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Thread: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

  1. #1

    Icon4 RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    by Sunbird Alkibijad

    Baal-Hammon's blessings upon you, most worthy son of Canaan!

    For almost 300 years now, our beloved Qart-Hadasht, the jewel of Dido, has been the ever present aegis of Baal's children, ever since the great mother Tyre was forced under the Persian boot.
    Yet, all our nation has seen was prosperity, expansion and progress - our ships have gone far past the Pillars of Hercules, Qart-hadashtim foot has left it's print on many a savage land. Our trade routes are the veins of life to our people - they need be safe, and strewn across far and wide - and let no other, foe or friend alike, thread those routes, lest it be the undoing of us all. We are the folk of the high seas, the overlords of Africa and masters of trade. There are those black savages across the desert in the South, they make mighty a slave, and Europe craves for them. There is silver, iron, GOLD! to be had in Iberia - it's mountainous bosom is heavily laden with the ore, let us ease it's burden...

    Behold, though, Blessed of Baal, to the North, the arrogant Roman marches his legions all over Italy and his greedy eye is upon our dominion - may his avarice lead him to his doom, by our hand if it need be. And in Sicily, the man-loving sons of Zeus grow weary of our prosperity and hegemony over the seas and shores of the West. Oooh, they want it all, but all they should see is the tip of our spear, and the eastern shore of the Island as they go back where they were spawned from...Cast your gaze to the East, the ambitious successors of Alexander, stagger with all their power and size, as each is pitted against one another, they hold the trade with India tightly in their grip - the Elephants, we need those - our generals grow fond of those beasts and the terror they instill upon our foes.

    Guide the nation with wisdom that Baal bestowed upon his chosen children - our people are few, but the subjects are many. Treat those that bow before our might and accept our supremacy with kindness, but do not lack the determination and discipline, lest they bite the hand that feeds them. Libyans and Numidians are so nimble, so fast and oh-so-deadly, whether on foot or on horseback...and quite, expendable. Iberians and Celts are mighty warriors - strong and powerful as the mountains that spawned them - use them well, they are numerous and loyal. And remember, a mercenary hand laying cold somewhere in the battlefield is a coin more that stays in our purse. But for each one of us that perishes, it is generations of Qart-Hadashtim gone to futile perdition, for who will man the rudders of our trading vessels, who shall tend to the shops and markets, if not a skilled hand and a vigilant eye of a Melqart's favorite?

    March forth now upon the Earth under the watchful eye of Baal, and just as Dido had done before, cut that oxen hide thin and stretch it wide - for the world is large and ripe for the taking!

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    It is a great day in Carthage. The shops and warehouses are all closed. The streets are full of people as on a holiday. The principal houses, as well as the ships in the harbor, are gay with bright-colored banners. The quays by the waterside are crowded with soldiers waiting their turn to embark on the war vessels which lie moored along the dock. Everywhere there are hurrying feet and busy hands and anxious, hopeful faces. For to-day Hamilcar, the greatest general of Carthage, is to sail with his army for Spain, and the whole city is celebrating the event.
    The temples are crowded with worshipers. Officers and tradesmen are there to implore gods to bless the voyage of Hamilcar. Women and children are there to pray for the protection of their husbands or fathers who are going out to fight for the glory of Carthage. All bring gifts for the stern god, and the altars are smoking with burnt offerings.
    It is noon. A grand procession passes down the street and enters the chief temple of Baal. Hamilcar himself is there, and with him are the officers of state and the most famous men of the city. They have come, according to the custom of the time, to make their due offerings to the gods. It is thus that they pray for the success of their army in Spain.
    By the side of the general is his little son Hannibal, now nine years of age. Young though he is, he is already a man in thought and ambition. It is his wish to be a great warrior like his father. Every day he has begged to be allowed to go with the army to Spain.
    - I am not a child, father; for I reach almost up to your shoulder. I will be strong and brave. I will fight in the front ranks. No one shall call me weak or cowardly. I will serve you well if I may go.
    But the father firmly refuses.
    - Wait yet a few years, my son. The time is coming when we shall have a much greater war; for soon Carthage must destroy Rome or be destroyed by her. Be patient, Hannibal. Stay at home yet a while; nurse your hatred of the Romans; study the art of war. You shall at length lead our armies to greater victories than mine shall be in Spain.
    And now father and son walk side by side down the long dim aisle of the temple of Baal. Through the smoke and the dark shadows of the overhanging arches, the grim-faced idols look down upon the pair. The priests stand in their places. Drums are beaten. Discordant music fills the air.
    - Place your hand on the altar, Hannibal.
    The boy obeys.
    The father pours out costly incense as an offering to Baal.
    - Now make your vow, my son.
    And Hannibal, nothing daunted, repeats before Baal and the long-robed priests the vow he has been taught to make. He vows that he will cherish undying hatred for the Romans, that day and night he will study to do them harm, and that he will never pause nor give up until their proud city has been laid in ashes.
    The priests chant their approval. The smoke of the incense rises. The bugles sound, the drums are beaten, the cymbals clash. The grand procession moves slowly out of the temple; it makes its way through crowds of shouting people to the busy quay. There the farewells are spoken. The general and his officers embark in the vessel that has been waiting for them. There is much shouting; there is a great waving of banners. The long oars are dipped into the water, and the ship begins its voyage.
    The boy Hannibal returns to his father's house to nurse his hatred of Rome... Hatred that will flood the Western Mediterranean with tide of total war...

    Welcome in FACTION PREVIEW. This is our first attempt to show you how we work on the wholeness of things that faction needs to work properly in RotN. We will show you units, their detailed descriptions and screens, great amount of descriptions including buldings, important provinces and cities, their wealth, valouable resources and lot's of other features included.

    We are also dependant of your opinions friends. Remember that we are not working alone, but we always take under consideration everything you sugest and ask for.

    Feel fre to coment and enjoy.

    RotN Team.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Thread Director: pirates_say_arrgg
    Coordinator: haeressiarch, hamsha
    Picture updates: haeressiarch, hamsha
    Description updates: pirates_say_arrgg, hamsha, bigus_dickus, magpie, haeressiarch, jack marsh
    Last edited by hæressiarch; March 07, 2010 at 06:11 AM.

  2. #2

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    gathered by haeressiarch, hamsha and bigus_dickus

    "Upon the Tsurian sea the people live
    Who style themselves Phoenicians...
    These were the first great founders of the world --
    Founders of cities and of mighty states --
    Who showed a path through seas before unknown.
    In the first ages, when the sons of men
    Knew not which way to turn them, they assigned
    To each his first department; they bestowed
    Of land a portion and of sea a lot,
    And sent each wandering tribe far off to share
    A different soil and climate. Hence arose
    The great diversity, so plainly seen,
    'Mid nations widely severed."

    - Dyonysius of Susiana, A.D. 3

    Carthage (Ancient Greek: Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Latin: Carthago, from the Phoenician קרת חדשת Kart-Hadasht or written without vowels in Punic as Qrthdst meaning "new town")

    Carthage was founded as a Phoenician colony near modern Tunis. After the fall of its mother-city Tyre in 575, Carthage became the leader of the Phoenician colonies in the west and founded an informal but powerful empire, which is known for its almost perennial struggle against the Greeks of Sicily and the Romans...

    The study of the history of Carthage is often problematic. Due to the subjugation of the civilization by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War, very few Carthaginian historical primary sources survive. There are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in North Africa. However, the majority of available primary source material about Carthaginian civilization was written by Greek and Roman historians, such as Livy, Polybius, Appian, Cornelius Nepos, Silius Italicus, Plutarch, Dio Cassius, and Herodotus.

    These authors participated in cultures which were nearly always in competition, and often in conflict, with Carthage. The Greeks contested with Carthage for Sicily, for instance, and the Romans fought the Punic Wars against Carthage. Inevitably the accounts of Carthage written by outsiders include significant bias. Recent excavation of ancient Carthaginian sites has brought much more primary material to light. Some of these finds contradict or confirm aspects of the traditional picture of Carthage, but much of the material is still ambiguous.

    Early history

    The Beginning

    Carthage was one of a number of Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean that was created to facilitate trade from the cities of Sidon, Tyre and others from Phoenicia, which was situated in the coast of what is now Syria, Lebanon and Israel. In the 10th century BC, the eastern Mediterranean shore was inhabited by various Semitic-speaking populations, who had built up flourishing civilizations. The people inhabiting what is now Lebanon called their language Canaanite, but were referred to as Phoenicians by the Greeks. The Phoenician language was very close to ancient Hebrew, to such a degree that the latter is often used as an aid in translation of Phoenician inscriptions.

    The Phoenician cities were highly dependent on trade, both land and sea bourne, and their cities included a number of major ports in the area. In order to provide a resting place for their merchant fleets, to maintain a Phoenician monopoly on an area's natural resource, or to conduct trade on its own, the Phoenicians established numerous colonial cities along the coasts of the Mediterranean, stretching from Iberia to the Black Sea. They were stimulated to found their cities by a need for revitalizing trade in order to pay the tribute extracted from Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos by the succession of empires that ruled them and later by fear of complete Greek colonization of that part of the Mediterranean suitable for commerce. The initial Phoenician colonization took place during a time when other neighboring Kingdoms (Greek, Hittite, Crete) were suffering from a “Dark Age”, perhaps after the activities of the Sea Peoples.

    The Foundation

    Philistos of Syracuse dates the founding of Carthage to c. 1215 BC, while the Roman historian Appian dates the founding 50 years prior to the Trojan War (i.e. between 1244 and 1234 BC, according to the chronology of Eratosthenes). The Roman poet Virgil also has that Carthage was already in existance by the time of the Trojan War. However, it is most likely that the city was founded sometime between 846 and 813 BC according to the Greek historian Timaeus of Tauromenion. For some time, this remark seemed to be contradicted by the results of excavations, which all suggested that the oldest finds were younger. However, in the late 1990's, it became clear that although the archaeologists had done their job well, their method of dating was wrong. Essentially, all dates were derived from pottery, the sequence of which was based on the ceramics known from Sicily, where we have Thucydides' list of dated city foundations.
    Although it was widely recognized that these dates were problematic, it was the best way to proceed. In the 1990's, radiocarbon-dating was for the first time applied to the Early Iron Age of Carthage, and the oldest finds in Carthage can now be dated to the last quarter of the ninth century.

    Carthage was founded by Phoenician settlers from the city of Tyre, who brought with them the city-god Melqart. According to legend, their leader was a princess named Elissa, who was forced to flee from Tyre after her brother, king Pygmalion, had killed her husband. After founding Carthage, she committed suicide to prevent a war against the native population. The story may contain some reliable information, although it is more likely that the founders of Carthage were merchants and farmers - not refugees. On the other hand, the idea that the powerful city was founded by a woman is too unusual to be a mere invention. However this may be, the settlers founded the city on a marvelous place, where it controlled trade between the eastern and western parts of the Mediterranean, and had access to good agricultural resources.
    A number of foundation myths have survived through Greek and Roman literature, see Byrsa for one example.

    Queen Elissar

    Queen Elissar (also known as "Elissa", and by the Arabic name اليسار also اليسا and عليسا) who in later accounts became Queen Dido, was a princess of Tyre who founded the city of Carthage. At its peak her metropolis came to be called the "shining city," ruling 300 other cities around the western Mediterranean and leading the Phoenician Punic world.

    Elissar was the Princess of Tyre, married to the High Priest of the city, who was wealthy and enjoyed widespread respect and power among the citizens. Details of her life are sketchy and confusing, but the following can be deduced from various sources. According to Justin, Princess Elissar was the daughter of King Matten of Tyre (also known as Muttoial or Belus II). When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her and her brother, Pygmalion. She married her uncle Acherbas (also known as Sychaeus) High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. Pygmalion was a tyrant, lover of both gold and intrigue, and desired the authority and fortune enjoyed by Acherbas. Pygmalion assassinated Acherbas in the temple and managed to keep the misdeed concealed from his sister for a long time, deceiving her with lies about her husband's death. At the same time, the people of Tyre called for a single sovereign, causing dissent within the royal family.

    After learning the truth, Elissar fled Tyre with her husbands gold, and managed to trick the Tyrian ships sent in pursuit to join her fleet. When her ship was overtaken by the Tyrian ships, she threatened to throw the gold overboard and let the would be captors face the wrath of her brother for failing their mission. They opted to join her, and the augmented fleet sailed on towards the West. Elissa eventually sailed to Africa after a brief stop at Cyprus, where she rescued 80 virgins from a temple. She requested land to establish a new city from the king of the Libyan tribe living near Byrsa after reaching Africa. Told that she could have as much land that can be covered by a ox hide, she cut the hide into thin strips and managed to surround the hill of Byrsa. The initial city of Carthage was founded on the spot. When the Libyan king later sought to marry her, which would have caused the city to become part of the king's domain, she chose instead to kill herself.

    Queen Dido

    In the Aeneid, Virgil gives a tale of how Queen Dido of Carthage - which had become a prosperous kingdom under her rule - meets the Trojan hero Aeneas who himself has fled the sack of Troy with a small band of Trojans to settle in the west. Dido and Aeneas fall in love, but when the Trojans depart Carthage for Italy (as is their destiny), Dido commits suicide. At the same time she curses Aeneas and all his future descendants and countrymen - the future Romans.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Dido's city - The Foundation of Carthage

    The story of the foundation of Carthage is told by a Roman author named Justin, who made an excerpt of the history written by Pomponius Trogus. He tells how a princess named Elissa fled from her native city Tyre, and founded Carthage. At the end of the story, the Roman historian also offers an explanation for the Carthaginian human sacrifices. Later, the Roman poet Virgil connected this story with the Aeneas myth, and changed the name of the princess into Dido. The original story may contain several historical echoes, or at least some Carthaginian information.

    The translation of section 18.4-6 of Justin's Epitome of Trogus' History was made by John Selby Watson.

    The Tyrians [...] sent a portion of their youth into Africa, and founded Utica. Meanwhile their king died at Tyre, appointing his son Pygmalion and his daughter Elissa, a maiden of extraordinary beauty, his heirs. But the people gave the throne to Pygmalion, who was quite a boy. Elissa married Acerbas, her uncle, who was priest of Melqart, a dignity next to that of the king. Acerbas had great but concealed riches, having laid up his gold, for fear of the king, not in his house, but in the earth; a fact of which, though people had no certain knowledge of it, report was not silent.

    Pygmalion, excited by the account, and forgetful of the laws of humanity, murdered his uncle, who was also his brother-in-law, without the least regard to natural affection. Elissa long entertained a hatred to her brother for his crime, but at last, dissembling her detestation, and assuming mild looks for the time, she secretly contrived a mode of flight, admitting into her confidence some of the leading men of the city, in whom she saw that there was a similar hatred of the king, and an equal desire to escape.

    She then addressed her brother in such a way as to deceive him; pretending that "she had a desire to remove to his house, in order that the home of her husband might no longer revive in her, when she was desirous to forget him, the oppressive recollection of her sorrows, and that the sad remembrances of him might no more present themselves to her eyes."

    To these words of his sister, Pygmalion was no unwilling listener, thinking that with her the gold of Acerbas would come to him. But Elissa put the attendants, who were sent by the king to assist in her removal, on board some vessels in the early part of the evening, and sailing out into the deep made them throw some loads of sand, put up in sacks, as if it was money, into the sea. Then, with tears and mournful ejaculations, she invoked Acerbas, entreating that "he would favorably receive his wealth which he had left behind him, and accept that as an offering to his shade, which he had found to be the cause of his death."

    Next she addressed the attendants, and said that "death had long been desired by her, but as for them, cruel torments and a direful end awaited them, for having disappointed the tyrant's avarice of those treasures, in the hopes of obtaining which he had committed fratricide."

    Having thus struck terror into them all, she took them with her as companions of her flight. Some bodies of senators, too, who were ready against that night, came to join her, and having offered a sacrifice to Melqart, whose priest Acerbas had been, proceeded to seek a settlement in exile.

    [....] Pygmalion, having heard of his sister's flight, and preparing to pursue her with unfeeling hostility, was scarcely induced by the prayers of his mother and the menaces of the gods to remain quiet; the inspired augurs warning him that "he would not escape with impunity, if he interrupted the founding of a city that was to become the most prosperous in the world."

    By this means some respite was given to the fugitives; and Elissa, arriving in a gulf of Africa, attached the inhabitants of the coast, who rejoiced at the arrival of foreigners, and the opportunity of bartering commodities with them, to her interest. Having then bargained for a piece of ground, as much as could be covered with an ox-hide, where she might refresh her companions, wearied with their long voyage, until she could conveniently resume her progress, she directed the hide to be cut into the thinnest possible strips, and thus acquired a greater portion of ground than she had apparently demanded; whence the place had afterwards the name of Byrsa.

    The people of the neighborhood subsequently gathering about her, bringing, in hopes of gain, many articles to the strangers for sale, and gradually fixing their abodes there, some resemblance of a city arose from the concourse. Ambassadors from the people of Utica, too, brought them presents as relatives, and exhorted them "to build a city where they had chanced to obtain a settlement."

    An inclination to detain the strangers was felt also by the Africans; and, accordingly, with the consent of all, Carthage was founded, an annual tribute being fixed for the ground which it was to occupy. At the commencement of digging the foundations an ox's head was found, which was an omen that the city would be wealthy, indeed, but laborious and always enslaved. It was therefore removed to another place, where the head of a horse was found, which, indicating that the people would be warlike and powerful, portended an auspicious site. In a short time, as the surrounding people came together at the report, the inhabitants became numerous, and the city itself extensive.

    When the power of the Carthaginians, from success in their proceedings, had risen to some height, Hiarbas, king of the Mauretanians, desiring an interview with ten of the chief men of Carthage, demanded Elissa in marriage, denouncing war in case of a refusal. The deputies, fearing to report this message to the queen, acted towards her with Carthaginian artifice, saying that "the king asked for some person to teach him and his Africans a more civilized way of life, but who could be found that would leave his relations and go to barbarians and people that were living like wild beasts?"

    Being then reproached by the queen, "in case they refused a hard life for the benefit of their country, to which, should circumstances require, their life itself was due," they disclosed the king's message, saying that "she herself, if she wished her city to be secure, must do what she required of others."

    Being caught by this subtlety, she at last said (after calling for a long time with many tears and mournful lamentations on the name of her husband Acerbas), that "she would go whither the fate of her city called her."

    Taking three months for the accomplishment of her resolution, and having raised a funeral pile at the extremity of the city, she sacrificed many victims, as if she would appease the shade of her husband, and make her offerings to him before her marriage; and then, taking a sword, she ascended the pile, and, looking towards the people, said, that "she would go to her husband as they had desired her," and put an end to her life with the sword.

    As long as Carthage remained unconquered, she was worshipped as a goddess. This city was founded seventy-two years before Rome; but while the bravery of its inhabitants made it famous in war, it was internally disturbed with various troubles, arising from civil differences. Being afflicted, among other calamities, with a pestilence, they adopted a cruel religious ceremony, an execrable abomination, as a remedy for it; for they immolated human beings as victims, and brought children (whose age excites pity even in enemies) to the altars, entreating favor of the gods by shedding the blood of those for whose life the gods are generally wont to be entreated.

    One hundred and twenty stadia

    Some authors say, that Dido put a trick on the natives, by desiring to purchase of them, for her intended settlement, only so much land as an ox's hide would encompass. The request was thought too moderate to be denied. She then cut the hide into the smallest thongs; and with them encompassed a large tract of ground, on which she built a citadel, called Byrsa, from the hide. But this tale of the hide is generally exploded by the learned; who observe, that the Hebrew word Bosra, which signifies a fortification, gave rise to the Greek word Byrsa, which is the name of the citadel of Carthage.

    Many of the neighboring people, invited by the prospect of lucre, repaired thither to sell to these foreigners the necessaries of life, and shortly after incorporated themselves with them. These inhabitants, who had been thus gathered from different places, soon grew very numerous. The citizens of Utica, considering them as their countrymen, and as descended from the same common stock, deputed envoys with very considerable presents, and exhorted them to build a city in the place where they had first settled. The natives of the country, from the esteem and respect frequently shown to strangers, made them the like offers. Thus all things conspiring with Dido's views, she built her city, which was appointed to pay an annual tribute to the Africans for the ground it stood upon, and called it Carthada, or Carthage, a name that in the Phoenician and Hebrew tongues, which have a great affinity, signifies the New City. It is said that, when the foundations were dug, a horse's head was found, which was thought a good omen, and a presage of the future warlike genius of that people.

    Carthage is now the largest of the towns founded by the Phoenicians on the north African coast. It rapidly assumes a leading position among the neighbouring colonies. The traditional date of its founding (by Dido) is 814 BC, but archaeological evidence suggests that it is probably settled around the middle of the 8th century.

    It seems that the colony was first ruled by a governor sent from Tyre, but the settlement became a city, the citizens wanted some independence, and kings started to be rulers of Carthage. In the course of the sixth century, they were replaced by two annually elected supreme magistrates, the suffetes ("judges"). The Roman consulship, which is better known to us, could be modelled on this office.

