support Rome. In return, he was given Sophonisba, daughter of Asdrubal, as bride, in addition to material compensation.

    Scipion knew well about the conflicts between Gaïa and Syphax. He knew, as well, that Gaïa had some members of his family fighting for Carthage against Rome in Spain. He, therefore, decided to take full advantage of this situation. Scipion made Masiva (one of Gaïa's grandchildren) prisoner of war and then released him immediatly to win the Numidians' sympathy. Scipion finally met Masinissa, son of Gaïa and head of his military troops, in Gades. Their meeting ended with a mutual agreement: Masinissa decided to help Rome in fighting Carthage, and Scipion promised that he would help him recover the lands of his ancestors.

    When Gaïa died (206 B.C.), his brother Oezalces succeded him. Oezalces was married to a Carthaginian, niece of Hannibal. Therefore, he had the support of Carthage, but he died soon afterwards and left behind him two sons: Capussa and Lacumaze. Capussa, the elder, ascended the throne, but his reign was contested by Meztule, a member of the royal family. Meztule received military support from Syphax and attacked his cousin. Capussa died on the battlefield. Meztule, knowing that he was not eligible to rule, installed Lacumaze on the throne though, according to tradition, Masinissa was the successor since he had seniority over his cousin.

    When Masinissa heard the news, he was in Spain. He immediately left Gades for Mauritania (206 B.C) in order to avoid Syphax's attack. He went to Baga (king of the Maures) and asked for anaïa. Baga offered him an escort of 4,000 men, who accompanied him to his land. Once there, he gathered 500 cavalryman and attacked Lacumaze, who was leaving Thappsus (today's Skikda, on the Algerian east coast) on his way to Cirta. Lacumaze lost his military troops and fled to Cirta, but not without thinking of
    revenge.

    On the death of the father, the inheritance received allowed the son to achieve unity of the 2 tribes, the Masaesyles and the Massyles into a single people. Thus began the building of the western history of North Africa. In this northern region of the African continent, if the distant past of Egypt and Libya has been clearly established, the countries located to the west of Tripolitania is only known in a hypothetical manner before the advent of Carthage.

    When Massinissa was born, Numidia (more or less the north of modern Algeria) was a country on the edge of the urbanized world of the Mediterranean. Although many people were living in large villages that would eventually develop into cities, another part of the Numidian population was still roaming over the plains. Our word "nomad" is derived from "Numidia".

    There were two tribal federations, both in the process of becoming full-blown kingdoms. In the west lived the Masaeisylians, in the east the Massylians. (They are already confused in ancient sources.) It seems that the eastern kingdom, which was close to Carthage, was more sympathetic to this city, and it is possible that the Carthaginians had actively encouraged the rise of a pro-Carthaginian dynasty that would be a buffer against the western Numidians.

    Massaesylia was the arch nemesis of the Massylian kingdom of Numidia, Massaesylia once stood as more powerful by far. Though Massaesylia emerged at roughly the same time in history as Massylia did it was largely unheard of until the second Punic war when its king, Syphax, decided to leave the side of the Romans for the promise of marriage to the beautiful Sophonisba of Carthage.

    But then came Massinissa and North Africa enter the history of the world. And it may be because of this exceptional reputation that European and Arab writers, perhaps anxious to shine chapters relating to their own countries, have dodged the person and work of this prestigious character: the King of Numidia.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    It seems that the name of Massinissa is a nickname rather ripe for a nickname. First, we must decompose the name in "Mass", and "Inissa". "Mass" means "Sir", as "Massa" means "Lady". Then it is likely that this king has been nicknamed "Inissi" word meaning Hedgehog, which has become "Inissa" by use or by distortion. Indeed this chief had a reputation for being picky and uncompromising, or "prickly" in its relations, just as he should have a tendency to withdraw into himself to literally become an impregnable ball when under adversity. That did not prevent him from being recognized of high value.


    Lacumaze and Meztule asked for Syphax's help and returned to the battle with 15,000 infantarymen and 10,000 cavalrymen. Masinissa did not have as large a miltary force; yet he was able to defeat them. This victory permitted Masinissa to be at the head of Massylia. Upon his accession to the throne, now unified under his leadership, Massinissa began to realize a vast empire across this vast west Mediterranean area. That dream immediately bumped into a double hostility: that of Carthage, who did not want to see its prestige eclipsed on the extent of the land of Africa and, that of Rome, which opposed any competition of its force in the Mediterranean. After recovering his throne, Masinissa's first aim was to unite all the Numidians in order to retrieve the lands of his ancestors, taken from them by the Carthaginians... But this time, war can't be played fair...

    team:
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    Thread Director: pirates_say_arrgg
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  3. #3

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI


    Numidian Army
    by haeressiarch, pirates_say_arrgg and hamsha


    Numidians at War

    The Numidians had three national past times. Of their king Jugurtha, it is said he took part in the national pursuits of riding, javelin throwing and competed with other youngmen in running.
    These pursuits prepared the Numidians for the style of war they preferred. Both horse and foot were part of a Numidian force, but the foot was always of dubious quality: "Metullus could rely on the courage of his soldiers, but the ground was against him. Jugurtha had everything in his favour except the quality of his troops." [ Sallust The Jugurthine War :51] Even the cavalry was not the best in the ancient world:"The Numidian horsemen were not a match for the Spanish." [Livy Book XX111: 26] This said it is only fair to state that the Numidian cavalry was not equipped for hand to hand combat any more than the infantry and when attacked by Spanish and Celtic cavalry who were accustomed to charging home and equipped to do so, they could only flee. "This being perceived, the legionaries immediately halted; and the cavalry, though few in number, boldly charged the vast multitude of the enemy. An incredible event occurred, that less than thirty Gallic horse repulsed two thousand Moors, and drove them into the town. Having thus repulsed the enemy and compelled them to retire behind their walls." [Sallust, the Jugurthine war. 11.6]

    The weapon of choice for any Numidian soldier mounted or on foot was always the javelin. This certainly led to some under estimation of Numidian worth by Roman generals and a misunderstanding of what took place in battles. The Romans soon learnt from practical experience, the danger of fighting against the very different style of Numidian tactics. C. Julius Caesar gives us a lucid description of the problems of fighting the nimble Africans. "Meanwhile, both the main bodies advancing to engage, the enemy's cavalry, intermixed with some light-armed Numidians, suddenly sprang forward, from their crowded troops, and attacked the legions with a shower of darts. Our men, preparing to return the charge, their horse retreated a little, while the foot continued to maintain their ground, till the others, having rallied, came on again, with fresh vigor, to sustain them."
    Caesar perceived that his ranks were in danger of being broken by this new way of fighting, for our foot, in pursuing the enemy's horse, having advanced a considerable way beyond their standards, were wounded in the flank by the nearest Numidian darts, while the enemy's horse easily escaped our infantry's javelins by flight; he therefore gave express orders that no soldier should advance above four feet beyond the ensigns. Meanwhile, Labienus's cavalry, confiding in their numbers endeavored to surround those of Caesar: who being few in number, and overpowered by the multitude of the enemy, were forced to give ground a little, their horses being much wounded. The enemy pressed on more and more; so that in an instant, the legions, being surrounded on all sides by the enemy's cavalry, were obliged to form themselves into a circle, and fight, as if includes with barriers.

    Numidians were always tormented by the lack of solid fighting foot troops. A lack which the liberal use of elephants did not satisfactorily compensate for. They lacked the capacity to close with an enemy that other troops such as Spanish enjoyed. "Meantime the Numidian horse, wheeling round the hills, to the right and left, threatened to incise Caesar's forces with their numbers, while part continued to harass his rear: and if but three or four veteran soldiers faced about, and darted their javelins at the enemy, no less than two thousand of them would take to flight: but suddenly rallying, returned to the fight, and charged the legionaries with their darts." [Caesar the Civil War. Book 11.70]

    This is not to say the penalties for defeat were less than Draconian. "Juba ordered all the Numidians who had deserted their post and fled to their camp to be crucified." [Sallust The Jugurthine War Book11.66]
    To evade from contact was acceptable; to run right out of the combat zone was not. This harsh discipline had an unfortunate result for Jugurtha. When his armies were beaten, they tended to disperse completely, leaving the hapless Numidian ruler with the unenviable predicament of raising a completely new army. This may have been a customary punishment used by other Numidian kings because it was usual for defeated.