    The subsequent spread and growth of Phoenician colonies in the western Mediterranean, and even out to the Atlantic coasts of Africa and Spain, is as much the achievement of Carthage as of the original Phoenician trading cities such as Tyre and Sidon. But no doubt links are maintained with the homeland, and new colonists continue to come west.

    Colony of Tyre

    Little is known of the internal history and dealings of the early Phoenician city. The initial city covered the area around Byrsa, paid an annual tribute to the nearby Libyan tribes, and may have been ruled by a governor from Tyre, whom the Greeks identified as "king". Utica, then the leading Phoenician city in Africa, aided the early settlement in her dealings. The date from which Carthage can be counted as an independent power cannot exactly be determined, and probably nothing distinguished Carthage from the other Phoenician colonies in Africa during 800 - 700 BC.

    Extent of Phoenician settlement

    The Phoenicians' leading city was Tyre, which established a number of trading posts around the Mediterranean. Ultimately Phoenicians established 300 colonies in Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Iberia, and to a much lesser extent, on the arid coast of Libya. Carthage and a number of other settlements later evolved into cities in their own right. The Phoenicians lacked the population or necessity to establish self-sustaining cities abroad, and most cities had fewer than 1,000 inhabitants, but Carthage and a few other cities later developed into large, self sustaining, independent cities. The Phoenicians controlled Cyprus, Sardinia, Corsica, and the Balearic Islands, as well as obtained minor possessions in Crete and Sicily; the latter settlements were in perpetual conflict with the Greeks. The Phoenicians managed to control all of Sicily for a limited time, but this control was limited to the coast only.

    The first colonies were made on the two paths to Iberia's mineral wealth—along the African coast and on Sicily, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. The center of the Phoenician world was Tyre, serving as an economic and political hub. The power of this city waned following numerous sieges and its eventual destruction by Alexander the Great, and the role as leader passed to Sidon, and eventually to Carthage. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or Sidon, but neither mother city had actual control of the colonies. This changed with the rise of Carthage, since the Carthaginians appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and Carthage retained much direct control over the colonies. This policy resulted in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.

    Meanwhile, the city was becoming an important trade center. Probably in the first half of the sixth century, the Carthaginian admiral Hanno founded several colonies along the coast of what is now Morocco and proceeded to the gold river Senegal, and even reached Mount Cameroon. Another explorer was Himilco, who reached the British isles. There must have been other expeditions, which are not documented in our sources.

    Carthage, whose beginnings, as we have observed, were very weak, grew larger by insensible degrees, in the country where it was founded. But its dominion was not long confined to Africa. The inhabitants of this ambitious city extended their conquests into Europe, by invading Sardinia, seizing a great part of Sicily, and reducing almost all Spain; and having sent powerful colonies everywhere, they enjoyed the empire of the seas for more than six hundred years; and formed a state which was able to dispute pre-eminence with the greatest empires of the world, by their wealth, their commerce, their numerous armies, their formidable fleets, and above all, by the courage and ability of their captains. The dates and circumstances of many of these
    conquests are unfortunately little known...

    The destruction of Tyre

    It has been noted that the culture of Phoenician colonies had gained a distinct "Punic" characteristic by the end of the 7th century BC, indicating th emergence of a distinct culture in Western Mediterranean. In 650 BC, Carthage planted her own colony, and in 600 BC, she was warring with Greeks on her own away from the African mainland. By the time King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon was conducting the 13 year siege of Tyre starting from 585 BC, Carthage was probably independent of her mother city in political matters. However, close ties with Tyre still remained, Carthage continued to send annual tribute to Tyre (for the temple of Melqart) at irregular intervals over the centuries. Carthage inherited no colonial empire from Tyre and had to build her own. It is likely Carthage did not have an empire prior to 6th century BC.

    Exactly what social/political/geographic/military factors influenced the citizens of Carthage, and not the other Mediterranean Phoenician colonial members to create an economic and political hegemony is not clearly known. The city of Utica was far older than Carthage and enjoyed the same geographical/political advantages as Carthage, but it opted to be an allied entity, not a leader of the Punic hegemony that came into being probably sometime around the 6th century BC. When the Phoenician trade monopoly was challenged by Etruscans and Greeks in the West and their political and economic independence by successive empires in the east, Phoenician influence from the mainland decreased in the West and Punic Carthage ultimately emerged at the head of a commercial empire. One theory is that refugees from Phoenicia swelled the population and enhanced the culture of Carthage during the time the Phoenician homeland came under attack from the Babylonians and Persians, transferring the tradition of Tyre to Carthage.

    In 575, the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar captured Tyre, which now lost its independence and was no longer able to send reinforcements to Phoenician colonies if they needed them. The settlers had to look elsewhere if they needed help, and Carthage became the leader of a more or less informal empire, based on a shared ethnic sentiment and commercial interests. It consisted of many cities, all situated on the coast. In the east and northeast, it bordered on the Greek possessions in the Cyrenaica and on Sicily; in the north, Carthage controlled the coasts of Sardinia and Corsica, and in the west, the ports of the Maghreb and Andalusia. It also controlled the gold trade from Senegal and the route to the mysterious "tin isles", which may have been everywhere along the Atlantic Coast.

    Origins of Empire

    No doubt, the Carthaginian towns often had to fight against people in the hinterland. We might like to read more about, say, the Iberian wars, but unfortunately, the ancient inhabitants of Hispania did not leave many written accounts. Nor did the Carthaginians. The only place where we can see their imperialism at work, is on Sicily, where the Greeks and Carthaginians seem to have been in an almost perennial war.

    Conquests Of The Carthaginians In Africa

    The first wars made by the Carthaginians, were to free themselves from the annual tribute which they had engaged to pay the Africans, for the territory which had been ceded to them. This conduct does them no honor as the settlement was granted them upon condition of their paying a tribute. One would be apt to imagine, that they were desirous of covering the obscurity of their original by abolishing this proof of it. But they were not successful on this occasion. The Africans had justice on their side, and they prospered accordingly, the war being terminated by the payment of the tribute.

    The Carthaginians afterwards carried their arms against the Moors and Numidians, and gained many conquests over both. Being now emboldened by these happy successes, they shook off entirely the tribute which gave them so much uneasiness, and possessed themselves of a great part of Africa.

    Cyrene and Carthage

    No records of any confrontations between the two powers are available, but a legend describes how the powers agreed on a border in Libya.

    About this time there arose a great dispute between Carthage and Cyrene, on account of their respective limits. Cyrene was a very powerful city, situated on the Mediterranean, towards the greater Syrtis, and had been built by Battus the Lacedaemonian.
    It was agreed on each side, that two young men should set out at the same time from each city; and that the place of their meeting should be the common boundary of both states. The Carthaginians (these were two brothers named Philaeni) made the most haste; and their antagonists, pretending that foul play had been used, and that the two brothers above mentioned had set out before the time appointed, refused to stand to the agreement, unless the two brothers, to remove all suspicion of unfair dealing, would consent to be buried alive in the place where they had met. They acquiesced in the proposal, and the Carthaginians erected, on that spot, two altars to their memories, and paid them divine honors in their city, and from that time, the place was called the Altars of the Philaeni, Arae Philaenorum, and served as the boundary of the Carthaginian empire, which extended from thence to the pillars of Hercules.

    These pillars were not standing in Strabo's time. Some geographers think Arcadia to be the city which was anciently called Philaenorum Arae; but others believe it was Naina or Tain, situated a little west of Arcadia, in the gulf of Sidra.

    Conquests Of The Carthaginians In Sardinia, etc

    History does not inform us exactly, either of the time when the Carthaginians entered Sardinia, or of the manner they got possession of it. This island was of great use to them, and during all their wars supplied them abundantly with provisions. It is separated from Corsica by a strait of about three leagues over. The metropolis of the southern and most fertile part of it, was Caralis, or Calaris, now called Cagliari. On the arrival of the Carthaginians, the natives withdrew to the mountains in the northern parts of the island, which are almost inaccessible, and whence the enemy could not dislodge them.

    The Carthaginians seized likewise on the Baleares, now called Majorca and Minorca. Port Magon, in the latter island, was so called from Mago, a Carthaginian general, who first made use of, and fortified it. This harbor is, at this day, one of the most considerable in the Mediterranean.

    These isles furnished the Carthaginians with the most expert slingers in the world, who did them great service in battles and sieges. They slung large stones of above a pound weight; and sometimes threw leaden bullets with so much violence, that they would pierce even the strongest helmets, shields, and cuirasses; and were so dexterous in their aim, that they scarce ever missed the mark.

    Conquests Of The Carthaginians In Spain

    Spain, abounding with mines of gold and silver, and peopled with a martial race of men, had sufficient to excite both the avarice and ambition of the Carthaginians, who were more of a mercantile than of a warlike disposition, from the very genius and constitution of their republic. They doubtless knew that their Phoenician ancestors, as Diodorus relates, taking advantage of the happy ignorance of the Spaniards with regard to the immense riches which were hid in the bowels of their land, first took from them these precious treasures in exchange for commodities of little value. They likewise foresaw, that if they could once subdue this country, it would furnish them abundantly with well-disciplined troops for the conquests of other nations, as actually happened.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Spain in the era of carthaginian expansion

    Spain was descried as divided into three parts, Boetica, Lusitania and Tarraconia. Boetica, so called from the river Boetis, was the southern division of it, and comprehended the present kingdom of Granada, Andalusia, part of New Castile, and Estremadura. Cadiz, called by the ancients Gades and Gadira, is a town situated in a small island of the same name, on the western coast of Andalusia, about nine leagues from Gibraltar. It is well known that Hercules, having extended his conquests to this place, halted from the supposition that he was come to the extremity of the world. He here erected two pillars as monuments of his victories, pursuant to the custom of that age. The place has always retained the name, though time has quite destroyed these pillars. Authors are divided in opinion, with regard to the place where these pillars were erected. Boetica was the most fruitful, the wealthiest, and the most populous part of Spain. It contained two hundred cities, and was inhabited by the Turdetani, or Turduli. On the banks of the Boetis stood three large cities; Castulo towards the source; Corduba lower down, the native place of Lucan and the two Senecas; lastly, Hispalis. Lusitania is bounded on the west by the ocean, on the north by the river Durius, and on the south by the river Anas. Between these two rivers is the Tagus. Lusitania was what is now called Portugal, with part of Old and New Castile.
    Tarraconia comprehended the rest of Spain, that is, the kingdoms of Murcia and Valentia, Catalonia; Arragon, Navarre, Biscay, the Asturias, Gallicia, the kingdom of Leon, and the greatest part of the two Castiles. Tarraco, a very considerable city, gave its name to that part of Spain. Pretty near it lay Barcino. Its name gave rise to the conjecture that it was built by Hamilcar, surnamed Barcha, father of the great Hannibal. The most renowned nations of Tarraconia, were the Celtiberi, beyond the river Iberus; the Cantabri, where Biscay now lies; the Carpetani, whose capital was Toledo; the Ovitani, etc.

    The occasion of the Carthaginians first landing in Spain, was to assist the inhabitants of Cadiz, who were invaded by the Spaniards. That city, as well as Utica and Carthage, was a colony of Tyre, and even more ancient than either of them. The Tyrians having built it, established there the worship of Hercules; and erected in his honor a magnificent temple, which became famous in after ages. The success of this first expedition of the Carthaginians, made them desirous of carrying their arms into Spain.

    It is not exactly known in what period they entered Spain, nor how far they extended their first conquests. It is probable that these were slow in the beginning, as the Carthaginians had to do with very warlike nations, who defended themselves with great resolution and courage. Nor could they ever have accomplished their design, as Strabo observes, had the Spaniards, united in a body, formed but one state, and mutually assisted one another. But as every district, every people, were entirely detached from their neighbors, and had not the least correspondence nor connection with them, the Carthaginians were forced to subdue them one after another.

    It appears from the accounts given by Polybius and Livy, of the wars of Hamilcar, Asdrubal, and Hannibal in Spain, that the arms of the Carthaginians had not made any considerable progress in that country before that period, and that the greatest part of Spain was then unconquered.

    Beginning of Carthaginian hegemony

    The mainland Greeks began their colonization efforts in the western Mediterranean with the founding of Naxos and Cumae in Sicily and Italy respectively, and by 650 BC Phoenicians in Sicily had retreated to the western part of that island. Around this time the first recorded independent action by Carthage takes place, which is the colonization of Ibiza. By the end of the 7th century BC, Carthage was becoming one of the leading commercial centers of the West Mediterranean region, a position it retained until overthrown by the Roman Republic. Carthage would establish new colonies, repopulate old Phoenician ones, come to the defense of other Punic cities under threat from natives/Greeks, as well as expand her territories by conquest. While some Phoenician colonies willingly submitted to Carthage, paying tribute and giving up their foreign policy, others in Iberia and Sardinia resisted Carthaginian efforts.

    Carthage (unlike Rome) did not concentrate on conquering lands adjacent to the city prior to embarking on overseas ventures. Her dependence on trade and focus on protecting that trade network saw the evolution of an overseas hegemony before Carthage pushed inland into Africa. It may be possible that the power of the Libyan tribes prevented expansion in the neighborhood of the city for some time. Until 550 BC, Carthage paid rent to the Libyans for use of land in the city surroundings and in Cape Bon for agricultural purposes. The Africa dominion controlled by Carthage was relatively small. The payment would be finally stopped around 450 BC, when the second major expansion inland into Tunisia would take place. Carthage probably colonized the Syrtis region (Area between Thapsus in Tunisia and Sabratha in Libya) between 700-600 BC. Carthage also focused on bringing the existing Phoenician colonies along the African coast in the hegemony, but exact details are lacking. Emporia had fallen under Carthaginian influence prior to 509 BC, as the first treaty with Rome indicated. The eastward expansion of Carthaginian influence along the African coast (through what is now Libya) was blocked by the Greek colony of Cyrene (established 630 BC).

    Carthage spread her influence along the west coast relatively unhindered, the chronology is unknown. Wars with the Libyans, Numidians and Mauri took place but did not end with the creation of a Carthaginian empire like the one the Romans created almost half a millennium later.

    Nature of the hegemony

    The degree of control Carthage exerted over her territories varied in their severity. In ways, the Carthaginian hegemony shared some of the characteristics of the Delian League (allies sharing defense expenditure), the Spartan Kingdom (serfs tilling for the Punic elite and state) and to a lesser extent, the Roman Republic (allies contributing manpower/tribute to furnish the Roman war machine).

    Conquered People

    The African lands near to the city faced the harshest control measures, with Carthaginian officers administering the area and Punic troops garrisoning the cities. Many cities had to destroy their defensive walls, the Libyans living in the area had few rights. The Libyans could own land but had to pay an annual tribute (50% of agricultural produce and 25% of their town income) and serve in the Carthaginians armies as conscripts.

    Tributary Allies

    Other Phoenician cities (Like Leptis Magna) paid an annual tribute and ran their own internal affairs, retained their defensive walls but had no independent foreign policy. Other cities had to provide personnel for the Punic army and the Punic navy along with tribute but retained internal autonomy. Allies like Utica and Gades were more independent and had their own government. Carthage stationed troops and some type of central administration in Sardinia and Spain to control her domain. The cities, in return for surrendering these privileges, obtained Carthaginian protection, which provided the fleet to combat piracy and fought wars needed to protect these cities from external threats.

    Citizens and their status

    Carthaginian citizenship was more exclusive and the goal of the state was more focused on protecting the trade infrastructure than expanding the citizen body. The Roman Republic, which in the course of her wars created an alliance system in Italy which, in addition to expanding her lands, also expanded her citizen body and military manpower by adding allies (with varying degrees of political rights). Carthage, while she continued to expand until 218 BC, did not have a similar system to increase her citizen numbers. She had treaties in place with various Punic and non-Punic cities (the most famous and well known ones being the ones with Rome), which detailed the rights of each power and their sphere of influence. The Punic cities not under direct Carthaginian control probably had similar treaties in place. The Libyo-Phoenicians, who lived in the African domain controlled by Carthage also had rights similar to those of Carthaginian citizens. The Carthaginian citizens were exempt from taxation and primarily involved in commerce as traders or industrial workers. As a result, Carthage, unlike the other agricultural nations, could not afford to have her citizens serve in a long war, as it diminished her commercial activities.

    The reign of "Kings"

    Carthage was initially ruled by "kings", who were elected by the Carthaginian "senate" and served for a specific time period. The election took place in Carthage, and the kings at first were war leaders, civic administrators and performed certain religious duties. According to Aristotle, kings were elected on merit, not by the people but by the senate, and post was not hereditary. However, the crown and military commands could also be purchased by the highest bidder. Initially these kings may have enjoyed near absolute power, which was curtailed as Carthage moved towards a more democratic government. Gradually, military command fell to professional officers, and a pair of suffets replaced the king in some of the civic functions and eventually king were no longer elected. Records show that two families had held the kingship with distinction during 550-310 BC. The Magonid family produced several members who were elected kings between 550 BC and 370 BC, who were in the forefront of the overseas expansion of Carthage. Hanno "Magnus", along with his son and grandson, held the kingship for some years between 367 and 310 BC. Records of other elected kings or their impact on Carthaginian history are not available. The suffets, who would ultimately displace the kings, were elected by the people. Suffets would ultimately discard their military duties and become purely civic officials.

    Kings of Carthage, 814 BC-308 BC

    Dido 814-c.760 BC
    Hanno I c.580-c.556 BC
    Malchus c.556-c.550 BC

    Mago I c.550-c.530 BC
    Hasdrubal I c.530-c.510 BC
    Hamilcar I c.510-480 BC
    Hanno II 480-440 BC
    Himilco I (in Sicily) 460-410 BC
    Hannibal I 440-406 BC
    Himilco II 406-396 BC
    Mago II 396-375 BC
    Mago III 375-344
    Hanno III 344-340

    Hanno the Great 340-337 BC
    Gisco 337-330 BC
    Hamilcar II 330-309 BC
    Bomilcar 309-308 BC

    In 480 BC, following Hamilcar I's death, the King lost most of his power to an aristocratic Council of Elders. In 308 BC, Bomilcar attempted a coup to restore the monarch to full power, but failed, which led to Carthage becoming in name as well as in fact a republic.

    Because the Greeks and Carthaginians were close, an interesting document about Carthage was written by a Greek observer: in his Politics, the philosopher Aristotle of Stagira offers an analysis of the Carthaginian constitution.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    The Constitution of Carthage

    In his Politics, the Macedonian scientist and philosopher Aristotle of Stagira (384-322) describes the constitution of Carthage. He focuses on the common Greek distinctions between democracy, oligarchy/aristocracy, and monarchy. He argues that Carthage is an aristocracy with oligarchic and democratic tendencies.

    The translation of pages 1272b24-1273b25 of the Politics was made by Benjamin Jowett.

    The Carthaginians are considered to have an excellent form of government, which differs from that of any other state in several respects, though it is in some very like the Spartan. Indeed, the Spartan, Cretan, and Carthaginian states closely resemble one another and are very different from any others.

    Many of the Carthaginian institutions are excellent. The superiority of their constitution is proved by the fact that the common people remain loyal to it. The Carthaginians have never had any rebellion worth speaking of, and have never been under the rule of a tyrant.

    Among the points in which the Carthaginian constitution resembles the Spartan are the following: The common tables of the clubs answer to the Spartan phiditia, and their magistracy of the Hundred-Four to the Ephors; but, whereas the Ephors are any chance persons, the magistrates of the Carthaginians are elected according to merit - this is an improvement. They have also their kings (Aristotle refers to the two suffetes. Sparta had two kings.) and their Gerousia, or council of elders, who correspond to the kings and elders of Sparta. Their kings, unlike the Spartan, are not always of the same family, nor that an ordinary one, but if there is some distinguished family they are selected out of it and not appointed by seniority - this is far better. Such officers have great power, and therefore, if they are persons of little worth, do a great deal of harm, and they have already done harm at Sparta.

    Most of the defects or deviations from the perfect state, for which the Carthaginian constitution would be censured, apply equally to all the forms of government which we have mentioned. But of the deflections from aristocracy and constitutional government, some incline more to democracy and some to oligarchy. The kings and elders, if unanimous, may determine whether they will or will not bring a matter before the people, but when they are not unanimous, the people decide on such matters as well. And whatever the kings and elders bring before the people is not only heard but also determined by them, and any one who likes may oppose it; now this is not permitted in Sparta and Crete. That the magistrates of five who have under them many important matters should be co-opted, that they should choose the supreme council of One Hundred, and should hold office longer than other magistrates (for they are virtually rulers both before and after they hold office) - these are oligarchic features; their being without salary and not elected by lot, and any similar points, such as the practice of having all suits tried by the magistrates, and not some by one class of judges or jurors and some by another, as at Sparta, are characteristic of aristocracy.

    The Carthaginian constitution deviates from aristocracy and inclines to oligarchy, chiefly on a point where popular opinion is on their side. For men in general think that magistrates should be chosen not only for their merit, but for their wealth: a man, they say, who is poor cannot rule well - he has not the leisure. If, then, election of magistrates for their wealth be characteristic of oligarchy, and election for merit of aristocracy, there will be a third form under which the constitution of Carthage is comprehended; for the Carthaginians choose their magistrates, and particularly the highest of them -their kings and generals- with an eye both to merit and to wealth.

    But we must acknowledge that, in thus deviating from aristocracy, the legislator has committed an error. Nothing is more absolutely necessary than to provide that the highest class, not only when in office, but when out of office, should have leisure and not disgrace themselves in any way; and to this his attention should be first directed. Even if you must have regard to wealth, in order to secure leisure, yet it is surely a bad thing that the greatest offices, such as those of kings and generals, should be bought. The law which allows this abuse makes wealth of more account than virtue, and the whole state becomes avaricious.

    For, whenever the chiefs of the state deem anything honorable, the other citizens are sure to follow their example; and, where virtue has not the first place, their aristocracy cannot be firmly established. Those who have been at the expense of purchasing their places will be in the habit of repaying themselves; and it is absurd to suppose that a poor and honest man will be wanting to make gains, and that a lower stamp of man who has incurred a great expense will not. Wherefore they should rule who are able to rule best. And even if the legislator does not care to protect the good from poverty, he should at any rate secure leisure for them when in office. It would seem also to be a bad principle that the same person should hold many offices, which is a favorite practice among the Carthaginians, for one business is better done by one man.

    The government of the Carthaginians is oligarchic, but they successfully escape the evils of oligarchy by enriching one portion of the people after another by sending them to their colonies. This is their panacea and the means by which they give stability to the state. Accident favors them, but the legislator should be able to provide against revolution without trusting to accidents. As things are, if any misfortune occurred, and the bulk of the subjects revolted, there would be no way of restoring peace by legal methods.

    The Phoenicians encountered little resistance in developing their trade monopoly during 1100-900 BC. The emergence of the Etruscans as a sea power did little to dent the Phoenician trade. The power of the Etruscans was localized around Italy, and their trade with Corsica, Sardinia and Iberia had not hindered Phoenician activity. Trade had also developed between Punic and Etruscan cities, and Carthage had treaties with the Etruscan cities to regulate these activities, while mutual piracy had not led to full blown war between the powers. Carthage's economic successes, and its dependence on shipping to conduct most of its trade, led to the creation of a powerful Carthaginian navy to discourage both pirates and rival nations. This, coupled with its success and growing hegemony, ultimately brought Carthage into increasing conflict with the Greeks, the other major power contending for control of the central Mediterranean. In conducting these conflicts, which spanned between 600 - 310 BC, the overseas empire of Carthage also came into being under the military leadership of the "Kings". The Etruscans, also in conflict with the Greeks, became allies of Carthage in the ensuing struggle.
    Last edited by hæressiarch; March 06, 2010 at 03:19 PM.

  3. #3

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Conflict with the Greeks

    The nature of the conflict between Carthage and Greeks were more due to economic factors rather than over ideological and cultural difference. Greeks did not wage a crusade to save the world from Imperium Barbaricum but to extend their own area of influence, neither was Carthage interested in wiping out Greek ideals. It was the vulnerability of the Carthaginian economy to Greek commercial competition that caused Carthage to take on the Greeks during the early years of her empire.

    Vulnerability of Punic Trade

    The trade network which Carthage inherited from Tyre depended heavily on Carthage keeping commercial rivals at arms length. The goods produced by Carthage were mainly for the local African market and were initially inferior to Greek goods. Carthage was the middleman between the mineral resource rich Iberia and the East, she bartered low priced goods for metals, then bartered those for finished goods in the East and distributed these through their network. The threat from the Greek colonists were threefold:
    Undercutting the Phoenicians by offering better products
    Taking over the distribution network
    Preying on Punic shipping

    While the Greek colonies also offered increased opportunities for trade and piracy, their nosing into areas of Punic influence caused the Punic cities to look for protection from their strongest city. Carthage took up the challenge.

    Greek western colonization

    The Greek colonization in the Western Mediterranean started with the establishment of Cumae in Italy and Naxos in Sicily after 750 BC. Over the next century, hundreds of Greek colonies sprang up along the Southern Italian and Sicilian coastlines (except Western Sicily). There are no records of Phoenicians initially clashing with Greeks over territory; in fact, the Phoenicians had withdrawn to the Western corner of Sicily in face of Greek expansion. However, the situation changed sometime after 638 BC, when the first Greek trader visited Tartessos, and by 600 BC Carthage was actively warring with the Greeks to curb their colonial expansion. By 600 BC, the once Phoenician lake had turned into a conflict zone with the Greeks rowing about in all corners. Carthaginian interests in Iberia, Sardinia and Sicily were threatened, which led to a series of conflicts between Carthage and various Greek city states.

    Twenty years after the establishment of Massalia, the Phoenician cities in Sicily repelled an invasion of Dorian Greek settlers in Sicily while aiding the Elymians of Segesta against the Greek city of Selineus in 580 BC. The result was the defeated Greeks established themselves in Lipera, which became a pirate hub, a threat to all commerce (Greeks included). Shortly after this event, Carthaginians under a “King” called Malchus warred successfully against the Libyan tribes in Africa, and then defeated the Greeks in Sicily, sending a part of the Sicilian booty to Tyre as tribute to Melquart. Malchus next moved to Sardinia, but suffered a severe defeat against the natives. He and his entire army was banished by the Carthaginian senate. They in turn returned to Africa and besieged Carthage, which duly surrendered. Malchus assumed power, but was later deposed and executed. The Carthaginian army, which up to this point had been a predominantly citizen militia, became one primarily made up of mercenaries.

    Mago and the Magonids

    Mago I, a general of the army, had assumed power in Carthage by 550 BC. Mago and his sons, Hasdrubal I and Hamilcar I, established the warlike tradition of Carthage by their successes in Africa, Sicily and Sardinia. In 546 BC, Phocaeans fleeing from Persian invasion established Alalia in Corsica (Greeks had settled there since 562 BC), and began preying on Etruscan and Punic commerce. Between 540 and 535 BC, a Carthaginian-Etruscan alliance had expelled the Greeks from Corsica after the Battle of Alalia. The Etruscans took control of Corsica, Carthage concentrated on Sardinia, ensuring that no Greek presence would be established in the island. The defeat also ended the westward expansion of Greeks for all time.

    A war with Phoenician Massalia followed. Carthage lost battles but managed to safeguard Phoenician Spain and close the Strait of Gibraltar to Greek shipping, while Massalians retained their Spanish colonies in Eastern Iberia above Cape Nao. Southern Spain was closed to Greeks. Carthaginians in support of the Phoenician colony Gades in Spain, also brought about the collapse of Tartessos in Spain by 530 BC, either by armed conflict or by cutting off Greek trade. Carthage also besieged and took over Gades at this time. The Persians had taken over Cyrene by this time, and Carthage may have been spared a trial of arms against the Persian Empire when the Phoenicians refused to lend ships to Cambyses in 525 BC for an African expedition. Carthage may have paid tribute irregularly to the Great King. It is not known if Carthage had any role in the Battle of Cumae in 524 BC, after which the Etruscan power began to wane in Italy.

    Hasdrubal, the son of Mago, was elected as "King" eleven times, was granted a triumph four times (the only Carthaginian to receive this honor - there is no record of anyone else being given similar treatment by Carthage) and had died of his battle wounds received in Sardinia. Carthage had engaged in a 25 year struggle in Sardinia, where the natives may have received aid from Sybaris, then the richest city in Magna Gracia and an ally of the Phocaeans. The Carthaginians faced resistance from Nora and Sulci in Sardinia, while Carales and Tharros had submitted willingly to Carthaginian rule. Hasdrubal’s war against the Libyans failed to stop the annual tribute payment.

    Carthaginians managed to defeat and drive away the colonization attempt near Leptis Manga in Libya by the Spartan prince Dorieus after a three year war (514-511 BC). Dorieus was later defeated and killed at Eryx in Sicily in 510 BC while attempting to establish a foothold in Western Sicily. Hamilcar, either the brother or nephew (son of Hanno) of Hasdrubal, followed him to power in Carthage. Hamilcar had served with Hasdrubal in Sardinia and had managed to put the revolt of Sardinians which had started in 509 BC.

    First Treaty with Rome

    Carthage had concluded treaties with several powers, but the ones with Rome is the most famous. In 509 BC, a treaty was signed between Carthage and Rome indicating a division of influence and commercial activities. This is the first known source indicating that Carthage had gained control over Sicily and Sardinia, as well as Emporia and the area south of Cape Bon in Africa. Carthage may have signed the treaty with Rome, then an insignificant backwater, because Romans had treaties with the Phocaeans and Cumae, who were aiding the Roman struggle against the Etruscans at that time. Carthage had similar treaties with Etruscan, Punic and Greek cities in Sicily.

    By the end of the 6th Century BC, Carthage had conquered most of the old Phoenician colonies e.g. Hadrumetum, Utica and Kerkouane, subjugated some of the Libyan tribes, and had taken control of parts of the North African coast from modern Morocco to the borders of Cyrenaica. It was also fighting wars in defense of Punic colonies and commerce, however, only the details of her struggle against the Greeks have survived - which often makes Carthage seem "obsessed with Sicily".
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    First treaty with Rome 509 BC


    The first treaty between the two city-states was signed the year the Roman Republic was founded, in 509 BC as dated by the Varronian method. The calculations of Polybius, a Greek historian whose calculations are based on the years of the Persian expedition against the Greek free cities, produced a slightly different date; he wrote that the events of the treaty took place "twenty-eight years before the passage of Xerxes into Greece". Xerxes, the king of Persia, crossed the Hellespont with his armies in June, 480 BC.

    During the war with Ardea, following the overthrow of Tarquin the Proud, Rome found that it needed to secure itself and its supplies, which were controlled for the most part by Greek and Etruscan merchants, since the Etrsucan Cerveteri and its port of Pyrgi supplied Rome. Rome therefore tried to gain the support of the Carthaginians who by that time were already operating in Cerveteri, as evidenced by votive writings found in Etruscan and Phoenician.

    At the same time, Carthage was engaged in fighting the Greek colonies that had spread from Greece across the western Mediterranean. The presence of Greek cities along the coasts of southern Italy and the eastern part of Sicily limited Phoenician commerce to the the region's interior. In Spain and Provence, Carthage fought to compete with Phocaean colonies, and in Sardinia and Corsica, Carthage was joined by the Etruscans in their competition with the Phocaeans, resulting, subsequently, in the Phocaeans being driven out, Corsica and the Tyrrhenian becoming Etruscan, and Sardinia and the western half of Sicily becoming Carthaginian (eastern Sicily would remain Greek for centuries). Additionally, in 510 BC, Carthage had to fight to hold off Spartan incursions into western Sicily.

    Terms of the treaty

    This treaty was signed between Rome and Carthage twenty-eight years before the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, according to Polybius. The treaty stated that there "shall be friendship between the Romans and their allies, and the Carthaginians and their allies" on the conditions listed below.

    Conditions on Rome and her allies

    The conditions imposed by the treaty on Rome and her allies were that
    @ They were not to sail past Cape Bello (i.e. into the gulf of Carthage), unless driven there by storm or enemies;
    @ If anyone was "driven ashore" he was only to buy or take what was needed for "the repair of his ship and the service of the gods", and had to leave within five days; and
    @ Merchants could operate in Sardinia and Libya only in the presence of a herald or town-clerk, and the sale would be secured by the state.

    Conditions on Carthage and her allies

    The conditions imposed by the treaty of Carthage and her allies were that
    @ They were not to attack certain settlements named in the treaty, that were "subject to the Romans";
    @ They were not to attack even townships not subject to Rome, and if they conquered one they were to "deliver it unharmed to the Romans";
    @ They were not to build fortresses in Latium;
    They could not stay the night in Latium if they entered the district armed; and
    @ In Carthaginian Sicily, Romans were to have the same rights as Carthaginians.


    Per the treaty, Carthage did not renounce any military action except against a small territory, Latium, and maintained a free hand for action against the Greeks and Etruscans, both of whom were militarily and economically more powerful and dangerous than Rome.

    In the graphic below, the following areas are highlighted and labeled:

    1. The area was forbidden to Rome by the treaty. By then, Carthage with its navy had already blocked any competition beyond the channel of Sicily or along the African coast.
    2. The area not under direct Carthaginian control. In fact, Greek and Etruscan mariners sailed there freely; Carthage reserved the right to refuse competition, but "magnanimously" offered the Romans shelter in case of emergencies or bad weather.
    3. The area under Greek and Etruscan control.

    Roman expansion, before the fall of Tarquin the Proud, was directed towards the Tyrrhenian coast to the southwest, and the Roman Republic was proclaimed while Tarquin's army was fighting Ardea. It can be supposed that Rome, with its small size, wanted to formalize the exclusion of competition from Carthage while it began pressuring the Greeks. Otherwise, the contrast of this diplomacy with the war against Ardea would not be so pronounced, nor would it make sense to specifically exclude Carthaginian fortresses.

    Sicilian Wars

    During all these wars, for which Diodorus of Sicily is our main source, Carthage was sometimes defending itself against Greek aggression, and just as often, it was the other way round. There is not a clear-cut pattern, and it would be wrong that Carthage pursued a consistent imperialistic policy, like Assyria, king Philip II of Macedonia, or Rome. On the other hand, Carthage was not a peaceful city pursuing a mercantile policy either. It was a republic and there were several factions with differing opinions and policies.

    First Sicilian War (480 BC)

    The island of Sicily, lying at Carthage's doorstep, became the arena on which this conflict played out. From their earliest days, both the Greeks and Phoenicians had been attracted to the large island, establishing a large number of colonies and trading posts along its coasts. Small battles had been fought between these settlements for centuries. Carthage had to contest with at least three Greek incursions, in 580 BC, in 510 BC and a war in which the city of Heraclea was destroyed. Gelo had fought in the last war and had secured terms for the Greeks.

    The Punic domain in Sicily by 500 BC contained the cities of Motya, Panormus and Soluntum. By 490 BC, Carthage had concluded treaties with the Greek cities of Selinus, Himera, and Zankle in Sicily. Gelo, the tyrant of Greek Syracuse, backed in part by support from other Greek city-states, was attempting to unite the island under his rule since 485 BC. When Theron of Akragas, father in law of Gelo, deposed the tyrant of Himera in 483 BC, Carthage decided to intervene at the instigation of the tyrant of Rhegion, who was the father-in-law of the deposed tyrant of Himera.
    Carthage could not ignore this imminent threat because the Gelo-Theron alliance was about to take over the whole of Sicily, and Hamilcar was a guest friend of Terrilus.

    Carthage may have also chosen this time to attack because a Persian fleet attacked mainland Greece in the same year. The theory that there was an alliance with Persia is disputed, because Carthage neither liked foreign involvement in their wars, nor wanted to contribute in foreign wars, unless they have strong reasons to do so. But because control of Sicily was a valuable prize for Carthage and because Carthage fielded its largest military force to date, under the leadership of the general Hamilcar, Carthage was eager for war. Traditional accounts give Hamilcar's army a strength of three hundred thousand men; This number seems unlikely because, even at its peak, the Carthaginian Empire would have only been able to muster a force of about fifty thousand to one hundred thousand men. If Carthage had allied with Persia, they may have supplied Carthage mercenaries and aid, which the Persians undoubtedly had, but there is no evidence to support this cooperation between the Carthaginians and the Persians.

    Hamilcar prepared the largest Punic overseas expedition to date and after three years of preparations, sailed for Sicily. En route to Sicily, however, the Punic fleet suffered losses, possibly severe, due to poor weather. After landing at Ziz, the Punic name for Panormus, modern-day Palermo, he was then decisively defeated by Gelo at the Battle of Himera, which was said to have occurred on the same day as the Battle of Salamis.

    Hamilcar was either killed during the battle or committed suicide in shame. The loss caused changes in the political and economic landscape of Carthage, the old government of entrenched nobility was ousted, replaced by the Carthaginian Republic. The king still remained, but he had very little power and most was entrusted with the Council of Elders. Carthage paid 2000 talents as reparations to the Greeks, and did not intervene in Sicily for 70 years.

    We know that in the mid-sixth century, Carthage supported the Phoenician towns against Greek Selinus; that they fought against the Spartan prince Dorieus, who tried to build a city within the Carthaginian part of the island (c.510); that in 480 the Carthaginian leader Hamilcar was defeated near Himera by Gelon, the Syracusan tyrant; that a commander named Hannibal renewed the war at the end of the fifth century and organized the Sicilian towns into one province; that a treaty was signed in 405; and that war flared up every now and then during the fourth century. We know of fighting in the years 397-392, 382-373, 368-362 (all against Dionysius I and II), 345-339 (against Timoleon; and in 311-306 against Agathocles.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Timoleon defeats Carthage

    The philosopher Plutarch of Chaeronea (46-c.122) is the author of a series of double biographies in which he compared Greeks and Romans, and tried to explore the nature of some type of man. They contain much historical information. The following text is taken from his Life of Timoleon, who tried to protect Syracuse from civil war and against Carthaginian aggression. The story of his fortunate victory over the Carthaginians is told below; Plutarch's source is the History by Timaeus of Tauromenium, who had, as a boy, met Timoleon.

    The translation was made by Thomas Blomer and appeared in the Dryden series.

    Meantime, the Carthaginians landed at the promontory of Lilybaeum, bringing with them an army of 70,000 men on board 200 galleys, besides a 1,000 other vessels laden with engines of battery, chariots, corn, and other military stores, as if they did not intend to manage the war by piecemeal and in parts as heretofore, but to drive the Greeks altogether and at once out of all Sicily. And indeed it was a force sufficient to overpower the Sicelians, even though they had been at perfect union among themselves, and had never been enfeebled by intestine quarrels.

    Hearing that part of their subject territory was suffering devastation, they forthwith made toward the Corinthians with great fury, having Hasdrubal and Hamilcar for their generals; the report of whose number and strength coming suddenly to Syracuse, the citizens were so terrified, that hardly 3,000, among so many myriads of them, had the courage to take up arms and join Timoleon. The foreigners, serving for pay, were not above 4,000 in all, and about a 1,000 of these grew faint-hearted by the way, and forsook Timoleon in his march towards the enemy, looking on him as frantic and distracted, destitute of the sense which might have been expected from his time of life, thus to venture out against an army of 70,000 men, with no more than 5,000 foot and a 1,000 horse; and, when he should have kept those forces to defend the city, choosing rather to remove them eight days' journey from Syracuse, so that if they were beaten from the field, they would have no retreat, nor any burial if they fell upon it. Timoleon, however, reckoned it some kind of advantage, that these had thus discovered themselves before the battle, and encouraging the rest, led them with all speed to the river Cremisus, where it was told him the Carthaginians were drawn together. [...]

    It was now about the beginning of summer, and conclusion of the month called Thargelion, not far from the solstice (June, probably 340.); and the river sending up a thick mist, all the adjacent plain was at first darkened with the fog, so that for a while they could discern nothing from the enemy's camp; only a confused buzz and undistinguished mixture of voices came up to the hill from the distant motions and clamors of so vast a multitude. When the Corinthians had mounted, and stood on the top, and had laid down their bucklers to take breath and repose themselves, the sun coming round and drawing up the vapors from below, the gross foggy air that was now gathered and condensed above formed in a cloud upon the mountains; and, all the under places being clear and open, the river Cremisus appeared to them again, and they could descry the enemies passing over it, first with their formidable four-horse chariots of war, and then 10,000 footmen bearing white shields, whom they guessed to be all Carthaginians, from the splendor of their arms, and the slowness and order of their march. And when now the troops of various other nations, flowing in behind them, began to throng for passage in a tumultuous and unruly manner, Timoleon, perceiving that the river gave them opportunity to single off whatever number of their enemies they had a mind to engage at and bidding his soldiers observe how their forces were divided into two separate bodies by the intervention of the stream, some being already over, and others still to ford it, gave Demaretus command to fall in upon the Carthaginians with his horse, and disturb their ranks before they should be drawn up into form of battle; and coming down into the plain himself forming his right and left wing of other Sicilians, intermingling only a few strangers in each, he placed the natives of Syracuse in the middle, with the stoutest mercenaries he had about his own person; and waiting a little to observe the action of his horse, when they saw they were not only hindered from grappling with the Carthaginians by the armed chariots that ran to and fro before the army, but forced continually to wheel about to escape having their ranks broken, and so to repeat their charges anew, he took his buckler in his hand, and crying out to the foot that they should follow him with courage and confidence, he seemed to speak with a more than human accent, and a voice stronger than ordinary; whether it were that he naturally raised it so high in the vehemence and ardor with his mind to assault the enemy, or else, as many then thought, some god or other spoke with him. When his soldiers quickly gave an echo to it, and besought him to lead them on without any further delay, he made a sign to the horse, that they should draw off from the front where the chariots were, and pass sidewards to attack their enemies in the flank; then, making his vanguard firm by joining man to man and buckler to buckler, he caused the trumpet to sound, and so bore in upon the Carthaginians.