    Numidian armies to completely disperse and make for their homes. This is not to say that Numidians were easy to fight. The novelty of the style was disconcerting in the extreme and required Roman experience and/or careful training to combat them. "Caesar, to meet enemies of this sort, was necessitated to instruct his soldiers, not like a general of a veteran army which had been victorious in so many battles, but like a fencing master training up his gladiators, with on what foot they must advance or retire; when they were to oppose and make good their ground; when to counterfeit an attack; at what place, and in what manner to launch their javelins. For the enemy's light armed troops gave wonderful trouble and annoyance to our army; because they not only deterred the cavalry from the encounter, by killing their horses with their javelins, but likewise wearied out the legionary soldiers by their swiftness: for as often as these heavy- armed troops advanced to attack them, they evaded the danger by a quick retreat." [Julius Caesar The Civil War Book 11.71]

    As with many generals throughout history, Caesar had to learn that allowing your forces to be completely encircled was devastating to troop morale and rendered offensive action extremely difficult. Against threatened encirclement there is only one tactic, to spread the line until the envelopment breaks. "Caesar meanwhile, perceiving the enemy's design, endeavored to extend his line of battle, as much as possible, directing the cohorts to face about alternately to the right and left. By this means, he broke the enemy's circle with his right and left wings; and attacking one part of them, thus separated from the other, with his horse and foot, at last put them to flight." [Julius Caesar The Civil War Book 11.17]



    Numidian Cavalry

    The cavalry was always the more effective arm of the Numidian cavalry.. Each rider being familiar with the way he was required to fight. Both cavalry squadrons and infantry companies utilized standards to rally to after an evade and would form up on these. "Jugurtha took up his own position nearer the mountain with all his cavalry and the pick of his infantry. Then visiting each squadron and company, he earnestly besought them to remember the victory which their valor had already gained.
    The Numidians had stationed themselves and their horses among the thickets and although they were not completely hidden by the low trees, it was difficult to distinguish just what was there since the men and their standards were concealed both by their surroundings and by camouflage." [Sallust. The Jugurthine War. 49]

    The outcome of this was that the Numidians cavalry was able to retire swiftly from a charge, but return quickly to the attack. This method would be used whether the enemy was foot or mounted. "Whenever a squadron of Roman cavalry began to charge, instead of retiring in a body in one direction, they retreated independently, scattering as widely as possible. In this way they could take advantage of their numerical superiority. If they failed to check their enemies' charge, they would wait until the Romans lost their formation and then cut them off." [Sallust, The Jugurthine War. 51]

    Even in formal battles as auxiliaries for Carthage or Rome, the Numidians maintained this loose manner of fighting. The metaphor of a pack of dogs springs readily to mind. Any charge would not be resisted, but the flanks and rear of the enemy would be savaged as the attack ran out of steam. The aim was to cut off the victim and force him to stand or run. To stand was to be shot to death. To run was fatal. The Numidian cavalry was deadly in pursuit. Even if the enemy was not dispersed they would be neutralised by the scattered Numidians.

    Polybius gave an excellent account of this style of fighting in his account of the battle of Cannae. "The Numidian horse on the Carthaginian right were meanwhile charging through the cavalry on the Roman left; and though, from the peculiar nature of their mode of fighting, they neither inflicted nor received much harm, they yet rendered the enemy's horse useless by keeping them occupied, and charging them first on one side and then another. But when Hasdrubal, after all but annihilating the cavalry by the river, came from the left to the support of the Numidians, the Roman allied cavalry, seeing his charge approaching, broke and fled. At that point Hasdrubal appears to have acted with great skill and discretion. Seeing the Numidians to be strong in numbers, and more effective and formidable to troops that had once been forced from their ground, he left the pursuit to them; while he himself hastened to the part of the field where the infantry were engaged, and brought his men up to support the Libyans." [Polybios Book 3, 116.5]

    Mostly due to inferior horses, Numidians were not the fastest cavalry ( the Southern Spanish were quite capable of riding them down). The small horse was agile and apart from being very maneuverable, could scramble through or over terrain that brought other mounted units to a halt. "Numidians found it more convenient to retreat to the hill rather than the plain, their horses being used to the ground, made their way easily through the thickets" [Sallust, The Jugurthine War. 51]

    Two types of basic light cavalry both armed with a round shield and javelins are described, being distinguished by riding bridled or unbridled horses. It is not made clear which of the two were superior if indeed either were. Livy refers to Roman cavalry releasing their bridles so their horses would ride right through a Celtiberian wedge, but it is unlikely the Numidians did not ride without bridles for this reason. Those that rode in this fashion relied on their knees plus a riding crop\ prod. Armor was not worn, nor were hand weapons generally carried. One other cavalry group existed. It is customary to consider the Numidians as being entirely skirmishing cavalry, but this is hardly correct with reference to Numidian national armies. It was customary for the kings to have a sizeable bodyguard of foreign horsemen.

    King Juba is recorded as having a royal bodyguard, which consisted of 2000 Gallic and Spanish mercenary cavalry, which he relied on, as well as a significant force of mounted nobility and outstanding warriors. "For some of the nobler Gaetulians among the royal horse, with other illustrious men of that nation (whose fathers had served under C. Marius, and from his bounty obtained considerable estates in their country, but after Sylla's victory had been made tributaries to king Hiempsal), taking advantage of the night, when the fires were lighted, came over to Caesar's camp near Uzita, with their horses and servants, to the number of about a thousand." {Caesar - The Civil War 11. 56}
    The native 'elite' cavalry could not be relied on to the same extent, thus the foreign mercenaries were in effect the king's bodyguard and could be trusted to operate separately from the king at the crucial part of a battle. "Juba, being informed by Sabura of the battle in the night, sent to his relief two thousand Spanish and Gallic horse, which he was accustomed to keep near him to guard his person." [Caesar The Civil War - Book 11.41]



    The Infantry

    Troops were almost as varied as a Carthaginian army and perhaps these make a good alternate enemy for them. Numidian kings were never able to come up with decent infantry, although they did succeed in some improvement under King Syphax. During the Second Punic War he was able to obtain the services of a Roman centurion Quintus Statorius. Livy has Syphax saying his army was quite shapeless and haphazard, a mere casual mob. The centurion went to work. "Statorius found ample material from which to enrol infantry soldiers for Syphax; he organized them very much after the Roman pattern, gave them instruction in forming up, maneuvering, following the standards, and keeping formation, and accustomed them to various military duties, including fortifications, and all so successfully that the prince soon came to trust his infantry no less than his cavalry, and that when an engagement took place on open ground he defeated his Carthaginian foe." [Livy, The History of Rome Book XXIV]
    This was obviously too dangerous for Carthage who allied with the most famous Numidian prince Masinissa to annihilate Syphaxs army. Some vestige of the training of Statorius must have stuck, because the Numidian infantry is never referred to as a formless mass in later times. In fact, the formations do seem to echo the Roman maniples and although this can only be conjecture, the infantry fight in a mix of Roman and Numidian techniques as a sort of light infantry. Showing an ability to maintain unit cohesion and rally to standards like the Roman troops, while attempting to avoid direct contact in their native fashion.
    "When Jugurtha saw that Metellus rearguard had passed the first lines of his own army, he stationed a force of some two thousand infantry on the hill at the point where Metellus had descended, so that the Romans would not be able to retreat to it and defend themselves there. Immediately afterwards he gave the order to attack. The rear of Metellus column suffered heavy casualties and both flanks were assailed by mobile assailants who pressed home their attacks and spread general confusion in the Roman ranks. For even the men who resisted with the most dogged courage were disconcerted by this irregular manner of fighting, in which they were wounded at long range without being able to strike back or come to grips with their foe"[Sallust, The Jugurthine War.51]
    When the infantry had to wait for combat closer formations were favoured, because troops in close formations are less likely to run away. These would be extended to deliver an attack. This is more suggestive of light infantry troops. It should be noted that the Numidians also made good skirmish troops. This type of fighting entirely suiting their nature. "Accordingly, he altered the formation of his battle line, which, because he distrusted his men's courage, he had drawn up in close order. He now extended it so he would be able to block the enemies line of march." [Sallust, The Jugurthine War. 53]