    They, for their part, stoutly received and sustained his first onset; and having their bodies armed with breast-plates of iron, and helmets of brass on their heads, besides great bucklers to cover and secure them, they could easily repel the charge of the Greek spears. But when the business came to a decision by the sword, where mastery depends no less upon art than strength, all on a sudden from the mountain-tops violent peals of thunder and vivid flashes of lightning broke out; following upon which the darkness, that had been hovering about the higher grounds and the crests of the hills, descending to the place of battle and bringing a tempest of rain and of wind and hail along with it, was driven upon the Greeks behind, and fell only at their backs, but discharged itself in the very faces of the barbarians, the rain beating on them, and the lightning dazzling them without cessation; annoyances that in many ways distressed at any rate the inexperienced, who had not been used to such hardships, and, in particular, the claps of thunder, and the noise of the rain and hail beating on their arms, kept them from hearing the commands of their officers.

    Besides which, the very mud also was a great hindrance to the Carthaginians, who were not lightly equipped, but, as I said before, loaded with heavy armor; and then their shirts underneath getting drenched, the foldings about the bosom filled with water, grew unwieldy and cumbersome to them as they fought, and made it easy for the Greeks to throw them down, and, when they were once down, impossible for them, under that weight, to disengage themselves and rise again with weapons in their hands. The river Cremisus, too, swollen partly by the rain, and partly by the stoppage of its course with the numbers that were passing through, overflowed its banks; and the level ground by the side of it, being so situated as to have a number of small ravines and hollows of the hillside descending upon it, was now filled with rivulets and currents that had no certain channel, in which the Carthaginians stumbled and rolled about, and found themselves in great difficulty. So that, in fine, the storm bearing still upon them, and the Greeks having cut in pieces four hundred men of their first ranks, the whole body of their army began to fly.

    Great numbers were overtaken in the plain, and put to the sword there; and many of them, as they were making their way back through the river, falling foul upon others that were yet coming over, were borne away and overwhelmed by the waters; but the major part, attempting to get up the hill so as to make their escape, were intercepted and destroyed by the light-armed troops. It is said that, of ten thousand who lay dead after the fight, three thousand, at least, were Carthaginian citizens; a heavy loss and great grief to their countrymen; those that fell being men inferior to none among them as to birth, wealth, or reputation. Nor do their records mention that so many native Carthaginians were ever cut off before in any one battle; as they usually employed Africans, Spaniards, and Numidians in their wars, so that if they chanced to be defeated, it was still at the cost and damage of other nations.

    The Greeks easily discovered of what condition and account the slain were by the richness of their spoils; for when they came to collect the booty, there was little reckoning made either of brass or iron, so abundant were better metals, and so common were silver and gold. Passing over the river they became masters of their camp and carriages. As for captives, a great many of them were stolen away and sold privately by the soldiers but about five thousand were brought in and delivered up for the benefit of the public; two hundred of their chariots of war were also taken. The tent of Timoleon then presented a most glorious and magnificent appearance, being heaped up and hung round with every variety of spoils and military ornaments, among which there were a thousand breastplates of rare workmanship and beauty, and bucklers to the number of ten thousand.

    The victors being but few to strip so many that were vanquished, and having such valuable booty to occupy them, it was the third day after the fight before they could erect and finish the trophy of their conquest. Timoleon sent tidings of his victory to Corinth, with the best and goodliest arms he had taken as a proof of it; that he thus might render his country an object of emulation to the whole world, when, of all the cities of Greece, men should there alone behold the chief temples adorned, not with Grecian spoils, nor offerings obtained by the bloodshed and plunder of their own countrymen and kindred, and attended, therefore, with sad and unhappy remembrances, but with such as had been stripped from barbarians and enemies to their nation, with the noblest titles inscribed upon them, titles telling of the justice as well as fortitude of the conquerors; namely, that the people of Corinth, and Timoleon their general, having redeemed the Greeks of Sicily from Carthaginian bondage, made oblation of these to the gods, in grateful acknowledgment of their favor.

    In Sicily, Carthage lost no territory and the Greeks gained none. Syracuse did not attack Rhegion or Selinus, allies of Carthage. The booty from the war helped to fund a public building program in Sicily, Greek culture flourished as a result. Trading activity saw the prosperity of the Greek cities increase and the wealth of Akragas began to rival that of Sybaris. Gelo died in 478 BC, and within the next 20 years, the Greek tyrants were overthrown, and the Syracuse-Akragas alliance fragmented into 11 feuding commonwealths under oligarchs and democracies. Their bickering and future expansionist policies led to the Second Sicilian war.

    Consequence of defeat - A Republican Empire

    This defeat had far reaching consequences, both political and economic, for Carthage. Politically, the old government of entrenched nobility was ousted, replaced by the Carthaginian Republic. The “King” was still elected, but their power began to erode, with the senate and the "Tribunal of 104" gaining dominance in political matters, and the position of "Suffet" becoming more influential. Economically, sea-borne trade with the Middle East was cut off by the mainland Greeks and Magna Gracia boycotted Carthaginian traders. This led to the development of trade with the West and of caravan-borne trade with the East. Gisco, son of Hamilcar was exiled, and Carthage for the next 70 years made no recorded forays against the Greeks nor aided either the Elymians/Sicels or the Etruscans, then locked in struggle against the Greeks, or sent any aid to the Greek enemies of Syracuse, then the leading Greek city in Sicily. Based on this abstinence from Greek affairs, it is commented that Carthage was crippled after the defeat of Himera

    If Carthage was indeed crippled, she was not immobile. Focus was shifted on expansion in Africa and Sardinia, and on the exploration of Africa and Europe for new markets. The grandsons of Mago I, Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Sappho (sons of Hasdrubal), together with Hanno, Gisco and Himilco (sons of Hamilcar) are said to have played prominent parts in these activities, but specific details of their roles are lacking. By 450 BC, Carthage had finally stopped paying tribute to the Libyans, and a line of forts was built in Sardinia, securing Carthaginian control over the island coastline.

    Hanno, son of Hamilcar may be the famous Hanno the Navigator, which places his expedition around 460–425 BC, and Himilco may be the same as Himilco the Navigator, which puts his expedition sometimes after 450 BC. Hanno the Navigator sailed down the African coast as far as Cameroon, and Himilco the Navigator explored the European Atlantic coast up to England in search of tin. These expeditions took place when Carthage was at the zenith of its power. If Hanno and Himilco are indeed related to Mago, then Carthage had recovered quite rapidly from her "crippled" state. If Hanno and Himilco are not of the Magoniod family, then these expeditions may have taken place before 500 BC and Cathage might have been crippled for 70 years.

    Carthage took no recorded part in the activities of the Sicilian chief Ducetius in Sicily against Syracuse, nor in the wars between Akrages and Syracuse, or the battles of the Etruscans against Syracuse and Cumae. Carthage fleet took no recorded part in the shattering defeat of the Etruscan fleet at the naval Battle of Cumae in 474 BC at the hands of the Greeks. She sat out the Peloponesian war, refused to aid Segesta against Selinus in 415 BC and Athens against Syracuse in 413 BC. Nothing is known of any military activities Carthage might have taken in Africa or Spain during this time. In 410 BC, Segesta, under attack from Selinus, appealed to Carthage again. The Carthaginian senate agreed to send help.

    By 410 BC, Carthage had conquered much of modern day Tunisia, strengthened and founded new colonies in North Africa, and had sponsored Mago Barca's journey across the Sahara Desert, Although, in that year, the Iberian colonies seceded — cutting off Carthage's major supply of silver and copper.

    Second Sicilian War (410 BC-340 BC)

    While the Greeks cities in Sicily bickered and prospered for 70 years after Himera, Carthage had conquered the northern fertile half of modern day Tunisia, and strengthened and founded new colonies in North Africa, such as Leptis and Oea, modern Tripoli. Carthage had also sponsored Mago Barca's, not to be confused with Mago Barca, Hannibal Barca's brother, journey across the Sahara Desert to Cyrenaica, and Hanno the Navigator's journey down the African coast. Although the Iberian colonies had seceded in that year with the help of the Iberians, cutting off Carthage's major supply of silver and copper.

    In Sicily, Selinus and Elymian Segesta renewed their rivalry. Selinus encroached in Segestan land and defeated the Elymians in 416 BC. Carthage turned down their plea for help, but Athens responded to the Segestan plea and the Sicilian Expedition sent by Athens was destroyed in 413 BC by the joint effort of the Sicilian cities with Spartan aid. Selinus again worsted Segesta in 411 BC. This time Segesta submitted to Carthage, and a Carthaginian relief force sent by Hannibal Mago helped them defeat Selinus in 410 BC. Carthage sought to end the matter diplomatically while assembling a larger force.

    After a round of diplomacy involving Carthage, Segesta, Selinus and Syracuse failed to bring about a reconciliation between Segesta and Selinus, Hannibal Mago set out for Sicily with a larger force. He succeeded in capturing Selinus after winning the Battle of Selinus, then destroyed Himera after winning the Second Battle of Himera despite Syracusan intervention. Hannibal did not press on to attack Akragas or Syracuse, but returned triumphantly to Carthage with the spoils of war in 409 BC.

    While Syracuse and Akragas, the strongest and richest cities of Sicily took no action against Carthage, the renegade Syracusan general Hermocrates raised a small army, and raided Punic territory from his base Selinus. He managed to defeat the forces of Motya and Panormus before losing his life in a coup attempt in Syracuse. In retaliation Hannibal Mago led a second Carthaginian expedition in 406 BC.

    This time, however, the Carthaginians met with fierce resistance and ill-fortune. During the Siege of Akragas, the Carthaginian forces were ravaged by plague and Hannibal Mago himself succumbed to it. Himilco, his successor captured and sacked Akragas, then captured the city of Gela, sacked Camarina and repeatedly defeated the army of Dionysius I, the new tyrant of Syracuse. The plague struck the Carthaginian army again, and Himilco agreed to a peace treaty that left the Carthaginians in control of all the recent conquests, with Selinus, Thermae, Akragas, Gela and Camarina as tributary vassals. Carthaginian power was at it's peak in Sicily.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    The Peace Treaty of 405

    Diodorus of Sicily quotes the original document in his Library of World History (13.114.1-2).

    The translation was made by C.H. Oldfather.

    Consequently Himilco, acting under the stress of circumstances, dispatched a herald to Syracuse urging the vanquished to make up their differences. Dionysius was glad to comply and they concluded peace on the following terms:

    @ To the Carthaginians shall belong, together with their original colonists, the Elymi and Sicani;
    @ the inhabitants of Selinus, Acragas, and Himera as well as those of Gela and Camarina may dwell in their cities, which shall be unfortified, but shall pay tribute to the Carthaginians;
    @ the inhabitants of Leontini and Messana and the Siceli shall all live under laws of their own making,
    @ the Syracusans shall be subject to Dionysius;
    @ whatever captives and ships are held shall be returned to those who lost them.

    As soon as this treaty had been concluded, the Carthaginians sailed off to Libya, having lost more than half their soldiers from the plague; but the pestilence continued to rage no less in Libya also and great numbers both of the Carthaginians themselves and of their allies were struck down.

    In 398 BC, Dionysius had consolidated his strength and broke the peace treaty, commencing the Siege of Motya and capturing the city. Himilco responded decisively, leading an expedition which not only reclaimed Motya, but also captured Messina. Finally, he laid siege to Syracuse itself after decisively defeating the Greeks in the naval Battle of Catana. The siege met with great success throughout 397 BC, but in 396 BC plague again ravaged the Carthaginian forces, and they collapsed. Carthage lost her new Greek conquests but retained control over the western territories and the Elymians. No treaty was signed between the belligerents to signal the end of the war.

    Dionysius soon rebuilt his power and sacked Solus in 396 BC. He was engaged in eastern Sicily during 396-393 BC while Carthage was occupied in Africa dealing with a rebellion. In 393 BC, Mago, successor of Himilco, led an attack on Messina, but was defeated near Abacaenum by Dionysius. Reinforced by Carthage, Mago led another expedition through central Sicily, but ran into trouble near the River Chrysas. Dionysius also faced difficulties of his own, and a peace treaty was concluded that basically ensured Carthage and Syracuse left each other alone in their respective sphere of influences.

    Dionysius opened hostilities again in 383 BC. Mago allied with the Italianate league led by Taras and landed in a force Bruttium, forcing Syracuse into a two front war. Details of the first 4 years of campaigns are sketchy, but in 378 BC Dionysius defeated Mago in Sicily in the Battle of Cabala. Carthage, also faced with rebellions in Africa and Sardinia, sued for peace. Dionysius asked them to evacuate all Sicily, so war was again renewed, and Himilco, son of Mago, destroyed the Syracusan army at the Battle of Cronium in 376 BC. The following peace treaty forced Dionysius to pay 1000 talents as reparations and left Carthage in control of Western Sicily.

    Dionysius again attacked Punic possessions in 368 BC, and laid siege to Lilybaeum. The defeat of his fleet forced him to call off the war and his death in 367 BC ensured a peace of 22 years between Carthage and Syracuse. Dion of Syracuse made peace with Carthage, and Carthage retained her Sicilian possessions west of the Halcyas and Himeras rivers.

    Carthage became embroiled in Syracusan politics in 345 BC, and her forces managed to enter the city at the invitation of one of the political contenders. The commander Mago bungled the affair, retreated to Africa and killed himself to escape punishment. Timoleon assumed power in Syracuse in 343 BC and started raiding Carthaginian possessions in Sicily. The Carthaginian expedition to Sicily was destroyed in the Battle of the Crimissus in 341 BC. The following peace treaty left Carthage in control of territories west of the Halcyas river.

    Hanno "Magnus"

    A power struggle saw Hanno eventually depose his rival Suniatus (Leader of the Council of Elders) through the judicial process and execute him). With Sicily secure, Carthage launched campaigns in Libya, Spain and Mauretania, which eventually earned Hanno the title "Magnus", along with great wealth, while Hamilcar and Gisco, his sons, served with distinction in the campaigns. However, Hanno aimed to obtain total power and planned to overthrow the "Council of Elders". His scheme failed, leading to his execution along with Hamilcar and most of his family. Gisco was exiled.

    Second Treaty with Rome

    Carthage and Rome (by now a significant power in Central Italy), concluded a second treaty in 348 BC.[36] Romans were allowed to trade in Sicily, but not to setle there, and Spain, Sardinia and Libya was forbidden to Roman exploration, trade and settlement activities. Romans were to hand over any settlements they captured there to Carthage. Carthaginians pledged to be friendly with the Latins, and return to Rome cities captured in Latium (The Latin League would be incorporated into the Roman Republic by 338 BC), and not to spend the night in Roman territory under arms. This shows the Spanish Phoenician colonies were in the Carthaginian "Sphere of Influence" by 348 BC.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Second treaty 348 BC


    After 150 years of campaigning, Rome had conquered a good portion of Etruria, destroyed Veii, and repelled the Gallic invasion of 390 BC, although it felt threatened by the second Gallic invasion of 360 BC. Rome had been and still was shaken by internal strife, especially between the patricians and the plebeiansm for access to public office and therefore to political activity and the management of land and spoils of the incessant wars. Rome was also fighting the Ernici, the Volsci, the Tiburtini, and the Etruscans, and was preparing for battle with the Samnites, who were coming down from the mountains to raid rich Campania, which Rome also desired.

    In Sicily and in southern Italy, where Dionysis the Great had created the beginnings of a unified state, Dionysius the Younger, his son, tried to enlarge his inheritance, but met with resistance from other Greek forces. A flurry of alliances, including some with the Carthaginians, led to the disintegration of Dionysius's power, and his deposition in 345 BC. Taranto, which had been left out of the fighting, grew in power, and other forces arrived from Greece. Rome was beginning to assert its influence in these struggles.

    Carthage, after having closed the war with the Cyrenaicans, thus stabilizing the eastern boundary of the Phoenician territory, had been always at war with the Greeks and in particular with Syracuse, for control of Sicily. It was also in conflict with the Etruscans, who, blocked by the Gauls from northern Italy, and by the Romans from Latium, applied themselves aggressively to the Tyrrhenian Sea to control traffic there.

    Terms of the treaty

    This second treaty was an attempt to copy the first treaty, with the addition of some cities. The Carthaginians added Tyre and Utica, while promising not to attack the coastal cities of Latium that had allied themselves with Rome. Similar to the first treaty, it stated that there "shall be friendship between the Romans and their allies, and the Carthaginians, Tyrians, and [the] township of Utica" on the conditions listed, and that Romans were allowed to trade and do business in the Carthaginian province of Sicily and in Carthage, and Carthaginians were allowed to trade and do business in Rome.

    Conditions on Rome and her allies

    @ The Romans were not to maraud, traffic or found a city east of "the Fair Promontory, Mastia, Tarseium."
    @ If the Romans took prisoners, "between whom and Carthage a peace has been made in writing, though they be not subject to them", the Romans were not to bring them to any Carthaginian harbor. Additionally, if such a prisoner were brought ashore, and any Carthaginian lay claim to him, he was to be released.
    @ If a Roman took water or provisions from any district within the jurisdiction of Carthage, he was not to injure, while so doing, any between whom and Carthage there was peace and friendship. Violation of this rule was to be a public misdemeanor.
    @ A Romans was not to traffic or found a city in Sardinia and Libya, and could only take provisions and refit his ship. If a storm had driven him to one of those coasts, he was to depart within five days.

    Conditions on Carthage, Tyre and Utica

    @ If the Carthaginians conquered any city in Latium that was not subject to Rome, they may keep the prisoners and the goods but were to deliver the town to Rome.
    @ If the Carthaginians took prisoners, "between whom and Rome a peace has been made in writing, though they be not subject to them", the Carthaginians were not to bring them to any Roman harbor. Additionally, if such a prisoner were brought ashore, and any Roman lay claim to him, he was to be released. In like manner shall the Romans be bound towards the Carthaginians.
    @ If a Carthaginian took water or provisions from any district within the jurisdiction of Rome, he was not to injure, while so doing, any between whom and Rome there was peace and friendship. Violation of this rule was to be a public misdemeanor.

    Carthage doesn't improve. The Etruscans are under attack from Rome and Gauls


    Carthage saw Rome as a possible adversary that had resisted invasion and in war was proving itself potentially dangerous. Rome also controlled a large amount of territory, larger—if not richer—than its perennial rival Syracuse. Moreover, the fact that Carthage allowed Phoenician merchants to operate in Rome shows that the former did not fear commercial competition from Rome and that it could operate it own territories, while treating Rome as an upcoming potential client that should be put under its political control.[citation needed]

    It is therefore to the credit of Carthaginian diplomacy that the revision to the 509 BC treaty imposed additional restrictions on Rome, written at a time when it was heavily engaged in military (and therefore financial) obligations. Additionally, the prohibition against Rome's founding of cities did not appear in the first treaty, and shows that Carthage may have caught on to the method of Roman expansion; commerce did not interest Rome as much as the control and exploitation of its territory. To the Romans, if an area was deserted it would be substantially occupied; if the area was inhabited, it would be conquered and forced to pay in assets and troops, and eventually to accept Roman or Latin colonies. This was probably foreign to the commercial mentality of the Carthaginians in 509 BC, who founded colonies almost exclusively to support warehouses.

    Death of Dionysius

    The death of Dionysius ultimately led to a power struggle between Dion, Dionysius II of Syracuse and other aspirants. The Punic holdings in Sicily were secure as Syracuse had began to lose it's hegemony over other Sicilian cities because of internal political conflict that turned to open warfare. Carthage had done little directly during 366 -346 BC to interfere, but in 343 BC decided to oppose Timoleon. Carthaginian army and fleet activity failed to stop his assumption of power in Syracuse. Mago, the Carthaginian commander had the advantage of numbers, support of allied Greeks and was even admitted into Syracuse. But he bungled so much that he killed himself instead of facing the tribunal of 104 after returning to Carthage.

    Timoleon managed to gain support of the tyrants in league with Carthage, and the Punic expedition sent to Sicily in retaliation of Syracusan raids was crushed in the Battle of the Crimissus in 341 BC by the combined Greek force. Gisco, the son of Hanno "Magnus" was recalled and elected as "king", but he achieved little and after Timoleon had captured some pro Carthaginian Greek cities, a peace treaty was concluded in 338 BC. The accord left the Punic possessions in Sicily unchanged,[37] with Syracuse free to deal with other cities in Sicily.

    Alexander and the Diadochi

    While Carthage was engaged in Sicily, the rise of Macedon under Philip II and Alexander the Great saw the defeat of Greek city states and the fall of the Achaemenid Empire. All the mainland Phoenician cities had submitted to Alexander except Tyre, which was besieged and sacked in 332 BC, while the Carthaginian citizens present in the city were spared. Carthage sent two deligations to Alexander, one in 332 BC and another in 323 BC, but little was achieved. Alexander was raising a fleet in Cilicia for the invasion of Carthage, Italy and Iberia when he died, sparing Carthage an ordeal. Battles among the Diadochi and the ultimate 3 way struggle between Antagonid Macedon, Ptolemic Egypt and Selucid Syria spared Carthage any further clashes with the successor states for some time. Trade relations were opened with Egypt, giving Carthage sea-bourne access to the Eastern markets, which were cut-off since 480 BC.