    Elephants

    As previously mentioned, the Numidian army lacked real staying power and although the cavalry and infantry could deal very effectively with enemy mounted troops by use of formations working in close support, Disciplined infantry were another problem. In an effort to hold the Romans until the heavy missiles could destroy them with missile fire, the Numidians made extensive use of African elephants. Caesar describes some as having towers on their backs, Sallust is less clear, but both mention body protection.
    That this combination of tactics was initially quite effective is apparent by the degree of trouble Julius Caesar took to accustom his legionaries to the beasts. "Caesar was rendered very anxious by these occurrences; because as often as he engaged with his cavalry, without being supported by the infantry, he found himself by no means a match for the enemy's horse, supported by their light-armed foot: and as he had no experience of the strength of their legions, he foresaw still greater difficulties when these should be united, as the shock must then be overwhelming. In addition to this, the number and size of the elephants greatly increased the terror of the soldiers; for which, however, he found a remedy, in causing some of those animals to be brought over from Italy, that his men might be accustomed to the sight of them, know their strength and courage, and in what part of the body they were most vulnerable. For as the elephants are covered with trappings and ornaments, it was necessary to inform them what parts of the body remained naked, that they might direct their darts thither. It was likewise needful to familiarize his horses to the cry, smell, and figure of these animals; in all of which he succeeded to a wonder; for the soldiers quickly came to touch them with their hands, and to be sensible of their tardiness; and the cavalry attacked them with blunted darts, and, by degrees, brought their horses to endure their presence.
    Significant numbers of elephants are recorded in Numidian armies, ranging from four captured and 40 killed in one battle to 60 in another and even 120 with the troops fighting Caesar. Elephants have always been a two edged weapon, as the Romans were aware and once they had grown used to dealing with them the legions found that fleeing elephants would either trample their own troops in flight or generate a panic in units that had put their faith in the mighty beasts. Even after years of training, elephants could remain a dangerous proposition to all troops on the battlefield. "Caesar perceiving that the ardor of his soldiers would admit of no restraint, giving "good fortune" for the word, spurred on his horse, and charged the enemy's front. On the right wing the archers and slingers poured their eager javelins without intermission upon the elephants, and by the noise of their slings and stones, so terrified these animals, that turning upon their own men, they trod them down in heaps, and rushed through the half-finished gates of the camp. At the same time the Mauritanian horse, who were in the same wing with the elephants, seeing themselves deprived of their assistance, betook themselves to flight." [Caesar, The Civil War Book 11.83]

    Numidian cavalry and infantry were used to operating with elephants and capable of stiff resistance as long as the elephants stood fast. Little thought seems to have been given to placement of theses ancient tanks as is shown by the description of a battle where the elephants are deployed in rough ground. " As soon as the enemy came close both sides charged with loud shouts. The Numidians stood their ground only as long as they thought they could rely on their elephants for protection. When they saw the beasts getting entangled in the branches of trees, with the result that they were separated and could be surrounded by the enemy, they took to their heels. Most of them, dropping their arms escaped unhurt, thanks to the proximity of a hill and the approaching dark.. Four elephants were killed and all the remaining forty killed." [Sallust, The Jugurthine War. 53]

    It is interesting to note that the later battles of the Jugurthine war do not feature elephants. Perhaps the supply had dried up, or the Numidian commanders no longer trusted them. Probably a combination of both.



    War in Numidian fashion

    This is not an army for the unskilled or inexperienced leader, but can be deadly in the hands of a sneaky general prone to laying battlefield ambushes. Numidian army in most accidents contains good skirmishers with javelin and shield. Mediocre Light Infantry with javelin and shield. Poor Light infantry with javelin and shield. A goodly supply of African elephants may decide the fate of battle.

    There always should be an attempt to make use of moderately rough terrain on the battlefield like on the rolling lands of Numidia. Medium slopes with generous clumps of thickets and trees would be most accurate to use all skills of Massylii army. As much use should be made of concealment as possible, and wherever possible attempts should be made to put troops to the rear of an enemy force. Where terrain permit an ambush, always make use of the facility.
    Take a lesson from the Nomads and try to operate in combined arms groups of cavalry and infantry in the centre and/or either of these two supported by elephants. The Pachyderms should be used to slow and hold the enemy and not as the striking force.

    RotN team portrayed following units we considered as most representative for this nation:



    UNIT LIST: NUMIDIA

    Numidian Infantry:

    1. DONE Numidian Skirmishers
    2. DONE Numidian Archers
    3. DONE Numidian Slingers
    4. DONE Numidian Light Spearmen
    5. DONE Numidian Light Infantry
    6. DONE Numidian Reformed (Medium) Infantry
    7. DONE Numidian Thorakitai Infantry (imitation legionaries)

    Numidian Cavalry:

    1. DONE Numidian Skirmisher Cavalry
    2. DONE Numidian Noble Cavalry
    3. DONE Camel Riders
    4. DONE Numidian Late Noble Cavalry
    5. [DONE African Forrest Elephants



    Numidian Command

    NUMIDIAN KING
    Numidian Army Commander

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    Origin

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    Equipment:

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    NUMIDIAN PRINCE
    Numidian Army Commander

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    Origin

    xxx

    Equipment:

    xxx

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    NUMIDIAN INFANTRY OFFICER
    Numidian Infantry Leader

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    Origin

    xxx

    Equipment:

    xxx

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    NUMIDIAN CAVALRY OFFICER
    Numidian Light Cavalry Leader

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    Origin

    xxx

    Equipment:

    xxx

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    STANDARD BEARERS
    Numidian Infantry Standard Bearer

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    Origin

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    xxx

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    Numidian Infantry

    NUMIDIAN ARCHERS
    Numidian Light Archers/Skirmishers

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    Origin

    Carthaginians used numidian allies and mercenaties extensively. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from which the Berbers are descended. The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. He was initially on the side of Carthage during the Rome and Carthage conflict.
    Ever since the dawn of numidian people, they have fought from a distance. Most of all sling and javelin were in favour for simple reason. Historically, the Numidian peoples lacked all but the simple bow until the arrival of Phoenicians at the end of the Bronze Age. Numidians began to take up the bow and use it extensively with tremendous accuracy. Soon, Carthage itself started to replace Phoenician archers with Numidians, and sending the former ones to become Marines in her great navy.

    Equipment:

    As most of numidian troops, numidian archers wear none of any kind of armor, for it slows them battle.
    Numidian archers use composite bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. Different materials are used in order to take advantage of the properties of each material. Efective range and skills of numidian bowmen made them became the most feared and sought after archers in the Western Mediterranean.