    Third Sicilian War (315 BC-307 BC)

    In 315 BC Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, seized the city of Messene, present-day Messina. In 311 BC he invaded the last Carthaginian holdings on Sicily, which broke the terms of the current peace treaty, and he laid siege to Akragas. Hamilcar, grandson of Hanno the Navigator, successfully led the Carthaginian counterattack. By 310 BC he controlled almost all of Sicily and had laid siege to Syracuse itself.

    In desperation, Agathocles secretly led an expedition of 14,000 men to the mainland Africa, hoping to save his rule by leading a counterstrike against Carthage itself. In this, he was successful: Carthage was forced to recall Hamilcar and most of his army from Sicily to face the new and unexpected threat. The two armies met in battle outside Carthage, and the Carthaginian army, under Hanno and Hamilcar, was defeated. Agathocles and his forces laid siege to Carthage, but its impregnable walls repelled him. Instead, the Greeks contented themselves with occupying Northern Tunisia until they were defeated two years later in 307 BC. Agathocles himself escaped back to Sicily and negotiated a peace treaty with the Carthaginians, which maintained Syracuse as a stronghold of Greek power in Sicily despite its loss of much of its power and the strategic city of Messene.


    After Agathocles sued for peace, Carthage enjoyed a brief, unchallenged period of control of Sicily, which ended with the Pyrrhic War. In some respects, the Pyrrhic War (280 BC-275 BC) and Mamertime Revolt (288 BC-265 BC), which ultimately lead to the Punic Wars, can be considered part of the Sicilian Wars, but as they involved outside forces, namely Rome and Epirus, are not considered as such. Rome, despite its close proximity to Sicily, was not involved in the Sicilian Wars of the 5th and 4th centuries BC due to its pre-occupation with its liberation from the Etruscans of the 5th century BC and conquest of Italy in the 4th century BC. But Rome's later involvement in Sicily ended the indecisive warfare on the island.

    Pyrrhic War

    In 278, war was renewed; this time, the Greeks found a champion in Pyrrhus of Epirus, who had already defeated the Romans and was now called to Sicily. He was successful, but after his victories, the Greeks refused to give him the soldiers to finish the job, and Pyrrhus went back to Italy, where he was defeated by the Romans. He commented that Sicily would be the cockpit for the Carthaginians and Romans to fight in, and this prophecy turned out to be correct...

    The war begins

    The Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) was a complex series of battles and shifting political alliances among the Greeks (specifically Epirus, Macedonia, and the city states of Magna Graecia), Romans, the Italian peoples (primarily the Samnites and the Etruscans), and the Carthaginians

    The Pyrrhic War initially started as a minor conflict between Rome and the city of Tarentum over a naval treaty violation by one of the Roman consuls. Tarentum had, however, lent aid to the Greek ruler Pyrrhus of Epirus in his conflict with Corcyra, and requested military aid from Epirus. Pyrrhus honored his obligation to Tarentum and joined the complex series of conflicts involving Tarentum, the Romans, Samnites, Etruscans, and Thurii (as well as other cities of Magna Graecia). To further complicate historical analysis of the conflict, Pyrrhus also involved himself in the internal political conflicts of Sicily, as well as the Sicilian struggle against Carthaginian dominance.

    Between 280 and 275 BC, Pyrrhus of Epirus waged two major campaigns in an effort to protect and extend the influence of the Macedonians in the western Mediterranean: one against the emerging power of the Roman Republic in southern Italy, the other against Carthage in Sicily.

    The Greek city of Tarentum had attacked and sacked the city of Thruii and expelled the newly installed Roman garrison in 282 BC. Committed to war, they appealed to Pyrrhus, who ultimately arrived with an army defeated the Romans in the Battle of Heraclea and Battle of Asculum. In the midst of Pyrrhus' Italian campaigns, he received envoys from the Sicilian cities of Agrigentum, Syracuse, and Leontini, asking for military aid to remove the Carthaginian dominance over that island.

    Alliance with Rome

    Pyrrhus next offered to negotiate a truce with Rome, but Rome refused to talk as long as Pyrrhus remained on Italian soil. Rome formed an alliance with Carthage against Pyrrhus. (A dozen years later, Rome’s interests in the Mediterranean would come into conflict with those of Carthage, and they would be at war.) The terms of the third treaty with Carthage now concluded an effectual alliance between Rome and Carthage against Pyrrhus. The effect was to limit Pyrrhus' career in the west to aggression against the Greek states which he had nominally come to protect, for it destroyed his hopes of allying with either Rome or Carthage against the other. Carthage naturally thought otherwise and sent a squadron up to the Tiber mouth to offer help against Pyrrhus. The Italian dominion was not for him; he had come too late. If Carthage were the real enemy, as he learned from Agathocles of Syracuse, there was nothing to be gained by quarreling with Rome, too.

    The Carthaginians had not waited to be attacked. When Pyrrhus sailed for Sicily, Carthage had attacked Syracuse had besieged the city after seizing Akragus. Mago, the Carthaginian admiral had 100 ships blocading the city.When Phyrrus arrived with his fleet and troops Mago lifted the siege and Pyrrhus fortified the Sicilian cities with an army of 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry and 20 War Elephants, supported by some 200 ships. Initially, Pyrrhus' Sicilian campaign against Carthage was a success, pushing back the Carthaginian forces, and capturing the city-fortress of Eryx, even though he was not able to capture Lilybaeum.

    Following these losses, Carthage sued for peace, but Pyrrhus refused unless Carthage was willing to renounce its claims on Sicily entirely. According to Plutarch, Pyrrhus set his sights on conquering Carthage itself, and to this end, began outfitting an expedition. The Carthaginians fought a battle outside Lilybaeum in 376 BC, and lost.

    The ruthless treatment of the Sicilian cities in his preparations for this expedition, and the execution of two Sicilian rulers whom Pyrrhus claimed were plotting against him led to such a rise in animosity towards the Greeks that Pyrrhus withdrew from Sicily and returned to deal with events occurring in southern Italy. The fleet of Pyhrrus was defeated by Carthage, the Greeks losing 70 ships in the battle.

    Pyrrhus' campaigns in Italy were futile, and Pyrrhus eventually withdrew to Epirus. For Carthage, this meant a return to the status quo. For Rome, however, the failure of Pyrrhus to defend the colonies of Magna Graecia meant that Rome absorbed them into its "sphere of influence", bringing it closer to complete domination of the Italian peninsula. Rome's domination of Italy, and proof that Rome could pit its military strength successfully against major international powers, would pave the way to the future Rome-Carthage conflicts of the Punic Wars...

    The Messanan Crisis

    When Agathocles died in 288 BC, a large company of mercenaries who had previously been held in his service found themselves suddenly without employment. Rather than leave Sicily, they seized the city of Messana. Naming themselves Mamertines (or "sons of Mars"), they became a law unto themselves, terrorizing the surrounding countryside.
    The Mamertines became a growing threat to Carthaginian and Syracusan alike. Hiero II, the new Tyrant of Syracuse, took action against the Mamertines. Faced with a vastly superior force, the Mamertines divided into two factions, one advising surrender to Carthage, the other preferring to seek aid from Rome. As a result, embassies were sent to both cities.
    While the Roman Senate debated the best course of action, the Carthaginians eagerly agreed to send a garrison to Messana. A Carthaginian garrison was admitted to the city, and a Carthaginian fleet sailed into the Messanan harbor. However, soon afterwards they began negotiating with Hiero II; alarmed, the Mamertines sent another embassy to Rome asking them to expel the Carthaginians.

    This action had placed Carthage's military forces directly across a narrow channel of water from Italy. Moreover, the presence of the Carthaginian fleet gave them effective control over the Straits of Messana, and demonstrated a clear and present danger to nearby Rome and her interests.
    As a result, the Roman Assembly, although reluctant to ally with a band of mercenaries, sent an expeditionary force to return control of Messana to the Mamertines...
    Last edited by hæressiarch; March 06, 2010 at 03:19 PM. Reason: more and more and more updates :D

  4. #4

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Carthaginian Army
    by haeressiarch, pirates_say_arrgg and hamsha

    Carthaginian military tradition

    The Phoenician populations were always small, and since these communities depended on trade to survive, it was decided to exempt citizens from military service under normal circumstances, and to use the wealth of the community to hire mercenary armies. For this they were criticized by 19th and early 20th century scholars, who valued the military service of the modern nation state (conscript armies of citizens loyal to the state), and for this reason compared the Carthaginian army unfavorably with the native army of the Romans. In fact, the Carthaginian military seems to have been no worse than the Roman, and proved disloyal only at the end of the First Punic War, when the Carthaginians could not pay rewards they had promised.

    It has traditionally been argued that Carthage was a peaceful city of merchants or a brutal colonial power and both theories were rather dependent upon modern perceptions. Almost all approaches towards Carthage have in common the fact that they do not look at Carthaginian policy-making as such, but rather its structure in a fundamental contrast to that of Rome. However, the polis Carthage was over the course of several centuries the dominant power in the Western Mediterranean and could establish its symmachy over large territories which were also deeply influenced by the Punic culture. It played a very important role in the urbanization of Northern Africa, where the Punic language was to persist until the 5th century AD.

    Up to the 6th century, the armies of Carthage were apparently citizen levies similar to those of all city-states of the early classical period. But Carthage was too small to provide for the defense of widely scattered settlements, and it turned increasingly to mercenaries, officered by Carthaginians, with citizen contingents appearing only occasionally.By the 3rd century BC, citizens were exempt from military service (to manage Punic trading interests and industries). Given the limited Carthaginian population (even though the city probably did eventually have a population in the low 100,000), the decision seems to have made sense. If they had fought the Romans with their own population, they probably would have succumbed earlier than they did, and their mercenary military came close to defeating the Romans. Carthage was served quite well by its officer corp despite very exacting Punic standards. They usually crucified generals who lost and were reluctant reinforce winning generals, lest too many troops feed tyrannical ambitions.

    Notably the hired units were deployed with their own command structure. As Carthage sent out specific recruiters who bargained contracts with each soldier/corps of soldiers it is possible that these also served as officers responsible for the integration of their units into the army. Polybius noted for the mercenary war that the mercenaries were told to ask their commanding officers for payment, what frustrated them to such an extend that they elected new ones. In the army payment was done per unit with subordinates responsible for the further distribution

    Being traders, the Carthaginians naturally were skilled seamen and had a particularly potent navy of about 200 ships. This was of course necessary to maintain contact with their overseas settlements.

    Since the Carthaginians needed money for their armies and navy, they were apparently severe in their exactions of money from the native populations they controlled, especially among the Libyans (the Berber natives of North Africa). As merchants, they had a bad reputation among the Greeks. There are numerous references to them in the Odyssey, uniformly hostile.

    Libyans were considered particularly suitable for light infantry, the inhabitants of the later Numidia and Mauretania for light cavalry; Iberians and Celtiberians from Spain were used in both capacities. In the 4th century the Carthaginians also hired Gauls, Campanians, and even Greeks. The disadvantages of mercenary armies were more than outweighed by the fact that Carthage could never have stood the losses incurred in a whole series of wars in Sicily and elsewhere. Very little is known about the manning of the Carthaginian fleet; technically, it was not overwhelmingly superior to those of the Greeks, but it was larger and had the benefit of experienced sailors from Carthage's maritime settlements.

    We have no written records of Carthage's military activities from the Punics, only from Greek and Roman writers and these are limited to a few wars.

    Mercenaries in the forces of Carthage

    Ancient authors such as Polybius tend to stress the reliance of Carthage on foreign mercenaries. However, the term 'mercenary' is in fact a little misleading and does not fully represent the unique Carthaginian arrangement that equally recruited subjects of Punic-ruled areas and foreigners. These units were mostly deployed in the expeditionary armies overseas, while in Africa Punic militias formed the backbone of the troops.

    Units were generally segregated by ethnicity which was also a criterion for the respective specialization. While within a unit communication in the native tongue was possible, between the units Greek and Punic helped to establish communication. According to Polybius this enabled the insurgents during the Mercenary War, which is also the only recorded large mutiny of Carthage's troops, to communicate with each other on higher levels.

    It would be difficult to say precisely what a typical make-up of Carthage's armies would be, but in the Punic wars, they are reported to have included Iberians, Celtic people(Gauls and Celtiberians), Balearic slingers, Italians (e.g.Ligures), native Sicilian tribesmen, Black Africans, Numidians, Libyans and Lybo-phoenicians (also called Africans), Greeks, and naturally Punics from Carthage and its external settlements.

    Formation and structure

    The Libyans supplied both heavy and light infantry and formed the most disciplined units of the army. The heavy infantry fought in close formation, armed with long spears and round shields, wearing helmets and linen cuirasses. The light Libyan infantry carried javelins and a small shield, same as Iberian light infantry. The Iberian infantry wore crimson bordered white tunics and leather headgear. The Heavy infantry fought in a dense phalanx, armed with heavy throwing spears, long body shields and short thrusting swords. Campanian, Sardinian and Gallic infantry fought in their native gear, but often were equipped by Carthage. Polybius seems to suggest that Hannibal's heavy Libyan infantry was equipped with the sarissa (pike), thus forming a Macedonian style phalanx. Although this account is disputed by many experts and Polybius himself is not clear in his descriptions of the great general's battles, he mentions Hannibal when he makes his famed comparison between the Roman maniple and the Macedonian phalanx.

    The Libyans, Carthaginian citizens and the Libyo-Phoenicians provided disciplined, well trained cavalry equipped with thrusting spears and round shields. Numidia provided superb light cavalry, highly skilled in skirmishing tactics, armed with bundles of javelins, a small round shield and riding without bridle or saddle. Iberians and Gauls also provided cavalry, which relied on the all out charge. The Libyans provided the bulk of the heavy, four horse war chariots for Carthage, used before the Pyrrhic War. Allied cities of the Punic hegemony contributed contingents for the army as well. Carthaginian officer corps held overall command of the army, although many units may have fought under their chieftains.

    Elephants were also used at a great extent from the Carthaginian military within and without Africa. They were used in Iberia, in Gaul and of course in Italy. These beasts were of the smaller north African stock and should not be confused with either the African elephants of today or the Indian elephants used by the Seleucids


    Carthaginian Units

    In Rise of the Nations - Prelude to War the Carthaginians have one of the widest selection of units because Carthage always had a low population and had to rely on mercenaries to make up the bulk of their forces. Carthaginians are a major power in the era portrayed in RotN. Originally a colony of Phoenicia, Carthage would grow larger then ever thought. A major trading and naval power, Carthage is dominant in the Western Mediterranean thanks to her trade, politics and army...

    RotN team portrayed following units we considered as most representative for this nation:


    Carthaginian Infantry:

    1. DONE Carthaginian Citizen Militia
    2. DONE Libyan Spearmen
    3. DONE Liby-Phoenician Spearmen
    4. DONE Hannibal's Veterans
    4. DONE Liby-Phoenician Veterans
    6. DONE Libyan Skirmishers
    7. DONE Sacred Band of Baal
    8. DONE Iberian War Veterans

    9. DONE Phoenician Marines

    Carthaginian Cavalry:

    1. DONE Sacred Band of Astarte
    2. DONE Liby-Phoenician Cavalry
    3. DONE India Tower Elephants
    4. DONE Carthaginian Citizen Cavalry
    5. DONE African Forrest Elephants
    6. DONE Libyan Cavalry

    Allied and Mercanary Infantry:

    1. DONE Bruttian Infantry
    2. DONE Numidian Skirmishers
    3. DONE Balearic Slingers
    4. DONE Iberian Scutarii
    5. DONE Iberian Caetratii
    6. DONE Celtiberian Heavy Infantry
    7. DONE Numidian Archers
    8. DONE Garamantes Infantry
    9. DONETurdetari Infantry
    10. DONE Numidian Spearmen
    11. DONE Samnite Spearmen
    12. DONE Celtic Spearmen
    13. DONE Celtic Gaesatae
    14. DONE Celtic Swordsmen
    15. DONE Cretean Archers

    Allied and Mercanary Cavalry:

    1. DONEIberian Jinetes
    2. DONE Celtiberian Cavalry
    3. DONE Numidian Cavalry
    4. DONE Berber Cavalry

    Carthaginian command

    "Leader", Carthaginian General

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    During the 6th and 5th centuries, most military commands were held by kings, but later the generalship was apparently dissociated from civil office. Even in the time of the kings, military authority appears to have been conferred upon the kings only for specific campaigns or in emergencies. The generals are said to have been regarded as potential overthrowers of the legal government, but in fact there is no record of any army commander's having attempted a coup d'état. Thus, unlike a Roman consul, the Suffetes did not take part in military affairs and the Carthaginians appointed professional generals, who were separate from the civil government.

    The Greek sources referred to the commander of Punic forces as strategos or boetarch. The former could at the same time also be a military governor and is known to have had the authority to sign treaties. In areas of conflict we find often dual command and not all of these strategoi seem to be concerned with governing provinces. It seems that Carthage's nobles could afford and were legally allowed to sustain their own armies. Furthermore we tend to find evidence that many individuals from the leading families of Carthage served in the military forces.
    The Carthaginian army and navy were composed of mercenaries and subject peoples, but led by an officer corp comprised of members of the Carthaginian elite. Carthage was served quite well by its officer corp despite very exacting Punic standards. They usually crucified generals who lost and were reluctant reinforce winning generals, lest too many troops feed tyrannical ambitions.

    Term Beotarch or boetarch first apeared in ancient greek history. All magistrates and generals who had supreme command in thebes were called beotarchs or governors of beotia.

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    Carthaginian Empire and phoenicians themselves used several symbols. Below you can find patterns of standards and banners we decided to use in our mod:
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    Carthaginian infantry

    Punic Militia Hoplites

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    Carthaginian Militia is an organization of citizens prepared to provide defense. Militias, being composed of civilians rather than professional soldiers, vary in their military training and have historically been found inadequate to their appointed task of defending their country against foreign attack. Advantage in using militia troops is that they can be hastily levied.

    While in her campaigns overseas Carthage used large armies composed of mercenaries from various tribes and nations, in Africa Punic militias formed the backbone of the troops. Carthage realized that she didn’t have the citizen body large enough to use for the bulk of her armies. So, Carthage decided to relay on hiring mercenaries to fight her wars. Though she used mercenaries those took some time to raise and in times of great crisis she would have to call upon her citizen body to be armed and fight for the city of Carthage. Though she could call a large number to fight, these people lived a pampered lifestyle not suited for war. So their performance was usually poor in battle.

    The reason for its reliance on mercenaries rather than its citizens to make the bulk of the army rested on the fact that Carthage's indigenous population was relatively small and an army of professional soldiers was in all ways superior to that of a conscripted one. Furthermore, Carthage was the wealthiest trading state in the Mediterranean and could easily afford to pay for its vast mercenary armies, but after their humiliating defeat by Rome in the First Punic War, everything changed.


    The Citizen body when armed they fought in hoplite like fashion, being equipped with a light spear and a lighter version of the Aspis. They wore no armor to battle, but just a white tunic.

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    Archers made up a vast portion of many armies for hundreds of years, going back into the times of ancient warfare. Egypt, the Greeks, Carthaginians and Persians all fielded some form of this artillery-firing soldier.
    Carthaginian archers were well respected for their close fighting skills as well as their accuracy. Not confined to the long range abilities of his bow and arrow, the archer could switch to a sword or dagger for close-in fighting when the battle went south. This assured that the archer could still be part of the battlefield should ranges begin to decrease - though most were often held behind battle lines or fielded with a personal group of bodyguards.
    Phoenician archers were widely used in mediterrean world. They were also apointed to defend cities during the siege or engage defenders on the walls while besiegeing cities.


    Carthaginians themselves, being of semitic origin, were familiar with the composite bow.
    Most, if not all archers, were armed with a sword or dagger for close range combat.

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    (Liby-Poeni hoplites)

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    Berber tribes that came under control of Carthage were slowly integrated into the society in which ruling class were the Phoenician colonizers. The integration was a process that included Phoenician settlers, those of somewhat lower social standing than the others, marrying into indigenous population and vice-versa. This soon enough formed the largest part of Carthaginian population, the Liby-Phoenician class, and these people not only formed the backbone of the Carthaginian state, but also that of the Carthaginian armies.
    Their financial and social status, that put them one notch above the common Libyan and Numidian tribes, also allowed access to much better war accessories and better military training and preparation. It took not long at all for these men to master the use of Greek hoplite equipment that Athenian Iphicrates introduced in 4th century B.C. and the famed linothorax that replaced the standard hoplite heavy bronze armor. These men proved their worth in almost every major battle that Carthage fought on it's African and European fronts. Compared to Libyan spearmen, these units were the hardest fighters and the toughest foe Roman Republic ever faced - they had utilized Greek phalanx to a much better extent than the Greeks themselves ever had, except the ones under Alexander's command.
    With the wars becoming more and more frequent, their service allowed these men to be considered the real predecessors of Hannibal's Veterans, the ones that saw, held their line at and lived through the places and battles like Trasimene, Trebia or Cannae.


    Originally a hoplite-phalanx mix formation, these men carried the large hoplon shield, held in the left hand. Their primary weapon, the iron-tipped sarissa styled spear of around 4 meters in length, held in the right hand allowed both stabbing motion and to be formed into a wall of iron spikes for anyone foolish to rush these troops frontally.
    Liby-Phoenician protective equipment consists of very popular Thracian helmet that allowed massive protection for the head, while allowing very good field of vision. For body protection, heavy linothorax was used, made of layers of linen glued together, and usually inlaid with staved skin. It was not uncommon, and most discussions still allow for possible chain-mail and Roman legionary style body armors as Carthaginian clashes with Roman legions increased in frequency. The standard part of armor are the greaves made of bronze, applied to the lower leg either by being tied to the wearer's leg, or by being pressed into place.
    The secondary weapon, that they used even more efficiently than the spear itself was for close quarters combat, and it was one of the three most popular swords of the classical warfare - the xiphos, the falcata, or even the Iberian espasa - later popularized by Romans which called it gladius hispanicus. None of these swords were longer than 60 to 70 centimeters, allowing for easy handling and practical application to the weak spot in the enemy armor.

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    (Lybian Hoplites)

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    Lands of Libya had their owners and colonizers constantly replaced throughout the ages. Each of these left their mark, either cultural, religious or that of military tactics, expertise and weaponry. The earliest influence was that of Egyptian spear armies, introducing the short spear and simpliest forms of shields to the Berber tribes. Around 6th and 7th century B.C. Greek and Phoenician colonies started flourishing in coastal regions of Libya, bringing with them the hoplite formations, hoplon shields and longer thrusting spears averaging the area around 4 meters in length. Greeks perfected their weapon - the spear was usually tipped on both ends, one end with leaf-shaped iron spearhead, the primary, and the other end with a slender bronze sauroter "the lizard-killer". Other equipment introduced was the large hoplon shield and the helmets providing much greater protection to most vulnerable part of the body - the head.
    Carthaginians, by means of their brilliant generals made the best use of this formation, and improved it with times, eventually bringing the Libyan spearmen formations into a sort of mix between standard hoplite and Macedonian pike phalanx. This formation put the Libyan spearmen shoulder to shoulder with their most common opponent - the Roman legion, and led to many a disastrous defeats for Rome.
    With Hannibal's campaigns and those of his father's in Sicily, the men of these units adopted the armors of the slain Romans, making them even harder to compete with. In the end, it was the discipline and hardiness of these men that allowed Hannibal and other generals of Punic armies to use different tactics and be vastly more adaptable to varying situations of the battlefield settings.
    They were the backbone of Carthaginian battle lines along with their Liby-Phoenician counterparts, and paid back for every bit of trust invested in them by holding the center steady in the most dire moments of battle. With service time, and depending if they lived long enough, most of these would become the Hannibal's most trusted veterans.


    Originally in mix formation of Greek hoplite and Macedonian phalanx, these men carried the large hoplon shields, usually of bronze plating on the outside and the heavy wooden base on the inside. These might have been swapped, if opportunity would arise, for better types of shield to be equipped.
    The main weapon - most commonly hoplite spear or a shorter version of the Macedon's phalangite pike, the steel tipped sarissa of up to 7 meters in length with a stock at the opposite end to allow anchoring of the same during the heat of battle.
    Secondary weapon was always a short stabbing sword, again, most commonly one of the Greek origin - xyston or the kopis, but might have easily been the legendary Iberian falcata and of course, and not at all seldom, a Roman-made gladius.
    The armor, originally the linothorax, both for it's comfort and relatively high protection - compared to the weight of the armor itself. The helmets were simple bronze head protection, most commonly simple Etruscan class design or greek pylos. Of other equipment, light bronze greaves were in common use.

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    Libyan Light Infantry

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    Libyans of Carthaginian dominion, the people that earned their place in history through valiant service in Carthaginian armies, were of Berber stock. Records of their ancestry stretches to the earliest Egyptian period as the tribes Temehu (Tmh) and Tehenu(T'hn), inhabiting the expanses of the western Nile valley and desert oases in the west. Being inhabitants of the desert regions, their warfare style was more orientated towards the lightly armed and mobile warbands, rather than heavily armored and armed troops that suffered in the heat of deserts. This tradition was well applied Carthaginian military, most notably in the Sicilian wars where the terrain was often disruptive to the large hoplite formations usually used by Greek and Carthaginian generals.
    In the classical times, the skirmisher role was usually given to either poorer part of the population that could not afford the better equipment, or the junior conscripts that learned the craft of war in these light formations. In the case of Libyans, this was their second nature and, as opposed to their equivalents in Roman and Greek armies(velites and peltasts), the amount of training and cost of arming was far lesser, thus making them extremely viable for use in campaigns in African, Sicilian and European campaigns.
    With 3rd century B.C. Libyan population of Carthaginian state had it's status changed from slaves to tributary freemen in exchange for their military service. They were soon to prove their worth in both most prosperous and darkest periods of Carthaginian history.
    Their application to battle was simple - rain the showering terror of zaġāyas upon the thick of enemy formations, causing alarm, premature charges and formations to be deformed, thus allowing for the exploits by more heavier melee troops. Fast appearance in front of the heavy lines, and even faster withdrawal made them mind-boggling nuisance for any opposing generals to deal with. Once the main lines would clash, their lethal precision came to even better use. Tattooed menacing terrors that would suddenly glare at opposing soldier just as he exposed his flank to swing his blade at the soldier facing him, only to receive a javelin into his torso, made many a fierce warrior shudder to the core of his being.
    Many great generals met their demise in the shape of a well placed javelin shot out of nowhere, Antigonos Monopthalmus being one of the more famous examples, and Pyrrhus being wise enough to switch his body armor with one of his bodyguards.


    Usually carrying a set of zaġāyas or taghedas, the modern assegai, a pole weapon used for throwing or hurling, which was either a light spear or javelin made of wood and pointed with iron, Libyan skirmishers were something to beware of.
    For the close combat, if need be, various sorts of melee weapons were used one of them the sheru - still used by modern Tuareg tribes and other Berber tribes, being the long dagger, or whichever blade they were able to make use of without hindering their agility.
    Of armor that they used most common was, whenever applicable, a small pelta styled round shield. The body armor, if it could be called that, was the traditional Berber tunic made either of soft leather or wool and this is their distinctive style of dress, according to various Greek and Roman authors. They also wore animal skins draped over their left shoulders covering both front and back.

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    (Iberian War and Second Punic War)

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    Hamilcar added new territories to this informal empire. In this way, Carthage was compensated for its loss of overseas territories. The Roman historian Livy mentions that Hannibal's father forced his son to promise eternal hatred against the Romans. This may be an invention, but there may be some truth in the story: the Carthaginians had excellent reasons to hate their enemies. When Hamilcar died (229), Hannibal's son-in-law, the politician Hasdrubal the Fair, took over command. In 221, Hasdrubal was murdered and the Carthaginian soldiers in Iberia elected Hannibal as their commander, a decision that was confirmed by the government.The twenty-six-year old general returned to his father's aggressive military politics. He captured Salamanca in 220. The next year, he besieged Saguntum, a Roman ally. In May 218 he crossed the river Ebro in order to complete the conquest of the Iberian peninsula. On hearing the news, Rome declared the Second Punic War.

    Hannibal’s famous passage through the Alps remains one of the most intrepid marches in history. Along with his surviving soldiers, hundreds if not thousands of pack animals and scores of elephants (although apparently only 37 survived the crossing), this surprising military maneuver was both bold and desperate and has inspired countless readers of ancient history in the intervening millennia. In October 218, 38,000 soldiers and 8,000 cavalry had reached the plains along the river Po in the vicinity of the Italian town Turin. These men will became his most devoted, fearless and fierce soldiers.

    Shortly after passage through the Alps Hannibal's men encountered roman armies and defeated them in battles at the River Trebia and Lake Trasemine. They gained more and more experience during this campaign form 218 to 216 BC. In July, the Romans pinned down the Carthaginian army in the neighborhood of Cannae on the Italian east coast; battle was engaged on the second of August. These men were used to great effect in the momentous battle of Cannae.

    In 212, Rome was able to take the initiative again and started to cut off Hannibal's lines of contact. Hannibal's situation became difficult and his government was unwilling to risk extra troops: the lines of contact were too long. Therefore, Hannibal decided to ask help from his brother Hasdrubal, who was still in charge of the Iberian armies. Hasdrubal was defeated at the river Metaurus before he could contact his brother (207). Hannibal's hope of reinforcement had evaporated.

    A young commander, Publius Cornelius Scipio, took the Carthaginian capital of Iberia, Cartagena, by surprise and brought the Spanish war to a good end in 206. After a short while, Scipio was sent to Sicily and across the Mediterranean. He found an ally in the Numidian king Massinissa, and attacked Carthage itself. Unlike the Roman Senate, which had not panicked when Rome was under attack by Hannibal, the Carthaginian government was disheartened and recalled Hannibal's still unconquered veterans from Italy in 203 BC. The decisive battle of the Second Punic War was came after several preliminary engagements The armies of Scipio and Hannibal clashed at Zama in 19 October 202 BC. It was the time when Hannibal's Veterans were to prove their woth for the last time...

    Hannibal's veterans were mostly Libyans. These men have served as long or longer than Hannibal himself. Hard fighting and hard marching these were the best men in Hannibal’s army, only these men could have done the role they played at Cannae. When Hannibal first crossed the Alps these men were still in their traditional hoplite armor, but after the battle of Lake Trasimeno they were re-equipped with Roman armor.

    The elite of Hannibal's men represent both an adaptation to Roman tactics, and a force of extremely well trained and motivated soldiers. These men are at the top of their class, and can be relied upon in any situation. They deserved the name that Livy gave them: "The flower of the Carthaginian army".


    These men carried their traditional Hoplite spear with them into battle, along with the iberian espasa sword, later known as spanish sword and widely used in roman army. Initially Celtic, the Romans were the first major proponents of chain mail and during the First Punic War the Carthaginians were treated to a front row demonstration of its protective abilities. Needless to say they were highly impressed. Hannibal’s African troops often stripped dead Romans for their elaborate hauberks, wearing them instead of their own linothorax cuirasses. Among the Carthaginian troops the chain mail hauberk, or lorica hamata as the Romans called it, proved to be extremely popular. And since the Carthaginian troops were allowed first pick of captured equipment, many of them ended up with chain mail with greaves and bracers, and Scutum shield. These men still retained their Thracian helmets.

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    Carthaginian Marine Infantry

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    Bonus Unit

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    The term Sacred Band, also Sacred Company or Sacred Squadron (from Greek: Ιερός Λόχος) was used used by Greek historians to refer to an infantry unit of Carthaginian foot citizens that served in Carthaginian armies during the fourth century BC. The presence of Carthaginian citizens fighting as infantry in these armies is unusual as Carthaginian citizens usually only served as officers or cavalry in the Carthaginian armed forces and the bulk of Carthaginian armies were usually made up of mercenaries, infantry from allied communities (who might be Punic colonists) and subject levies. In fact, it was the only armed force of Carthage where mercenaries were forbidden to join.

    Trained from a young age to be tough phalanx spearmen, these men were from wealthy Carthaginian families, and as such had extremely good equipment. They were trained from birth to be great warriors and they were able to afford high quality armor and weapons. They fought as a traditional Phalanx organized in the Hellenic style.
    The "Sacred Band" consisted of a small heavy infantry unit of 2000-3000 men, who were "inferior to none among them as to birth, wealth, or reputation" and distinguished by "the splendour of their arms, and the slowness and order of their march".
    The Sacred Band of Astarte was a unit of heavy cavalry, operating in the Hellenistic style. Baal had his own Sacred Band as well, operating as heavy infantry. The skill and experience of these soldiers more then made up for their small numbers, causing historians such as Polybius to describe them as "The shining emblem of Carthage on the battlefield even when there is a host of a hundred thousand men" .

    The Sacred Band of Carthage was the elite military force guarding the city of Carthage itself. It was the only military force allowed in the city itself, and dressed in white, the color associated with death in Carthaginian society.
    The Sacred Band of Carthage was also used as a unit of Royal Guards of sorts for members of the Carthaginian Government as well as important people like Hannibal Barca.
    It was also well known, that every man in the Sacred Band was taught to love his fellow Bander as a Brother, and as a lover.

    At the Battle of the Krimissus in Sicily, 341 BC,the "Sacred Band" fought as a well organized phalanx[1]. It was destroyed utterly. Two thousand citizen troops (perhaps a similar unit), are recorded as being in Sicily in 311 BC, the last time that citizens troops are recorded as being overseas. By 310 BC, the Sacred Band appears to have been reformed, only to be destroyed in battle against Agathocles at Tunis.
    After its destruction in 310 BC, the "Sacred Band" disappears from historical record. When Carthaginian citizen infantry turn up in the historical sources during latter wars, their numbers are significantly higher implying a levy of all available citizens due to crisis. Larger citizen forces turned out at the Battle of Bagradas during the First Punic War, the Mercenary War, and the Third Punic War, but the "Sacred Band" is not mentioned in any of the surviving accounts we have of these wars.
    They were eventually wiped out completely at the end of the Third Punic War, along with Carthage itself. Though they reached a certain level of prestige, they were never as important as the Carthaginian navy.



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    Carthaginian cavalry

    Boetarch Mounted Bodyguards

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    The Carthaginian Sacred Band was the city of Carthage's elite cavalry. The Sacred Band was drawn up from the young men of the wealthy families and doubled as an officer training institution. These men were from wealthy Carthaginian families, and as such had extremely good equipment. They were trained from birth to be great warriors and they were able to afford high quality armor and weapons. Presumably, after gaining experience and showing their ability within the Sacred Band the men were farmed out to officer the mercenary companies.
    The presence of Carthaginian citizens fighting as infantry in these armies is unusual as Carthaginian citizens usually only served as officers or cavalry in the Carthaginian armed forces and the bulk of Carthaginian armies were usually made up of mercenaries, infantry from allied communities (who might be Punic colonists) and subject levies.

    The Sacred Band of Astarte was a unit of heavy cavalry, operating in the Hellenistic style. Baal had his own Sacred Band as well, operating as heavy infantry. The Sacred Band of Carthage is the name used by Greek historians to refer to an infantry unit of Carthaginian foot citizens that served in Carthaginian armies during the fourth century BC. Trained from a young age to be tough phalanx spearmen, They fought as a traditional Phalanx organized in the Hellenic style.


    Like the heavy infantry equivalent, sacred band cavalrymen have been equipped and organised like other contemporary Hellenistic heavy cavalry.
    Though they are armed with the traditional hoplite shield and spear like other Carthaginias, these elite horsemen are armored with a metal cuirass, and greek sword as their secondary weapon for close combat.

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    Heavy Cavalry

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    The citizen soldiers were never fielded stronger than around 8000 men they were always lacking in training, the citizen levy nevertheless fought well on a number of occations throughout Carthage's history. Citizen Cavalry is one of exceptions. The citizen cavalry was good-quality cavalry levied among the rich citizens of Carthage. Hannibal didn't bring many to Italy but they fought in a number of other engagements throughout Carthage's history.

    Citizen cavalry was made of men who could afford to maintain a war horse in the service of the state. It was an great honour for the citizens and great nobilitation. Their rank may be compared to Roman Equestrians and medieval knights. Among the Carthaginians, it referred to citizens whose property qualified them for serving in cavalry units. They were kept together in time of peace, and carefully drilled; at the great public festivals they took part in the processions.
    The citizen cavalry of Carthage, bearing banners with the city's Palm-and-horse emblem as well as banners of religious significance.


    Carthaginian citizen cavalrymen rarely wore heavy metal armour. Their most common body protection was linen curiass (linothorax), bronze grieves and traditional metal helmet of pylos type. There are many references that they did not take shields into action, but many others mention that round aspis-like shield was used for protection.
    As offensive weapons they had a greek curved slashing sword and a a type of a long thrusting lance of greek origin called xyston. It measured about 3.5–4.25 meters (11–14 ft) long and was probably held by the cavalryman with both hands. The xyston was wielded either underarm or overarm, presumably as a matter of personal preference.
    Shoeing of horses was unknown to the Phoenicians, as was the use of stirrups. If anything was used as a saddle, it was either a saddle-cloth or a piece of felt, which was firmly fastened with girths under the horse's belly.
    Mounts are partially armoured they probably had partial breast and head plating for protection against spears, missiles etc.

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    Heavy Cavalry

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    The mixed race of Libyans and Phoenicians, were referred to as Liby-Phoenicians. Though of Phoenician ancestry, these people did not share the same rights as their full blooded Phoenician cousins. They were mere subjects to Carthage and when Carthage realized how large the population of Liby-Phoenicians were they drafted them into military service. They are extremely well disciplined. These men were used to great effect in many important battles.

    Carthage relied more upon the lightly-armed Numidian cavalry than on their own forces, but they could field units of heavy cavalry drawn from their own citizens when required. These were armoured much like the heavy infantry and equipped with a lance. Their horses were lightly armoured in vital areas like the breast and head. They were also well decorated, almost as well as their stylish masters.
    Carthage seemed to have more success with their cavalry than the Romans did with their equites. They were useful as shock troops, but expensive to equip. Generally, Carthage was better served by their skillful Numidian allies.
    These are powerful units, both fast and well-armed. They're best used to break the centre of an assault or to chase down routed units.


    Though they are armed with the traditional hoplite shield and spear like other Carthaginian troops, these elite warriors are armored with a linen cuirass (linothorax) and wear a fine thrcian style helmet, and a greek xiphos as their secondary weapon for close combat. Their training, armor and weapons allow them to battle the hardiest opponents.

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    Libyan Medium Cavalry

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    Being the major contributors to the Carthaginian military, Libyans soon found themselves in almost every army formation. Medium cavalry, as the history would bear witness, was a role that Libyans would take up with utmost skill. Carthage, being the best utilizer of cavalry force, except for the Alexander's and the armies of the Diadochi, soon amassed their cavalry contingents with much cheaper, but all the same extremely effective mounted Libyans. Cost efficiency was one of the main preoccupations for any Carthaginian war plans, and so the medium cavalry was found second to only the supreme heavy cavalry of Liby-Phoenician contingents and of course the unmatched Numidian cavalry. While they were modeled after their much heavier relatives - the Liby-Phoenician cavalry, they were primarily the much cheaper version of the same - carrying lighter torso cuirass, usually no better than bronze, most commonly of heavy leather, and the lances, though of shorter length than the ones of the heavy cavalry. Still, their striking ability was the adaption of several different weapons, javelins whenever possible, and the swords - they carried no shield, but were often seen throwing a javelin from distance, then rushing forth with lances lined up for impact upon the enemy. When the charge would come to a halt, their real expertise came to surface, wielding blades in both hands, they were a fierce opponent to even the hardiest and most disciplined cavalry counterparts.
    These units were usually applied in direct and flanking charges against all but the heaviest infantry and cavalry - which, in particular, saw their service in Iberian and Italian campaigns invaluable. While the men of these units were not the middle caste like the Liby-Phoenicians were, they were still of better standing than the most of other Libyan population, and this in turn allowed them the access to the much more respectable roles of cavalrymen. The steeds they used were of varying sorts, most commonly mix of Iberian and Numidian breeds, that were somewhat cheaper than the steeds that the wealthy class attained by trade with eastern Mediterranean horse rich lands. Nonetheless, these steeds carried the Libyan charges to many victories.


    Again, as mentioned, these men carried somewhat poorer versions of equipment used by their heavier counterparts. The primary weapon was the cavalry lance - the iron tipped kontos or contus, though a shorter version of no more than 3 meters in length, that better suited their combat style. For close combat, they most commonly used a predecessor of modern Tuareg takouba, a straight double edged sword, quite similar to the spatha of the Roman cavalry squadrons.
    Carrying a set of zaġāyas or taghedas, the modern assegai, a pole weapon used for throwing or hurling, which was either a light spear or javelin made of wood and pointed with iron, was almost inevitable part of their armory whether Libyan was mounted or on foot.
    The horse, however, had only the basic of the riding equipment, including the and the animal fur/staved skin in place of the saddle seldom without traditionally colored Berber mats.