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    NUMIDIAN SLINGERS
    Numidian Light Skirmishers

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    Origin

    The Numidians were the fearsome enemies and allies of Ancient Rome sending bowmen, slingers, javelinmen, and horsemen out from their North African kingdom. When Syphax was born (last quarter of the third century BC), Numidia (the north of modern Algeria) was a country on the edge of the urbanized world of the Mediterranean. Although many people were living in large villages that would eventually develop into cities, another part of the Numidian population was still roaming over the plains. Our word "nomad" is derived from "Numidia".
    Numidian slingers came from the shepherd nomads who used their slings to protect their herds from predators of north africa. They were levied and stationed ahead or alongside a larger body of friendly troops. They are usually placed in a skirmish line to either harass enemy troops or to protect their own troops from similar attacks by the enemy. The sling was light to carry and cheap to produce; ammunition in the form of stones was readily available and often to be found near the site of battle, so numidian skirmishing units were employed in large numbers.
    Acting as light infantry with their light arms and minimal armor, they could run ahead of the main battle line, release a volley of slingshots, and retreat behind their main battle line before the clash of the opposing main forces. The aims of slingers were to disrupt enemy formations by causing casualties before the main battle, and to tempt the opposing infantry into attacking prematurely, throwing their organization into disarray.

    Equipment:

    Numidian Slingers were armed with simple projectile weapon typically used to throw a blunt projectile such as a stone. It is also known as the shepherd's sling. A sling has a small cradle or pouch in the middle of two lengths of cord. The sling stone is placed in the pouch. Both cords are held in the hand, then the sling is swung and one of the two cords is released. This frees the projectile to fly on a tangent to the circle made by the pouch's rotation. The sling derives its effectiveness by essentially extending the length of a human arm, thus allowing stones to be thrown several times farther than they could be by hand. The sling is very inexpensive, and easy to build. It has historically been used for hunting game and in combat. It was always considered as low-status weapon. Except their main weapon, numidian slingers had only a short knife and they wore no armors or any other protective equipment. Sometimes carried light shields.

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    NUMIDIAN SKIRMISHERS
    Numidian Light Infantry Skirmishers

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    Origin

    The mainstay of the Numidian army are light, mobile, skirmishing units. Primarily fighting with javelins they are particularly unsuited to a stand up fight but are perfect skirmishers. Their tactics were to avoid contact with the enemy but to dart in and attack flanks and rear or cut off groups of pursuers that had overextended themselves.
    The numidians had a reputation as swift horsemen, cunning soldiers and excellent javelin throwers. It is said that Jugurtha, the Numidian king "...took part in the national pursuits of riding, javelin throwing and competed with other young men in running." [Sallust The Jugurthine War: 6]. The numidian light infantry served as mercenaries in the Carthaginian Army and played a key role in assisting Hannibal during the Second Punic War.
    They are recruited from amongst nomadic peoples who need their weapon skills to survive in harsh conditions. Most of them were trained in javelin from infancy and they proved to be very fast and agile warriors. They would shower the enemy with javelins before closing in for hand to hand combat, where their superior numbers usually made up for their lack of heavy weaponry and armour.

    "Meanwhile, both the main bodies advancing to engage, the enemy's cavalry, intermixed with some light-armed Numidians, suddenly sprang forward, from their crowded troops, and attacked the legions with a shower of darts. Our men, preparing to return the charge, their horse retreated a little, while the foot continued to maintain their ground, till the others, having rallied, came on again, with fresh vigor, to sustain them." Caesar, The African War

    Equipment:

    The Numidian skirmisher was armed with a small shield and several javelins. A javelin is a light spear designed primarily for casting as a ranged weapon. The javelin is almost always thrown by hand unlike the arrow and slingshot which are projectiles shot from a mechanism. However, hurling devices do exist to assist the thrower in achieving greater distance. The word javelin comes from Middle English and it derives from Old French javeline, a diminutive of javelot which meant spear. The word javelot probably originated from the Celtic language.

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    NUMIDIAN SPEARMEN
    Numidian Light Infantry Spearmen

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    Origin

    Both horse and foot were part of a Numidian force, but the foot was always of dubious quality in ancient sources. Hellenistic and roman commanders saw Numidian infantry as not particularly impressive – the preferred tactic seems to have been the same as that of the cavalry – to avoid contact with the enemy as much as possible and gain advantage by attacking a flank or wearing the enemy down by constant skirmishing. But we should remember that hellenistic monarchs and roman generals preferred different style of combat than tribes of north Africa.
    Numidian kings were never able to come up with decent infantry, although they did succeed in some improvement under King Syphax. During the Second Punic War he was able to obtain the services of a Roman centurion Quintus Statorius. Livy has Syphax saying his army was quite shapeless and haphazard, a mere casual mob. They are not troops that can win the battle by defending. Numidians are light troops and they need to move constantly. Whether they are fighting against the Carthaginans or Romans, general that leads them have to work cut out winning with such a light troops but it can be very rewarding watching a frustrated opponent try to pin them down and beat them.
    When on foot, the Numidians attacked with bows, slings or javelins. Impressed by their talent, the Carthaginians and later the Romans incorporated Numidians into their own armies.

    Equipment:

    Numidian light spearmen were equipped no different than skirmishers, except of bronze helmets (mostly of punic origin, but more often they wore their hair in ringlets and they rarely could afford to use helmets of any kind) and spears, which they used with swiftness and agility. Their light shields and lack of body armor allowed them to present dependable force able to react fast when needed.
    The light infantry might carry a round or an oval shield all others their round shield. All were equipped with iron headed javelins and apart from the Celts and Spanish and some nobility hand weapons were not carried.
    Their primary weapon was simple spear and in hand to hand combat they oftenly used long knifes or short african sword which made them flexible fighting force able to stand against lightly armored troops.

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    NUMIDIAN INFANTRY
    Numidian Light Infantry

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    Origin

    Numidian kings were never able to come up with decent infantry, although they did succeed in some improvement under King Syphax. During the Second Punic War he was able to obtain the services of a Roman centurion Quintus Statorius. Livy has Syphax saying his army was quite shapeless and haphazard, a mere casual mob. The centurion went to work. "Statorius found ample material from which to enrol infantry soldiers for Syphax; he organized them very much after the Roman pattern, gave them instruction in forming up, maneuvering, following the standards, and keeping formation, and accustomed them to various military duties, including fortifications, and all so successfully that the prince soon came to trust his infantry no less than his cavalry, and that when an engagement took place on open ground he defeated his Carthaginian foe." [Livy, The History of Rome Book XXIV]

    This was obviously too dangerous for Carthage who allied with the most famous Numidian prince Masinissa to annihilate Syphaxs army. Some vestige of the training of Statorius must have stuck, because the Numidian infantry is never referred to as a formless mass in later times. In fact, the formations do seem to echo the Roman maniples and although this can only be conjecture, the infantry fight in a mix of Roman and Numidian techniques as a sort of light infantry. Showing an ability to maintain unit cohesion and rally to standards like the Roman troops, while attempting to avoid direct contact in their native fashion.

    "For it was remarkable to what extent the enemy light infantry had occasioned worry and anxiety among our men [Caesar's Romans]. Their constant javelin fire caused casualties among the horses and kept the cavalry from engaging while their speediness wore out the legionaries; for as soon as any of the heavy infantry, under pursuit, halted and attacked them, they easily ran out of danger. Consequently, Caesar was seriously worried; for whenever there was an engagement he found himself totally unable to match the enemy cavalry and light infantry with his own cavalry unsupported by legionaries [...]" Pseudo-Caesar, The African War.

    Equipment:

    The Numidian Infantry was very swift and manouvrable. Even if the infantrists were armed with short swords for close quarters they preffered to avoid close combat as much as possible and shower their enemy with javelins. The Numidian Light Infantry was composed of hardy men accostomed to rough terrain and desert conditions. They knew the desert like the back of their hands but had little problems fighting in other areas. Numidian Infantry proved successful both in Spain under the command of Massinissa and in Numidia under the command of Syphax.These troops were very versatile and proved their skills every time. They were armed with javelins and a short sword. The men also carried a large wooden shield for defence and a helmet but wore no armour because of their battle tactics. They preffered to stay close to other more heavily armed troops and screen them, using javelins to reduce the morale of enemy infantry or to harass the enemy flanks together with Numidian Skirmishers, Slingers and Light Cavalry.