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    (African Plains Elephant(or INDIAN) or Tower Elephant)


    "Brahma –the creator- thought of breathing life in to his work; he took the cosmic egg (Hiranya-garbha) in his hands and split it in to two halves; held one half in each of his hands and began blowing life in to it! During this process the whole universe shook in utter turmoil. The seven great sages known as ‘Saptarshis’- responsible for the existence of the earth- were shaken by these developments and they chanted ‘Sama-veda mantras’. Sama-veda-mantras made eight male elephants emerge from the piece of cosmic egg held in the right hand of Brahma. They were (A)iravatham, Pundarikan, Vamanan, Kumudan, Anchanan, Pushpadantan, Sarvabhauman, and Supradikan... From that piece held in his left hand there emerged eight female elephants; all with beautiful names like Abhramu, Kapila, Pingala, Anupama, Thamrakarni, Subhra-danti, Angana, Anjanavathi. As all of these 16 elephants (eight pairs) born by the chanting of Samaveda became known as Samajans. These elephants are in duty to support the earth staying at the following directions."

    Whether or not the elephants that were used in ancient warfare were indeed the descendants of these mythical giants, they very much took part in shaping and supporting the political maps of the ancient world. First elephants in armies of European empires appear as the 500 Indian war elephants that Seleukos received as gift from Chandragupta Maurya. The beasts continued to be imported from India in the later times as well, while in meantime, Ptolemies had to supply themselves with the African stock from Somalia and further down south via the chain of trading coastal outposts. These were smaller than the Indian and proved meek when faced with Indian, which they would flee from in 217 B.C. at the battle of Raphia. Carthage was, being famously wealthy trading culture, able to obtain both Indian and Ptolemaic elephants, along with the mahouts and the equipment.
    In very short time, they mastered the use of Armored Elephants and it would be the Punic wars that this mastery would find its proving grounds.
    These armored juggernauts were not only the weapons of terror like the Forest elephants were, these were actually extremely effective machines of war; armor provided much better chances of animals running berserk with pain, their size and the mounted towers provided a much larger range of lethality. These were the beasts as tall as 3.5 meters at shoulder, weighing up to 6 tons and reaching the speed of 40 km/h, and one can only imagine the terror of an infantry soldier standing in its path and seeing what it did to the men in the lines ahead of him. The result was usually the panicking of even the most seasoned troops and the effect on enemy cavalry was just short of utter chaos. As if this isn't enough, the skilled mahouts would drive their mounts against with utmost skill, allowing for the tower crew to lay further waste from their elevated position with missiles and an odd pike or two.
    The best example of their use was Seleukos application of his 400 elephants to block off the superior cavalry wing of Demetrios for the entire duration of terrific battle at Ipsos in 301. B.C.. Pyrrhos and Hannibal both furthered the fame of elephants as the tools of war in their Italian campaigns against their most persevering and resourceful foe - the Roman republic.


    Standing above all other beasts in size, the amount of armor required to protect this already well protected beast demanded high-costing metalwork and skill. Both empires of the Diadochi and the Carthage had these in abundance, and thus the armored war elephants became a common sight in their armies. The armor would be of lamellar, scale or similar types - usually strapped to the elephant below the belly by means of ropes or leather straps. Headgear, again, consisted of either a lighter plate inlaid with leather, that would extend upwards to offer additional protection for the mahout, and might have included cheek guards as well to avoid injuries to the more sensitive lower parts of the head. Wooden towers, called howdahs were placed on the arch of the elephant's back, strapped down by means of leather ropes and chains, usually carried additional quivers for both javelins and arrows to allow for better autonomy of the elephant crew and higher effectiveness in prolonged battles. Towers were manned by 2 to 3 men armed with sarissa-style stabbing pike, and much more often with bowmen, slingers and javelineers. This not only allowed for elephants to be versatile in offensive, but provided the elephant with much needed defensive capacity; the men in the tower would protect their mount when its flanks and rear became exposed to the enemy sword and spear.

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    African Elephant with Numidian Mahout

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    Porus, Megas Alexandros, Seleukos, Ptolemies, Pyrrhos, Xanthyppos and Hannibal...All these great men had several things tying them together, into one group of legendary generals - the tactics, the leadership skills, the charisma...Oh, and the elephants! These tools of terror, gore and utter annihilation found their military use as early as 4000 years B.C. in distant India. Alexandros and his Hellenes were the first Europeans that encountered these beasts in the battlefield, and his diadochi later on, became renown for the use of these behemoths against their enemies. Carthage, coming up against Pyrrhos and his "Lucanian cows" soon found out how useful a tool the elephants were in war, and not 20 years later, 100 elephants were fielded by Xanthyppos, laying waste to almost 15000 Romans. Carthage now had it's favorite for the battlefield.
    African forest elephant, the smallest of all the species used in ancient warfare, and now extinct, was used by Carthaginian military during 3rd and 2nd century B.C.. These beasts were no taller than 2.5 meters at shoulder, and were spread out on the in northwest of Africa, namely around the Atlas mountain, and other lands of the Numidian tribes. Unlike their Indian, Syrian and African plains cousins, they were unfit to carry the towers, and the use of these was quite simple - terrify, demoralize, gore and trample the enemy in direct charge, and open the cracks in their formations for heavy infantry and cavalry to exploit. The best effect they provided to the generals was the total chaos that their appearance, sound and odor caused upon enemy cavalry, due to horses being completely unfamiliar with the elephants. They
    The crew consisted of either Numidian or Indian mahout, which were caretakers of the beast for the duration of their military service, and not seldom formed a life-long bond. They might have had another crew member riding on the back, being either an archer or a javelineer. The mahouts carried a spike and mallet as standard part of the equipment, used to sever the spinal cord at the back of the elephant's head if the beast went berserk out of pain and fear. The most common tactic against elephant was showering them with darts, javelins and slashing at their trunk, thus driving them mad of pain and by taking out the mahout by a precise shot at the lightly armored driver. Caesar had his men slash at the tendons, thus crippling the beasts while Scipio and Alexandros had their men form gaps between them and letting the beasts charge through without causing the real damage.
    In the end, this was a double edged weapon, which could cause as much devastation and carnage to your own army as easily as it could to the enemy - the difference was in the proper use of this ultimate battlefield asset.


    Being of naturally thick hide, they were almost non killable in the battle, while their forehead was also particularly impervious to most projectile weapons. Still, they carried a headgear consisting of plate covering their forehead and extending upwards thus providing some frontal cover for the lightly armored mahout as well. For the body, most commonly there was a sort of blanket, whether it included heavier metal protection depended on the war chest of the state.
    The weaponry was simple - tusk could impale a grown man no matter how well armored he was, the trunk was capable of lifting a man off the ground and hurling him aside like a rag doll. The foot was most probably the worst of all the arsenal - if one got trampled by it, it is doubtful he would want to survive that experience.
    There always was a possibility of another weapon, and it was either a bow or javelin carried by crew, if they were present.

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    Sunbird Alkibijad: carthaginian army units list, units descriptions, advices, research.
    pirates_say_arrgg: carthaginian army units list, units descriptions, advices, research.
    haeressiarch: units designs, models, textures, units descriptions.
    hamsha: units designs advices, textures, units descriptions advices, research.
    magpie: carthaginian navy research, support.
    The illustrations of Phoenician ships were provided by kind courtesy of Cedarland, the History of Lebanon.
    Last edited by hæressiarch; June 09, 2010 at 04:41 PM.

  5. #5

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Carthaginian allied and mercenary infantry

    (Numidian Light Skirmishers)

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    Numidians lived in the part of Africa north of the Sahara, the boundaries of which at times corresponded roughly with those of modern Algeria. Its earliest inhabitants were divided into tribes and clans and were racially indistinguishable from the other Berber inhabitants of early North Africa. From the 6th century BC points along the coast were occupied by the Carthaginians, who by the 3rd century BC had expanded into the interior as far as Theveste (Tébessa). Numidians were frequently found in the Carthaginian armies by that time.
    The inhabitants remained seminomadic, however, until the reign of Masinissa, the chief of the Massyli tribe living near Cirta (Constantine). During the Second Punic War he was initially an ally of Carthage.
    During the period that we are dealing with the Numidian nation was composed of two major tribal groups, the Massyli in eastern Numidia and the Massaesyli in the west. Knowing this goes some way to explain the Numidians seemingly constant side changing and the fact that Numidian troops would often be fighting for both sides in any conflict involving Rome and Carthage.

    Numidians made good skirmish troops. This type of fighting entirely suiting their nature. "Accordingly, he altered the formation of his battle line, which, because he distrusted his men's courage, he had drawn up in close order. He now extended it so he would be able to block the enemies line of march." [Sallust, The Jugurthine War. 53]


    The weapon of choice for any Numidian soldier mounted or on foot was always the javelin. This certainly led to some under estimation of Numidian worth by Roman generals and a misunderstanding of what took place in battles. It is quite likely that enemies will make false assumptions, or even to be sufficiently disconcerted to make a major mistake. The Numidians thrive on enemy mistakes.
    They used no armor or helmets, relaying on their speed and mobility.

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    Numidian Light Skirmishers

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    The Numidians were the fearsome enemies and allies of Ancient Rome sending bowmen, slingers, javelinmen, and horsemen out from their North African kingdom. When Syphax was born (last quarter of the third century BC), Numidia (the north of modern Algeria) was a country on the edge of the urbanized world of the Mediterranean. Although many people were living in large villages that would eventually develop into cities, another part of the Numidian population was still roaming over the plains. Our word "nomad" is derived from "Numidia".
    Numidian slingers came from the shepherd nomads who used their slings to protect their herds from predators of north africa. They were levied and stationed ahead or alongside a larger body of friendly troops. They are usually placed in a skirmish line to either harass enemy troops or to protect their own troops from similar attacks by the enemy. The sling was light to carry and cheap to produce; ammunition in the form of stones was readily available and often to be found near the site of battle, so numidian skirmishing units were employed in large numbers.
    Acting as light infantry with their light arms and minimal armor, they could run ahead of the main battle line, release a volley of slingshots, and retreat behind their main battle line before the clash of the opposing main forces. The aims of slingers were to disrupt enemy formations by causing casualties before the main battle, and to tempt the opposing infantry into attacking prematurely, throwing their organization into disarray.


    Numidian Slingers were armed with simple projectile weapon typically used to throw a blunt projectile such as a stone. It is also known as the shepherd's sling. A sling has a small cradle or pouch in the middle of two lengths of cord. The sling stone is placed in the pouch. Both cords are held in the hand, then the sling is swung and one of the two cords is released. This frees the projectile to fly on a tangent to the circle made by the pouch's rotation. The sling derives its effectiveness by essentially extending the length of a human arm, thus allowing stones to be thrown several times farther than they could be by hand. The sling is very inexpensive, and easy to build. It has historically been used for hunting game and in combat. It was always considered as low-status weapon. Except their main weapon, numidian slingers had only a short knife and they wore no armors or any other protective equipment. Sometimes carried light shields.

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    Numidian light archers

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    Carthaginians used numidian allies and mercenaties extensively. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from which the Berbers are descended. The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. He was initially on the side of Carthage during the Rome and Carthage conflict.
    Ever since the dawn of numidian people, they have fought from a distance. Most of all sling and javelin were in favour for simple reason. Historically, the Numidian peoples lacked all but the simple bow until the arrival of Phoenicians at the end of the Bronze Age. Numidians began to take up the bow and use it extensively with tremendous accuracy. Soon, Carthage itself started to replace Phoenician archers with Numidians, and sending the former ones to become Marines in her great navy.


    As most of numidian troops, nubidian archers wear none of any kind of armor, for it slows them battle.
    Numidian archers use composite bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. Different materials are used in order to take advantage of the properties of each material. Efective range and skills of numidian bowmen made them became the most feared and sought after archers in the Western Mediterranean.

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    Numidian light infantry spearmen

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    The Numidians had three national past times. Of their king Jugurtha, it is said "He took part in the national pursuits of riding, javelin throwing and competed with other youngmen in running." [Sallust The Jugurthine War: 6]
    These pursuits prepared the Numidians for the style of war they preferred. Both horse and foot were part of a Numidian force, but the foot was always of dubious quality.
    Numidian infantry are not particularly impressive – the preferred tactic seems to have been the same as that of the cavalry – to avoid contact with the enemy as much as possible and gain advantage by attacking a flank or wearing the enemy down by constant skirmishing.
    Numidian kings were never able to come up with decent infantry, although they did succeed in some improvement under King Syphax. During the Second Punic War he was able to obtain the services of a Roman centurion Quintus Statorius. Livy has Syphax saying his army was quite shapeless and haphazard, a mere casual mob. They are not troops that can win the battle by defending. Numidians are light troops and they need to move constantly. Whether they are fighting against the Carthaginans or Romans, eneral that leads them have to work cut out winning with such a light troops but it can be very rewarding watching a frustrated opponent try to pin them down and
    beat them.
    When on foot, the Numidians attacked with bows, slings or javelins. Impressed by their talent, the Carthaginians and later the Romans incorporated Numidians into their own armies.


    The light infantry might carry a round or an oval shield all others their round shield. All were equipped with iron headed javelins and apart from the Celts and Spanish and some nobility hand weapons were not carried. They wore their hair in ringlets and they rarely could affort to use helmets of any kind.
    Their primary weapon was simple spear and in hnd to hand combat they oftenly used long knifes or short african sword which made them flexible fighting force able to stand against lightly armored troops.

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    Samnite Spearmen

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    The Samnites were among the first inhabitants of Molise. Subdivided into five tribes: Caraceni, Irpini, Caudini, Pentri e Frentani; they dedicated themselves to sheep farming, and being courageous warriors; they also earned a living acting as mercenaries.
    According to tradition, the Samnites are native to Sabbinia; others claim that following a “Ver Sacrum” (an emigration) they arrived at a hill called “Saminnium”. The “Ver Sacrum” is a dedication made to a divinity (Ares – Mars), from all the men and animals born in a determined year. The young, once mature (20 yrs old) were forced to abandon the communities to which they belonged (instead of the antique usage of human sacrifice) and to set out in search of new lands. They were led on this voyage of theirs by a sacred animal (a wolf, a bull or a woodpecker) whose name often referred to the group (Irpini, Pentri, Piceni). Sometimes there was a Dux (a leader of the city militia) who guided them. The origin of the Ver Sacrum has its roots in the outbreak of famine and the constant need of new fertile lands as a result of population growth.

    The First (343 to 341 BC), Second (326 to 304 BC), and Third (298 to 290 BC) Samnite wars, between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium, extended over half a century, involving almost all the states of Italy, and ended in Roman domination of the Samnites. The tribes of Samnium, who held the Apennines to the southeast of Latium, were Rome's most formidable rivals.

    The Samnites were valiant warriors and well organized. Like many nations, then and even now, they had their own army, and a nucleus of chosen warriors forming a special corps. This was called Legio Linteata, a devotio, in reference to the Samnites's Olympus Gods whereas, after a special ceremony, a caste of warriors vowed their extreme sacrifice in order to defend its people. Titus Livius narrated in his Annales the induction ceremony regarding this special corps.
    Even tough some of the archaelogical reperts found recently do not guarantee its autenticity. This is how Livius wrote about the induction into the Legio Linteata:
    ... The Samnites readied themselves for war with great commitments and abundance of shining armors. And invoked their Gods' help for the initiation ceremony taking an oath according an ancient rite. And in the Samnium territory they ordered a conscription with a new important clause whereas those soldiers refusing to answer the call from their commanders or avoiding it, would be subjected to Jupiter's curse. Afterwards, the army would be ordered to meet at Aquilonia's. Almost 60 thousands strong, the best samnites troops, would there assemble.


    Samnites use rectangular shields of very unique shape. The upper part, larger than the rest to protect chest and and shoulders and horizontal at the very top. The lower section, more pointed to facilitate freedom of motion.
    In order to protect the chest, they would use armor mesh. The cuirass strong reflects anatomically as well as the fine embossment the greek influence, maybe of Taranto, but also represents an evolution from the standardized italics' armours using metallic discs.
    They wore shin-guards to shield the left leg. Plumed helmets to better emphasize one's height.
    Samnite infantry use javelins and spears.

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    Second Punic War Latin Allies (Swordsmen)

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    The Bruttii (Greek: Βρέττιοι, Italian: Bruzi), are people who inhabited the ‘toe’ of Italy (modern Calabria). Their territory, to which the name Italia was first applied, was known as ager Bruttius or simply Bruttium. Although they had many contacts with Greece, in the 4th century BC the Bruttii joined the neighbouring Lucanians in war against the Greek colonies. Both Greek and Latin writers expressly tell us that Bruttii was the name of the people: no separate designation for the country or province appears to have been adopted by the Romans, who almost universally use the plural form, or name of the nation, to designate the region which they inhabited.
    It was separated from Lucania on the north by a line drawn from the mouth of the river Laus on the west to a point a little south of the river Crathis on the east. To part or the whole of this peninsula the name Italia was first applied. In alliance with the Lucanians the Bruttii made war on the Greek colonies of the coast and seized on Vibo in 356 BC, and, though for a time over-come by the Greeks who were aided by Alexander of Epirus and Agathocles of Syracuse, they reasserted their mastery of the town from about the beginning of the 3rd century B.C., and held it until it became a Latin colony at the end of the same century
    Influence of Hellenism over them is shown by finds in the tombs and the fact that they spoke the Greek language as well as their own (bilingues in Ennius). The mountainous country, ill-suited for agricultural purposes, was well adapted for these hardy warriors,whose training was Spartan in its simplicity and severity. The Bruttii first came into collision with the Romans during the war with Pyrrhus, to whom they sent auxiliaries; after his defeat, they submitted, and were deprived of half their territory in the Sila forest, which was declared state property. In the war with Hannibal, they were among the first to declare in his favour after the battle of Cannae, and it was in their country that Hannibal held his ground during the last stage of the war (at Castrum Hannibalis on the gulf of Scylacium)

    These are the Italian allies of Hannibal that held the last line and fought to the last man at the battle of Zama. The Bruttians were Hannibal’s most loyal allies in Italy next to the city of Capua. Though they were not of the best quality, they had a great general in Hannibal to lead them.

    *The name of Bruttii (Βρέττιοι) was given them, it seems, not by the Greeks, but by the Lucanians, and signified in their language fugitive slaves or rebels (δραπέται, ἀποστάται). But though used at first as a term of reproach, it was subsequently adopted by the Bruttians themselves, who, when they had risen to the rank of a powerful nation, pretended to derive it from a hero named Bruttus (Βρέττος), the son of Hercules and Valentia.


    The Bruttian Veterans were equipped with Roman mail armor, the gladius and a Scutum shield with bronze grieves. They still carried their chalcidian helmet into battle.

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    Iberian Medium Spearmen

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    The Iberian Peninsula is now known as modern Spain and Portugal and as in bygone centuries is a gateway to North Africa. People moved back and forth between Africa and Europe through the region, resulting in a unique mix of cultures that ranged from the Greek to Carthaginian to Celtic. Despite this broad range of cultures existing in Iberia, the original inhabitants were a collection of tribes with ancestry that was both native to Spain as well as Celtic. They were famous for their ferocious style of fighting and were often hired as mercenaries, especially by the Carthaginians.

    Various shields used by infantry and cavalry in Iberian armies, gave names to the soldiers that used them. Scutari recieved their name from the scuta.
    In pitched battles the Iberians used a mixture of heavy and light infantry, who engaged the enemy with swords after a volley of javelins. This tactic proved to be highly successful and when combined with their formidable heavy cavalry made the Iberians a powerful force. Scutari are the best troops to play a central role in such tactics.


    The type of helmet the ancient Spanish used mostly was a style named after them. The Iberian style was a simple conical bronze helmet that covered the top of the head, and proved to be popular with the Carthaginians as well. Captured Roman examples were not uncommon among Iberians servering in Carthaginian armies. In general though helmets were rare. The main headgear among scutari was a skullcap. It was generally small and fitted around the man’s crown, nape, and temples.
    Simple breastplates were used by many cultures in ancient times. Shapes could vary, from round to square, and sometimes they were elaborately decorated with raised images. Generally the pectorals were worn using a set of four straps, one going over each shoulder and another pair around the man’s torso. Roman pectorale were used by Iberians, who plundered them off Roman corpses in Iberia and when under Carthaginian command during the Punic Wars. They protect themselves with a combination of leather armour and bronze breapsplate
    Originally Italian, the large oval scutum was popular with the Iberians as well. Like the Celts their version was flat, unlike the Roman curved example. The heavy infantry who used the scutum in battle garnered the name scutarii thanks to their use of the shield. As with the Roman and Celtic examples, the Iberian scutum had a large spindle-shaped boss that could be used to punch opponents.
    Scutari in carthaginian ranks used the most famous Iberian weapon of all, the falcata is a descendent of the Greek kopis, itself a related to the ancient Egyptian khopesh. Made of an early form of steel, the falcata was an incredibly powerful weapon, due in large part to its triangular shaped blade. It earned a fearsome reputation for being able to crush helmets, chop through shields, and remove limbs, especially among the Romans, who gave us its common name. Amazingly, the blade was only 15 to 20 inches long, but the power made the falcata the weapon of choice for Iberian soldiers of all arms. *Their iberian equivalent uses espasa sword)
    The Iberians used a form of javelin similar to that used by the Romans, specifically the light pilum. A socketed iron javelin-head with a long, thin neck was used, fixed to a shaft. When thrown the weapon would punch through the enemy’s shield, at the very least rendering the shield worthless or at best hitting the opponent.