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    NUMIDIAN REFORMED INFANTRY
    Numidian Medium Infantry (Imitation Legionaires)

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    Origin

    The legionaries were first developed by the Romans. The Romans assumed that the legionaires that the Numidians and Parthians used were direct copies of their own legionaires so they gave them the name of imitation legionaires. The imitation legionaries for the Numidians were a result of a long and direct contact with the Romans. In some cases, these troops were trained directly by Rome and in others the training was copied. They were sometimes referred to as heavy skirmishers. There is not much history involved with them. What the Roman did know is that their weaponry was the same as the Roman Legionaires. They were basically the Roman Legion with a hint of Numidian culture. The Imitation Legionaires were heavy or medium infantry used just like the Romans, because they were mostly trained by Roman officials. Because of this the soldiers fought differently than the rest of the Numidians. The only thing they were not able to do is form the testudo formation when closing in on enemy formations. Although these soldiers aren't as fierce as the original Roman Legionaires, they are definitely a force to be reckoned with. In the case of Numidia their imitation legionaries were the result of long contact with Rome. Much is unknown about them, but we do know that in some cases these troops were trained by Rome directly and in others it was a close attempt to copy them. The best known example is that of Tacfarinas, who used his imitation legionaries to wage a rebellion against the Emperor Tiberius in AD 17-AD 24.

    "In this same year a war broke out in Africa, where the enemy was led by Tacfarinas. A Numidian by birth, he had served as an auxiliary in the Roman camp, then becoming a deserter, he at first gathered round him a roving band familiar with robbery, for plunder and for rapine. After a while, he marshalled them like regular soldiers, under standards and in troops. The army was so divided that Tacfarinas kept the picked men who were armed in Roman fashion within a camp, and familiarized them with a commander's authority, while Mazippa, with light troops, spread around him fire, slaughter, and consternation.", from Tacitus, Annuals, Book 2.

    Other Numidian kings are known to have troops similar to the Romans like Syphax, Massinissa, Jugurtha or Juba. Massinissa was a loyal ally of the Romans and knew their army well. It is most likely he tried to copy the style of Roman troops because they were the most successful back then. Since the Numidian king of the Massaessyli Syphax the Romans offered to train Numidian troops and use as auxilaries. Other kings tried to copy the Roman fighting style too and in many casses managed to do this like Jugurtha or Juba II.

    Equipment:

    At various times Numidian/Moorish armies had Roman like troops, either because they were trained by Romans such as by the Roman mission to the Numidians in 213 BC sent by Scipio Africanus and headed by the centurion Quintus Statorious, or because they deliberately adopted Roman practice as did Tacfarinas. These troops are blade depending warriors that wore amour and had training similar to Roman legionaries and auxilia troops. They were equipped with a short sword and had an oval shield for protection. They also carried heavy javelins similar to the Roman pila. The pilum is a heavier version of the javelin. They would throw their pila before charging into a group of enemy soldiers. These troops wore lorica hamata or leather armour and carried a large oval shield for defence.

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    NUMIDIAN THORAKITAI
    Numidian Heavy Reformed Infantry (Imitation Legionaires)

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    Origin

    Numidia and Mauretania were originally Berber kingdoms to the west of Carthage. The people were made up of nomadic mountain pastoralists and settled farmers along the coast. The pastoralists herded sheep, goats, and sometimes cattle. The ruling class was strongly influenced by Greek and Phoenician culture and later by Roman culture even if outside of the towns and large estates, the people remained Berber in language and culture. The marriage between king Juba II of the Massyli and Cleopatra Selene of the Ptolemaic Empire brought many Hellenes to Numidia. Like many other aristocrats of their times Numidian noblemen had a fascination for the Hellenic world and the new arrivals were much estimeed. The Hellenes that entered the Numidian royal house brought alongside presents for the new couple, their fortune and their knowledge. Indeed during Juba a considerable number of Hellenes made Numidia their home but the children of Alexander started migrating in Numidia long time before. Massinissa was educated in Carthage and made Punic the official language of the Massyli. Most probable during his studies he learned about the great deeds of the Greek heroes and absorbed much of the Greek knowledge and culture. Massinissa was rewarded with the throne of all Numidia after the Second Punic War by the Romans. After the decisive victory from Zama, Numidian cities multiplied and continued to grow, trade flourished and agriculture was intensified. In 179, Numidia produced a surplus, and Massinissa could present himself as the benefactor of the Greek island of Delos, which gave him credentials in the Greek-Roman world as leader of a civilized nation. In the company of Scipio and his relatives, Massinissa also met the Greek historian Polybius of Megalopolis who seems to have liked the Numidian king and describes him as a cultivated man, whose mission it was to civilize his country. After the Third Punic War, Numidians opened up to Roman and Greek influences besides Phoenician ones absorbed from Carthage. By the end of the first century AD there was a substantial colony of Italian merchants resident at Cirta. Numidia also developed diplomatic and commercial relationshisps with the Greek world. Massinissa’s son Masanabal is recordate to have been literate in Greek, while Micipsa, took an active interest in Greek philosophy, encouraging learned Greeks to come to settle in Cirta. Numidians combined the Carthaginian warfare, influenced by the Greeks with their own and later with a new fighting style from an unexpected place, a place that should have been transformed in profitable colonies, during the First Punic War: Rome. After Alexander, in the lands of the Achaian League a new type of infantry appeared, combining the “hoplite” and the “peltast” fighting style: “the thureophoroi”. Thureophoroi were named in the same fashion hoplites and peltasts were, after their shields. If hoplites were named after the “haplon” shield and peltasts after the “pelte”, thureophoroi were called after the “thureos”, large oval shield which was commonly used in Hellenistic armies from the 3rd century BC on. It was adopted from the Galatians probably first by the Illyrians, then by the Thracians before becoming common in Greece. It was made of wood covered with leather, had a spined boss and was carried using a central handgrip. Thureophoroi were very mobile and versatile wearing light armour, a helmet and a shield. They combined the fighting style of the hoplites and pelstasts and were armed with a spear and a shortsword and carried heavy javelins. They used javelins to weaken enemy troops before charging and the spear against cavalry, using pahalanx formation. The shortsword was a backup weapon, for close quarters. Thureophoroi were a complete unit. Seleucid and later Ptolemaic leaders saw the advantages this troops brought and improved them by providing heavy armour for better defence: Celtic chainmail shirt or thorax. Thus the thorakitai were born. There is no doubt that Numidians received precious information about many things including innovations in war from the heirs of Alexander and his dream. With the help of their new Hellenic friends they further improved the army and made use of well trained heavy infantry similar to the Hellenic thorakitai. They were the Numidian Thorakitai. During Juba and Tacfarinus it seems these troops renounced at spears and embraced the fighting style of the legionaries, Romans reffering to them as Numidian Imitation Legionaries.

    Equipment:

    The Numidian Thorakitai wore chainmail armour, helmet and had a thureos shield for defence. As melee weapons they used spears and short swords and as missile weapons, heavy javelins. The fighting style was symilar to the one of the thorakitai from the Hellenic world and with the fighting style of the Roman legionaries. Greeks called them Numidian Thorakitai while Romans, Numidian Imitation Legionaries. These troops had in fact elements from both sides with something of their own! When fighting for the Carthaginians in Iberia, Massinissa had the privillege to observe the Romans in action and understood that their warfare was superiour. That is one of the motives why he changed sides. After the Carthaginians were defeated, Massinissa remained loyal to the Romans and helped them in several occasions. He took many elements from the Roman army but never forgot what he learned from the Carthaginians and the Greeks.

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    Numidian Cavalry

    NUMIDIAN LIGHT CAVALRY
    Numidian skirmisher Cavalry

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    Origin

    Numidian cavalry was a type of light cavalry developed by the Numidians, most notably used by Hannibal during the Second Punic War. The Numidian cavalry used small horses compared to their contemporaries (namely that of Rome), ancestors of the Arabian horse, and were designed for faster movement. To conserve weight the cavalrymen did not wear armor. Due to their expert horsemanship and agility, they were most suitable for "charge and disburse tactics," effective for harassing the enemy and breaking up their formations. Hannibal's invasion of Rome during the Second Punic War is best known for his use of slow-moving war elephants, but he also employed Numidian cavalry where faster movement was needed, such as luring the Romans into a trap at the Battle of Trebia and for fighting on his right flank.

    The Numidian Cavalry are some of, if not, the finest horsemen for a Carthaginian general to recruit. Proving almost impossible to close with them in close combat, they will shower their enemy with javelins. The Numidians only carry a small round shield for protection, allowing the speed and agility of their short horses to be their protection in battle. With their fast horses, they can catch up to anything! Hannibal in the battle of Cannae, allowed the Numidians to pursue the broken Roman cavalry, while the Iberian and Gallic cavalry hit the Roman line. Though the Numidian cavalry couldn't break the Roman Cavalry, Hannibal saw the skill in which they could pursue and kill the broken, heavier armored cavalrymen. Numidian Light Cavalry tended to scatter when charged, and avoid a stand up fight but if the enemy charged too far or let their horses become exhausted, they were quite capable of turning back and cutting them to pieces. They were famously used by Hannibal during his Italian campaign and gained a reputation for being able to destroy retreating armies and also proved their skill in Spain under Hasdrubal, Mago and Massinissa.

    The Numidian cavalrymen didn't ride with a saddle or reins; they guided their horse with a stick. They should not be allowed to close with heavier cavalry, but to use the great stamina and speed to wear out their enemies. Mostly due to inferior horses, Numidians were not the fastest cavalry (the Southern Spanish were quite capable of riding them down). The small horse was agile and apart from being very maneuverable, could scramble through or over terrain that brought other mounted units to a halt.

    Equipment:

    Two types of basic light cavalry both armed with a round shield and javelins are described, being distinguished by riding bridled or unbridled horses. It is not made clear which of the two were superior if indeed either were. Livy refers to Roman cavalry releasing their bridles so their horses would ride right through a Celtiberian wedge, but it is unlikely the Numidians did not ride without bridles for this reason. Those that rode in this fashion relied on their knees plus a riding crop\ prod. Armor was not worn, nor were hand weapons generally carried. One other cavalry group existed. It is customary to consider the Numidians as being entirely skirmishing cavalry.
    The tribesmen, riding bareback, wore only a simple tunic for dress. The only protection they had was a small circular shield, and their chief arms were spears and javelins.

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    NUMIDIAN NOBLE CAVALRY
    Numidian Medium Cavalry

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    Origin

    During the First Punic War Numidians from the Atlas Mountains were vassals of the Carthaginians ruled by Hamilcar Barca and his sons Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Mago and son-in-laws Hasdrubal the Fair and the Numidian prince Navaras. During the Second Punic War things changed and while Massyli ruled by Gala or Gaia remained allies of the Carthaginians and their leader Hannibal Barca, Syphax the leader of the Massaesyli changed sides and allied with Rome. Massinissa, the younger son of Gala was educated in Carthage and at the age of 13 was the general in Hasdrubal Barca's army and commanded the Numidian cavalry. After Hasdrubal Barca left in Italy to help his older brother Hannibal, Massinissa took control of all the Carthaginian cavalry in Spain and gained important victories against Scipio Africanus using guerrilla tactics, while Mago Barca and the famous and successful general Hasdrubal Gisco levied and trained new troops. However at the battle of Illipa Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco supported by the Numidian forces of Massinissa lost and Scipio took control of a large part of Iberia. After the father of Massinissa died, his brother Oezalces took control of Massylia, Eastern Numidia. Massinissa noticing that the Romans were superiour and had the most chances of becoming victors, negotiated with Scipio to invade Africa and take control of Massylia when he was 17 years old. His decision to ally with Rome was aided by the clever move of Scipio Africanus to free Massiva, the nephew of Massinissa, whom Romans captured when he had disobeyed his uncle and ridden into battle. Meanwhile, while Scipio was attacking Sicily, Syphax attacked and conquered Massylia rulled by Oezalces but in war with Massinissa. Hasdrubal Barca, knowing that Massinissa had betrayed him, allied with Syphax. Eventualy Scipio and Massinissa landed in Africa and defeated Syphax and Hasdrubal. At the battle of Zama Massinissa commanded the cavalry on Scipio's right wing (6,000 Numidians and 3,000 Romans).

    Alongside his light cavalry used for skirmishing and finishing off the rounting enemy, Massinissa had his loyal nobles that rode alongside him in battles and could succesfully face medium or heavy cavalry thanks to their superiour equipment. Carthaginians provided armour and weapons for all their allies and mercenaries and in many occasions their Gaellic and Iberian mercenaries sold their extra gear to Romans, Ptolemais and even Numidians. The nobles of Massinissa and his successsors rode fine horses in battles and afforded superiour armour, helmets and shields bought from Carthaginians and their allies or provided by Romans.

    Equipment

    The Numidian's have sometimes been hailed as the finest light cavalry ever. They learnt to ride from an early age. This in itself was not unusual - many nomadic cultures produced superb horsemen - but what makes the Numidians remarkable is the fact they did not use bits, reins, bridles or saddles. Control of the horse was achieved by verbal commands and a stick. A plaited rope was tied around the base of the horses neck. Numidian nobles made use of strong horses, with an impressive stamina, that could rode on any terrain. Numidian Noble Cavalry had the same tactic as Numidian Light Cavalry only that they were better equiped and besides javelins had a short sword for close quarters. They also used Carthaginian helmets and shields for protection and were armed with leather armour. Many of them had leopard skins rapped around their waist to show their status.

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    NUMIDIAN LATE NOBLE CAVALRY
    Numidian Kings Bodyguard Cavalry

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    Origin

    After the Second Punic War Massinissa of the Massyli remained a loyal ally of the Romans and assisted the Romans in many ocassions including the siege of Numantia when he provided reinforments: elephants and cavalry. He also helped the Romans against the Macedonians when his elephants and cavalry disrupted the otherwise perfectly arranged and impenetrable Macedonian pikemen, in phalanx formation, attacking from their flanks and rear.
    Massinissa managed to take much of the Carthaginian territory using all kind of tricks like telling the Romans Carthaginians were building a fleet or recruiting an army even if it wasn't true. He was also responsible for the Third Punic War when he harrased a number of 27 Carthaginian cities at the same time and provoked the Carthaginians to attack him, defying thus a treaty with Rome forbidding them to make war on anyone.
    After the Third Punic War, Massinissa, a loyal and respected friend of Rome, was granted with many Carthaginian lands and cities. Using important ports he started making trade with the Greeks and the Romans and had acces to all the knowledge of the Carthaginians and innovations of the Hellenic world. It is known that Massinissa was an educated man and was respected by the civilised world. He did everything in his powers to civilise the Numidian people and even invited Italian and Greek merchants and learned men in Cirta and other Numidian and former Carthaginian cities. Massinissa even adopted Punic as an official language in Numidia and founded a library with many books written in Punic and Greek. He also translated many ancient masterpieces in Punic. Numidia was now a rich and civilised kingdom and it's nobles afforded luxurious goods and the best war gear.
    Numidian Noble Cavalry had the best weapons, shields and helmets in the area and used leather armour and even expensive and hard to find chainmail armour. Chainmail is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh and is very hard to produce because it's a meticulous and time consuming job. Numidian nobles and valourous Gaellic and Spanish mercenaires were picked by the king to form his own bodyguard unit.

    "When Juba was informed by Saburra of the battle during the night he sent him as reinforcements two thousand Spanish and Gallic cavalry, whom he was accustomed to keep by him as a personal bodyguard together with the most reliable part of the infantry", from Caesar, The Civil War. (From the description of Curio's annihilation by Juba's Numidians)

    Equipment:

    Numidian Late Noble Cavalry were armed with the best helmets and shields and used lances to charge into enemy lines. They also had short swords from their Spanish and Gaellic allies and mercenaries for close quarters. They used leather or chainmail armour for protection. These units were made from the best of the best. In many occasions Spanish or Gaellic cavalerists that showed their talent and devotion in battle were recruited by the king to form his own bodyguard unit together with trusted friends and servents from the royal house. These troops were very well trained and could easily face other elite units.

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    CAMEL RIDERS
    Numidian Camel Rider/Berber Medium Cavalry

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    Origin

    Camels are ruminating mammals, which store fat in the humps atop their bodies. There are two types of camels: two-humped, or Bactrian camels and one-humped Arabian camels. The one-humped camel or dromedary, was more often used in warfare than the two-humped. Originally a food animal, then used as a beast of burden, by the twelfth century BC it was being ridden by Midianite and Amalakite tribesmen in the northern Arabian peninsula. It took another millennium for the dromedary to become established throughout North Africa as well. The dromedary is adapted to hot, arid climates and a mainly flat terrain. Their feet are broad, flat, leathery pads, with two toes on each foot, designed to keep them from sinking in the sand. A riding dromedary, a specialized breed, can maintain a speed of 13-16 km/h for up to 18 hours. As a combat animal, the camel has some potentially strong advantages. Evolved to live in desert areas, it has few natural enemies, and is consequently much less skittish than a horse. Though notoriously ill-tempered, it is docile enough when properly trained and handled. It has better endurance than a horse, and can forage on practically any type of grass, leaf or twig. The camel’s ability to go for a week without drinking is well-known. Combined with other adaptations to desert conditions, camels, especially dromedaries, offered their riders remarkable strategic mobility; raids made by North African nomads over 1000 km of desert are attested. Moreover, horses unfamiliar with camels were likely to shy away from them. Cyrus the Great of Persia exploited this tendency at the Battle of Sardis in 546 BC. Faced by strong spear armed Lydian cavalry forces, he assembled all the camels that followed his army bearing supplies and baggage, then removed their loads and set men upon them equipped like cavalrymen. He ordered them to advance against the Lydian horse, directing his infantry to follow the camels and his cavalry to follow the infantry. Unable to bear the sight or smell of these strange animals, the Lydian horses reacted as Cyrus had expected, and fled. The Lydians dismounted and fought on foot but despite their courage, were defeated. The camels in this instance were almost certainly Bactrian, but Arabians had the same effect. Berbers used camels in antiquity mostly as burden animals but on occasions rode camels into battles, armed with spears used for both thrusting and throwing. Some had swords too. Numidians used mostly horses for battles but sometimes recruited camel riders from their Berber allies as well. Massinissa, the greatest leader of the eastern Numidians or Massyli wanted to unify all the tribes of Northern Africa, including desert dwellers, and create an agrarian empire. Jugurtha, the adopted son of Micipsa, and illegitimate grandson of Massinissa was of Berber origin and was very popular among his subjects. Numidians were Berber too in origin but had a separate evolution, developing a superiour culture and civilisation, similar to the Carthaginian one, with many Phoenician, Greek and later Roman influences.

    Equipment:

    Evolved for desert conditions, camels do not prosper in wet climates, which interfere with their procreative cycle. Riding dromedaries efficiently was a difficulty, since the animal’s hump, a store of fat, will break down and collapse under a burden. The first answers were to put a cushioned saddle atop the rump of the animal, or to surround the hump with cushions tied front and back. Sometime after 500 BC, however, the North Arabian saddle was invented. It consisted of two large arches or saddle bows, connected by sticks, and resting on pads set in front of and behind the hump. A rider could sit firmly upon cushions placed on the saddle; hang equipment and supplies from it; and fight from it effectively, even using spears and long swords, as well as missile weapons. He would also have had an easier time controlling the animal, using a bridle and reins as well as a stick on occasion. Despite this, however, the camel could not compete with the horse as a war animal, since it lacked the horse’s speed and manoeuvrability. Having no natural enemies in the desert, camels did not evolve the ability to move very fast. Riding camels can attain a pace of 25 km/h but only for an hour, after which they must rest and recuperate. A gallop is an unusual pace for them, demanding a well-trained animal and expert rider, and it can be maintained for only about l km.

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    AFRICAN ELEPHANTS
    Numidian Forest Elephants

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    Origin

    Porus, Megas Alexandros, Seleukos, Ptolemies, Pyrrhos, Xanthyppos and Hannibal...All these great men had several things tying them together, into one group of legendary generals - the tactics, the leadership skills, the charisma...Oh, and the elephants! These tools of terror, gore and utter annihilation found their military use as early as 4000 years B.C. in distant India. Alexandros and his Hellenes were the first Europeans that encountered these beasts in the battlefield, and his diadochi later on, became renown for the use of these behemoths against their enemies. Carthage, coming up against Pyrrhos and his "Lucanian cows" soon found out how useful a tool the elephants were in war, and not 20 years later, 100 elephants were fielded by Xanthyppos, laying waste to almost 15000 Romans. Carthage now had it's favorite for the battlefield.
    African forest elephant, the smallest of all the species used in ancient warfare, and now extinct, was used by Carthaginian military during 3rd and 2nd century B.C.. These beasts were no taller than 2.5 meters at shoulder, and were spread out on the in northwest of Africa, namely around the Atlas mountain, and other lands of the Numidian tribes. Unlike their Indian, Syrian and African plains cousins, they were unfit to carry the towers, and the use of these was quite simple - terrify, demoralize, gore and trample the enemy in direct charge, and open the cracks in their formations for heavy infantry and cavalry to exploit. The best effect they provided to the generals was the total chaos that their appearance, sound and odor caused upon enemy cavalry, due to horses being completely unfamiliar with the elephants. They
    The crew consisted of either Numidian or Indian mahout, which were caretakers of the beast for the duration of their military service, and not seldom formed a life-long bond. They might have had another crew member riding on the back, being either an archer or a javelineer. The mahouts carried a spike and mallet as standard part of the equipment, used to sever the spinal cord at the back of the elephant's head if the beast went berserk out of pain and fear. The most common tactic against elephant was showering them with darts, javelins and slashing at their trunk, thus driving them mad of pain and by taking out the mahout by a precise shot at the lightly armored driver. Caesar had his men slash at the tendons, thus crippling the beasts while Scipio and Alexandros had their men form gaps between them and letting the beasts charge through without causing the real damage.
    In the end, this was a double edged weapon, which could cause as much devastation and carnage to your own army as easily as it could to the enemy - the difference was in the proper use of this ultimate battlefield asset.

    Equipment:

    Being of naturally thick hide, they were almost non killable in the battle, while their forehead was also particularly impervious to most projectile weapons. Still, they carried a headgear consisting of plate covering their forehead and extending upwards thus providing some frontal cover for the lightly armored mahout as well. For the body, most commonly there was a sort of blanket, whether it included heavier metal protection depended on the war chest of the state.
    The weaponry was simple - tusk could impale a grown man no matter how well armored he was, the trunk was capable of lifting a man off the ground and hurling him aside like a rag doll. The foot was most probably the worst of all the arsenal - if one got trampled by it, it is doubtful he would want to survive that experience.
    There always was a possibility of another weapon, and it was either a bow or javelin carried by crew, if they were present.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable


    team
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    sunbird alkibijad: units list, units descriptions, advices, research.
    pirates_say_arrgg: units descriptions, advices, research.
    Kuhndog: units descriptions, advices, research.
    Visarion: units descriptions, advices, research.
    haeressiarch: units designs, models, textures, units descriptions.
    hamsha: units designs advices, textures, units descriptions advices, research.
    magpie: support, geography, balancing stats.
    Credits:
    wikipedia, "the nimble numidian" article by Peter Morrison.
    Last edited by hæressiarch; March 14, 2011 at 12:40 PM.
    click?

  4. #4

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI


    Numidian Allies
    by haeressiarch, pirates_say_arrgg and hamsha


    Allied and Mercanary Infantry:

    1. DONE Libyan Skirmishers
    2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Balearic Slingers
    3. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Iberian Scutarii
    4. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Iberian Caetratii
    5. DONE Libyan Spearmen
    6. DONE Gaul Warband
    7. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Gaul Swordsmen
    8. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Cretean Archers
    9. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Moorish Infantry
    10. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Maure Infantry
    11. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Garmantes Infantry
    12. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Moorish Archers

    Allied and Mercanary Cavalry:

    1. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Iberian Jinetes
    2. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Iberian Medium Cavalry
    3. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Gaulic Cavalry
    6. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Libyan Cavalry
    7. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Moorish Cavalry


    Numidian Allied Infantry

    LIBYAN SKIRMISHERS
    Libyan Light Infantry

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Origin

    Libyans of Carthaginian dominion, the people that earned their place in history through valiant service in Carthaginian armies, were of Berber stock. Records of their ancestry stretches to the earliest Egyptian period as the tribes Temehu (Tmh) and Tehenu(T'hn), inhabiting the expanses of the western Nile valley and desert oases in the west. Being inhabitants of the desert regions, their warfare style was more orientated towards the lightly armed and mobile warbands, rather than heavily armored and armed troops that suffered in the heat of deserts. This tradition was well applied Carthaginian military, most notably in the Sicilian wars where the terrain was often disruptive to the large hoplite formations usually used by Greek and Carthaginian generals.
    In the classical times, the skirmisher role was usually given to either poorer part of the population that could not afford the better equipment, or the junior conscripts that learned the craft of war in these light formations. In the case of Libyans, this was their second nature and, as opposed to their equivalents in Roman and Greek armies(velites and peltasts), the amount of training and cost of arming was far lesser, thus making them extremely viable for use in campaigns in African, Sicilian and European campaigns.
    With 3rd century B.C. Libyan population of Carthaginian state had it's status changed from slaves to tributary freemen in exchange for their military service. They were soon to prove their worth in both most prosperous and darkest periods of Carthaginian history.
    Their application to battle was simple - rain the showering terror of zaġāyas upon the thick of enemy formations, causing alarm, premature charges and formations to be deformed, thus allowing for the exploits by more heavier melee troops. Fast appearance in front of the heavy lines, and even faster withdrawal made them mind-boggling nuisance for any opposing generals to deal with. Once the main lines would clash, their lethal precision came to even better use. Tattooed menacing terrors that would suddenly glare at opposing soldier just as he exposed his flank to swing his blade at the soldier facing him, only to receive a javelin into his torso, made many a fierce warrior shudder to the core of his being.
    Many great generals met their demise in the shape of a well placed javelin shot out of nowhere, Antigonos Monopthalmus being one of the more famous examples, and Pyrrhus being wise enough to switch his body armor with one of his bodyguards.

    Equipment:

    Usually carrying a set of zaġāyas or taghedas, the modern assegai, a pole weapon used for throwing or hurling, which was either a light spear or javelin made of wood and pointed with iron, Libyan skirmishers were something to beware of.
    For the close combat, if need be, various sorts of melee weapons were used one of them the sheru - still used by modern Tuareg tribes and other Berber tribes, being the long dagger, or whichever blade they were able to make use of without hindering their agility.
    Of armor that they used most common was, whenever applicable, a small pelta styled round shield. The body armor, if it could be called that, was the traditional Berber tunic made either of soft leather or wool and this is their distinctive style of dress, according to various Greek and Roman authors. They also wore animal skins draped over their left shoulders covering both front and back.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable




    Numidian Allied Cavalry

    XXX
    XXX


    Origin

    XXX

    Equipment:

    XXX

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable



    team
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    sunbird alkibijad: units list, units descriptions, advices, research.
    pirates_say_arrgg: units descriptions, advices, research.
    haeressiarch: units designs, models, textures, units descriptions.
    hamsha: units designs advices, textures, units descriptions advices, research.
    magpie: support, geography.
    Credits:
    wikipedia, "the nimble numidian" article by Peter Morrison.
    Last edited by Visarion; April 04, 2011 at 03:22 PM.
    click?

  5. #5
    Visarion's Avatar Alexandros
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    Consider this as a Christmas gift! hope you like the descriptions!

  6. #6
    Joar's Avatar - Now You Know -
    Join Date
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    Fantastic looking units!


  7. #7

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    Quote Originally Posted by Joar View Post
    Fantastic looking units!
    indeed! haven't seen this preview, awesome RotN Team!
    Click on my sig and check out my modelling works! Your opinion is welcome!


  8. #8
    Mr.Gorby's Avatar Semisalis
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    The Beauty, and very racy.



  9. #9

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    So much text

  10. #10
    Mathais's Avatar Ordinarius
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    All right new preview and so many new things to learn about the kingdom of massyli thanks for this latest good news! Keep on the sweet work RoTN team!!

  11. #11
    Joar's Avatar - Now You Know -
    Join Date
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    You know, you really should pm one of the TWC admins who can put this up on the start page for you. It sure deserves more attention, in my opinion.


  12. #12
    Visarion's Avatar Alexandros
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    thank you for your kind words

  13. #13
    demagogos nicator's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    Nice preview

  14. #14

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    ok. time to update this stuff with some pictures
    i love those descriptions
    click?

  15. #15
    Visarion's Avatar Alexandros
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    thx haer! it's so good to see you here again!

  16. #16
    Gaius Marius Maximus's Avatar Miles
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    Thank you to add The Numediens at Total war Thank's from algeria

    .

  17. #17

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    Hi Haer! The Numidian preview looks great!
    Originally Posted by Tyer032392:
    "The problem about having troops killing soldiers is that if CA implemented that, than they will earn the ire of Jack Thompson, and that is something CA doesn't need. If anyone doesn't know who he is, google "Jack Thompson"."

  18. #18
    Algaman's Avatar Tiro
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    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    Haer and team: you made a brilliant work, guys!

  19. #19

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    very good but you said that being white skinned is racist and non-correct and that we where negroid or hindu looking people but that is non-correct.
    whe have both we imazighen have very dark skinned people who live in the desert and very white people with blonde hair and bleu eyes and they live in the mountains and whe have a mix between them who live on the plains. because each tribe addapted to a diffrent kind of soil, food and weather.

    whe are meditareanian africans.
    whe are one people with one ancestor from the blackest to the whitest.

    here is a video which will give you a look on how imazighen look.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20bWaWR8uPs
    MY PEOPLE, MY PRIDE, MY DESTINY:
    IMAZIGHEN - The Free Nation.
    life Free or die fighting for it.

  20. #20
    Gaius Marius Maximus's Avatar Miles
    Join Date
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    Algiers - Algeria
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    302

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - KINGDOM OF MASSYLI

    Quote Originally Posted by al-charif View Post
    very good but you said that being white skinned is racist and non-correct and that we where negroid or hindu looking people but that is non-correct.
    whe have both we imazighen have very dark skinned people who live in the desert and very white people with blonde hair and bleu eyes and they live in the mountains and whe have a mix between them who live on the plains. because each tribe addapted to a diffrent kind of soil, food and weather.

    whe are meditareanian africans.
    whe are one people with one ancestor from the blackest to the whitest.

    here is a video which will give you a look on how imazighen look.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20bWaWR8uPs
    +1 thank you

    .

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