    *Historically iberian warriors weapons were a matter of preference and depended on the style of fighting they used. Therefore, some men had equipment to become considered Scutarii but preferred the use of the falcata and caetra to the espasa and large oval scuta.

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    Iberian Light Infantry (Skirmishers/Swordsmen)

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    Infantry who used the caetra were known as caetrati by the Romans and were fearsome in close combat when armed with a falcata or espasa.
    They were most effective in traditional iberian way of fighting - the guerilla warfare. They are very flexible type of infantry, generally light troops. They can skirmish while softening their enemy before engaging in for hand-to-hand combat, armed with deadly falcata sword.

    The Iberians were the original inhabitants of the peninsula that bears their name. The original Iberians may have been the first inhabitants of Europe before the coming of the Celts in what is called the Great Migration. However the Celts did not penetrate Iberia in any meaningful way until the 6th century B.C. It is viewed as being quite remarkable by many historians that the Celtic culture and the Iberian were able to mesh so easily and peacefully. What makes it even more remarkable is that the Iberians were not a warlike people; they did hire out mercenaries to other peoples but they rarely themselves went to war. The Celts on the other hand were famous for just how warlike they were. The cultural mesh of the mostly peaceful Iberians with the war loving Celts created the Celt-Iberian people. The Celt-Iberians fused the qualities of both cultures to create an advanced warrior people. The presence of foreigners in Iberia was nothing unusual, but when Carthage attempted to conquer Iberia following the First Punic War it was something new entirely. However the Carthaginians would find that Iberia would not be conquered, not even the great Hannibal could accomplish the task. Part of this has to do with two distinct features of the way that the Iberians waged war. One was the guerilla war style of fighting they employed; in fact the Iberians invented guerilla warfare. The second was the strong fortifications they built, the oppidum and the castro. In fact in some cases it would take eight months to crack an Iberian fort, a testament to the defensive capabilities of the Iberians.


    In general though helmets were rare amongst skirmishers and light infantry. The main headgear among Iberians was a sinew hat that came in two different styles: hood and skullcap. The hood was larger and hung to the soldier’s shoulders and could be fitted with a crest.
    Various types of armmor were used: Fabric, thick woven panels of grass, hardened leather, metal plate, scale and mail. Caetratii preferred pectorals of round shape which didn't block their moves and allowed them to remain highly mobile on the battlefield.
    Lighter Iberian troops such as javelin throwers as well as cavalrymen used the caetra, 39-60cm diameter round buckler (the caetra measures roughly 2 feet across in the largest examples),featuring a central hand boss on the front which protected the hand holding the shield and could be used offensively to punch the enemy. It was carried with a long strap on the back when on the march.
    The Iberians fielded a heavy javelin known as a saunion, made completely out of iron. Measuring roughly 5 to 6 feet long, the saunion was heavy enough to punch through shields and continue on into the soldier holding it. Known as the soliferrum by the Romans, the saunion was a very common piece of equipment among the Iberian infantry and is unique to them.

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    Iberian Medium Spearmen

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    The Turdetani were an ancient people of the Iberian peninsula, living in the valley of the Guadalquivir in what was to become the Roman Province of Hispania Baetica (modern Andalusia, Spain). Strabo (Geography III, 4, 13) considers them to have been the successors to the people of Tartessos and to have spoken a close relative of the Tartessian language.
    The Turdetani were in constant contact with their Greek and Carthaginian neighbors. Herodotus describes them as enjoying a civilised rule under a king, Arganthonios, who welcomed Phocaean colonists in the fifth century BC. The Turdetani are said to have possessed a written legal code and to have employed Celtiberian mercenaries to carry on their wars against Rome (Livy 34.19). Strabo notes that the Turdetani and the Celts were the most civilized peoples in Iberia, with the implication that their ordered, urbanised culture was most in accord with Greco-Roman models.

    At the opening of the Second Punic War the Turdetani rose against their Roman governor in 197. When Cato the Elder became consul in 195 BCE, he was given the command of the whole of Hispania. Cato first put down the rebellion in the northeast, then marched south and put down the revolt by the Turdetani, "the least warlike of all the Hispanic tribes" (Livy, History of Rome 34.17).

    There are some speculation amongst some scholars that connect the Turdetani and the Turduli, the Turdulorum Oppida and the Turduli Veteres (all in modern Portuguese territory), even if all of them seem highly celticized.
    It is very likelt that Turdetani people probably were Tartessos iberians successor.


    Celtic helmets were worn by turdetani, who oftenly hired Celt-Iberians as mercenaries. and , plus captured Roman examples were not uncommon among Iberians servering in Carthaginian armies.
    Simple round breastplates called pectorals were used by the Iberians and celtiberians for torso protection and turdetani were no exception. Generally the pectorals were worn using a set of four straps, one going over each shoulder and another pair around the man’s torso.
    The large oval scutum was popular with the turdetani as well. Like the Celts their version was flat, unlike the Roman curved example. As with the Roman and Celtic examples, the Iberian scutum had a large spindle-shaped boss that could be used to punch opponents.
    For short range combat the Iberians used a long bladed spear, roughly 7 feet long. The iron spearhead was thin and light enough to allow the spear to be thrown if necessary. Shorter than most spears, the Iberian spear was suited to the close combat style that they practiced, as well as being admirably suited to their guerilla tactics.
    The falcata was the most common and most famous Iberian weapon of all. Turdetani used falcata widely along with the dagger called pugio.

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    Celtiberian Heavy Spearmen

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    The Celtiberians were a Celtic people of Hallstatt culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain, before and during the Roman Empire. The group originated when Celts migrated from Gaul and integrated with the local Pre-Indo-European populations of Iberia (probably the Iberian people in this zone of the Peninsula).

    The cultural stronghold of Celtiberians was the northern area of the central meseta in the upper valleys of the Tagus and Douro east to the Iberus (Ebro) river, in the modern provinces of Soria, Guadalajara and Teruel. There, when Greek and Roman geographers and historians encountered them, the established Celtiberians were controlled by a military aristocracy that had become a hereditary elite. The dominant tribe were the Arevaci, who dominated their neighbors from powerful strongholds at Okilis (Medinaceli) and who rallied the long Celtiberian resistance to Rome. Other Celtiberians were the Belli and Titti in the Jalón valley, and the Lusones to the east.

    Metalwork stands out in Celtiberian archeological finds, partly from its indestructible nature, emphasizing Celtiberian articles of warlike uses, horse trappings and prestige weapons. The two-edged sword adopted by the Romans was previously in use among the Celtiberians, and Latin lancea, a thrown spear, was a Hispanic word, according to Varro. Celtiberian culture was increasingly influenced by Rome in the two final centuries BCE.

    From the third century, the clan was superseded as the basic Celtiberian political unit by the oppidum, a fortified organized city with a defined territory that included the castros as subsidiary settlements. These civitates as the Roman historians called them, could make and break alliances, as surviving inscribed hospitality pacts attest, and minted coinage. The old clan structures lasted in the formation of the Celtiberian armies, organized along clan-structure lines, with consequent losses of strategic and tactical control.

    The Celtiberians were the most influential ethnic group in pre-Roman Iberia, but they had their largest impact on history during the Second Punic War, during which they became the (perhaps unwilling) allies of Carthage in its conflict with Rome, and crossed the Alps in the mixed forces under Hannibal's command.

    There is said that they valued single combat and preformed war dances and songs to scare their enemies.


    With their supreme equipment the Celtiberians are a strong and mobile heavy infantry. Their long spears and swords of celtic origin granted them great efectiveness in both attack and defense. These warriors rarely wear greaves, but most significant for them were plumed bronze helmets of gallic type.
    Most of iberian and celtiberian warriors wore pectorials as breastplates, but these men are equiped with celtic chainmail.

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    Balearic Light Skirmishers

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    The men of the Balearic Islands were known as expert slingers, learning from an early age to use their slings with deadly efficiency. It is said that the mothers only allowed their children to eat bread when they had struck it off a post with the sling (Strabo; Diod.; Flor. iii. 8; Tzetz. ad Lycophr). According to the Greek historian Polybius, their home islands derived their name from this ability of its inhabitants: from the word ballo, βάλλω:ancient greek meaning for to launch. Although Strabo considered the name to be of Phoenician origin. He observed that it was the Phoenician equivalent for the Greek word for lightly-armoured soldiers (γυμνῆτας) (gymnetas). According to the Lycophron's Alexandra verses, the islands were called Gymnesiae (gymnos - γυμνός means naked in Greek) because its inhabitants were often nude, probably because of the year-long benevolent climate.

    It was rumored that they were paid in women than in money. Legends hold that they were remarkable for their love of women and would give three or four men as the ransom for one woman, that they had no gold or silver coin, and forbade the importation of the precious metals, so that those of them who served as mercenaries took their pay in wine and women instead of money.

    During the Second Punic War Hannibal's light troops were in a different class from those of the Romans. They were very highly trained and were capable of inflicting much damage on the enemy. Balearic slingers were particulary important. These were organized into two corps, each a thousand strong. They were armed with three types of sling for employment at different ranges. Such was their accuracy and their volume of fire that they were deemed more useful than archers. It is very likely that at Cannae Hannibal had posted many of his Balearic slingers directly opposite the Roman cavalry quite deliberately to disrupt both men and horses. Aemilius Paullus (commanding the Roman cavalry) was severely wounded at the outset of the battle by one of the stones from the Balearic slingers; he either fell from his horse or chose to dismount. Whichever, it seems to have been taken by his men as a general signal for them to do likewise. When told of the Roman action, Hannibal observed that 'they may as well have delivered them up in chains.' The sentiment was well expressed, for by their own action the Romans brought about their own rapid collapse.


    They went into battle ungirt, with only a small buckler made of wood with a metal boss in the center, and a javelin burnt at the end, and in some cases tipped with a small iron point; In carthaginian army they would also carry the Iberian Falcata, which made them a very versatile in close combat as well. But their effective weapons were their slings, of which each man carried three, wound round his head (Strabo p. 168; Eustath.), or, as others tell us, one round the head, one round the body, and one in the hand. (Diodorus) The three slings were of different lengths, for stones of different sizes; the largest they hurled with as much force as if it were flung from a catapult; and they seldom missed their mark. To this exercise they were trained from infancy, in order to earn their livelihood as mercenary soldiers.

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    Gaulic Light Infantry

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    The Gaesatae (Greek Γαισάται) were a group of Gaulish warriors who lived in the Alps near the river Rhône and fought against the Roman Republic in the Battle of Telamon of 224 BC. The Greek historian Polybius says their name meant "mercenaries", which matches Old Irish gaiscedach "champion, armed person", from gaisced "weapons", itself from gáe "spear, javelin", and compare quite closely with the medieval Irish fianna, who were small warbands of landless young men operating independently of any kingdom. They were mercenaries roughly 16 to 20 years old who were renowned for their bravery.
    Gaesatae are often described as "javelin-men", an emerging band of professional fighters drawn from different tribes. Their organisation was probably based on a young warriors cult, which developed into a large force prepared for fighting expeditions. The leaders of the gaesatae were Concolitanos and Aneroestes.

    According to Polybius' account, the Boii and Insubres of Cisalpine Gaul paid the Gaesatae, under their leaders Concolitanus and Aneroëstes, large sums of money to fight against the Romans, in response to the Roman colonisation of the former Gallic territory of Picenum. The Gauls overran and defeated a Roman army on the approach to Rome, but when the consul Lucius Aemilius Papus arrived with his troops, the Gauls followed Aneroëstes' advice to withdraw with their booty. Papus pursued them, and the other consul Gaius Atilius Regulus cut them off at Telamon in Etruria.

    Polybius describes how the Gaesatae fought at the front, and unlike their Gallic allies who fought in trousers and light cloaks, they went into battle naked, both because of their great confidence and their desire not to get their clothes caught in the brambles. Diodorus Siculus also reports that some Gauls fought naked, trusting in the protection of nature. The appearance of these well-built naked warriors, and the noise of their trumpets and war-cries, intimidated the Romans, but their small shields offered little protection against Roman javelins, and the Gaesatae were driven back and their allies slaughtered. Concolitanus was captured. Aneroëstes escaped with a few followers and took his own life. In 222 BC the Gaesatae were hired again, but the Gallic forces were defeated by the Roman cavalry at Clastidium in the territory of the Insubres.


    Indeed, the Gaesatae, one of the most warlike of the Celtic factions, are thought to have gained their name from the gaesum, a Gaulish throwing spear. In later periods, though, the influence of the weapon gradually began to diminish.
    The Celts of north Italy wore trousers and cloaks, but the Gaesatae fought naked. At the battle of Cannae (216 BC) Polybius describes naked Celts and Livy speaks of the Gauls naked from the navel up. The Celts in Asia Minor seem to have preserved this custom, for they too are described as naked in battle with skin white because they were never exposed except in battle.
    Most early commentators noted that the Celts had an unusual manner of fighting. Their chief weapon was a heavy, long-bladed sword, which they wielded with devastating efficiency. The most common type of celtic sword is the "long" sword, which usually has a stylized anthropomorphic hilt made from organic material, such as wood, bone, or horn. These swords also usually had an iron plate in front of the guard that was shaped to match the scabbard mouth.

    Most probably Gaesatae avoided using helmets, light armors or typical large celtic shields.
    Camillus, trying to raise the morale of the Romans after the siege of the Capitol, pointed to some naked Gauls and said: 'These are the men who rush against you in battle, who raise loud shouts, clash their arms and long swords, and toss their hair. Look at their lack of hardiness, their soft and flabby bodies, and go to it'. Dionysus of Halicarnassus expresses the same sentiments: 'Our enemies fight bare-headed, their breasts, sides thighs, legs are all bare, and they have no protection except from their shields; their weapons of defence are thin spears and long swords. What injury could their long hair, their fierce looks, the clashing of their arms and the brandishing of their arms do us? These are mere symbols of barbarian boastfulness.'

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    Garmanian Spearmen/Skirmishers

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    There is not much information about the Garamantes, not even the name they used to call themselves; Garamantes was a Greek name which the Romans later adopted. Most of what we know comes from Greek and Roman sources, and recent archaeological excavations in the area.
    The Garamantes were a Saharan Berber-speaking people. They were farmers, engineers (who used an elaborate underground irrigation system) and merchants. Their religion was based on Egyptian models, and some of their dead were buried in small pyramids. They had a sophisticated civilisation and represented one of the most powerful kingdoms in North Africa.
    Descended from Berbers and Saharan pastoralists, the Garamantes were likely present as a tribal people in the Fazzan by at least 1000 B.C. They first appeared in the historical record in the fifth century B.C., when Herodotus noted the Garamantes were an exceedingly numerous and "a very great nation" who herded cattle, farmed dates, and hunted the "Ethiopian Troglodytes", or "cave-dwellers" who lived in the desert, from four-horse chariots. Roman depictions describe them as bearing ritual scars and tattoos. Tacitus wrote that they assisted the rebel Tacfarinas and raided Roman coastal settlements.
    Garamantian population growth gave the new Saharan power a demographic and military advantage over other peoples in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, enabling them to expand their territory, conquer other peoples, and acquire vast numbers of slaves. It also gave them numerous warriors which find employment also in lybian and carthaginian armies.

    They fought on foot, from horseback and from chariots. Much of the evidence for their equipment comes from their own rock art and Egyptian paintings of Libyan soldiers. They engaged first with throwing spears or javelins but can close or hold when necessary with their long spears.


    Garamanian infantrymen wore no armor on their bodies. They oftenly tattoed or scarified themselves, believed that sacred marks will protect them from any harm. They carry small, round shield covered with cowhide and light javelinsbut their primary weapon is spear

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    Carthaginian allied and mercenary cavalry

    Numidian Allied Skirmisher Cavalry

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    Numidian cavalry was a type of light cavalry developed by the Numidians, most notably used by Hannibal during the Second Punic War.
    The Numidian cavalry used small horses compared to their contemporaries (namely that of Rome), ancestors of the Arabian horse, and were designed for faster movement. To conserve weight the cavalrymen did not wear armor. Due to their expert horsemanship and agility, they were most suitable for "charge and disburse tactics," effective for harassing the enemy and breaking up their formations. Hannibal's invasion of Rome during the Second Punic War is best known for his use of slow-moving war elephants, but he also employed Numidian cavalry where faster movement was needed, such as luring the Romans into a trap at the Battle of Trebia and for fighting on his right flank.

    The Numidian Cavalry are some of, if not, the finest horsemen for a Carthaginian general to recruit. Proving almost impossible to close with them in close combat, they will shower their enemy with javelins. The Numidians only carry a small round shield for protection, allowing the speed and agility of their short horses to be their protection in battle. With their fast horses, they can catch up to anything! Hannibal in the battle of Cannae, allowed the Numidians to pursue the broken Roman cavalry, while the Iberian and Gallic cavalry hit the Roman line. Though the Numidian cavalry couldn't break the Roman Cavalry, Hannibal saw the skill in which they could pursue and kill the broken, heavier armored cavalrymen. The Numidian cavalry men didn't ride with a saddle or reins; they guided their horse with a stick. They should not be allowed to close with heavier cavalry, but to use the great stamina and speed to wear out their enemies.

    Mostly due to inferior horses, Numidians were not the fastest cavalry ( the Southern Spanish were quite capable of riding them down). The small horse was agile and apart from being very maneuverable, could scramble through or over terrain that brought other mounted units to a halt.


    Two types of basic light cavalry both armed with a round shield and javelins are described, being distinguished by riding bridled or unbridled horses. It is not made clear which of the two were superior if indeed either were. Livy refers to Roman cavalry releasing their bridles so their horses would ride right through a Celtiberian wedge, but it is unlikely the Numidians did not ride without bridles for this reason. Those that rode in this fashion relied on their knees plus a riding crop\ prod. Armor was not worn, nor were hand weapons generally carried. One other cavalry group existed. It is customary to consider the Numidians as being entirely skirmishing cavalry.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    no screens aviable

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    pirates_say_arrgg: carthaginian army units list, units descriptions, advices, research.
    haeressiarch: units designs, models, textures, units descriptions.
    hamsha: units designs advices, textures, units descriptions advices, research.
    magpie: carthaginian navy research, support.
    The illustrations of Phoenician ships were provided by kind courtesy of Cedarland, the History of Lebanon.
    Last edited by hæressiarch; January 22, 2011 at 03:15 PM.

  6. #6

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Faction thread opened i hope you will all like the way we want to introduce factions included in Rise of the Nations MOD. it is not only something tht you can watch and read. this is our database . it was moved here from the DEV foru. We firstly decided to work as other groups in secret and launch some previews from time to time. our aproach to this case should allow you to paticipate more and know more about our work and progres. feel free to coment. posts will be updated constantly i can promise you that

    we are still working on things in FACTION PREVIEWS. that lets us to have everything perfected. informations in these threads are not only for further players. they are for us. descriptions should be most detailed. that will allow us to have huge database while we will work on acuracy, cmpaign, scripts, in game descriptions and stuff. for example i am going to post article about carthaginian architecture. bulidings, influence of other cultures and so on. that will help me decide how to manage with new bulidings and their apearance. also all of you and fans will know why for example walls are painted red and not white as hollywood movies are trying to tell us...

    feel free to coment and visit us often

    best regards

    RotN Team.

  7. #7
    loet66's Avatar Senator
    Join Date
    Apr 2006

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Hi Haer,

    Very nice preview !!

  8. #8
    Darius_D's Avatar Tiro
    Join Date
    Feb 2007
    Pole living in France

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    I've just glimpsed - great work!
    For more detailed comments there will be time later, now take my congratulations!

    Edit - what was supposed to be inside "Spoiler Alert"?
    Last edited by Darius_D; December 24, 2008 at 05:56 PM.

  9. #9

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    screens showing units in action (in game shots) and some renders of details we had worked on, like weaponry, animations, everything that can be useful to know more and show more.

  10. #10
    peanut's Avatar Civis
    Join Date
    Oct 2008
    London, Ontario, Canada

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Oh my f**g God! You can show me such presentations everyday! This is truelly Opus Magnum. I see now the way you work. I AM GOING TO DROP PLAYING EB FOR YOU! I love that preview


  11. #11
    Bigus_Dickus's Avatar Tiro
    Join Date
    May 2008
    Cracow, POLAND

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    As you all can see there are 6 units lacking still in the preview. Haer promissed to launch some screens in the unit preview thread during christmas holidays For now he is willing t take a short break to gather strength and ideas. Soon we will update this thread

    don't look at me CLICK MY SIGNATURE TO SEE NEW MOD

  12. #12
    Mathais's Avatar Ordinarius
    Join Date
    Sep 2008
    Some where in deep space?

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Wow somebody rep haer for me it wont let me yet! Haer wow thank you thank you for this most wonderful treat of Carthage! My wisdom has grown thanks to you and this wonderful pool of knowledge.After this you desver a vacation or at least a day or two at the spa's

  13. #13
    Space Wolves's Avatar Primicerius
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    SF. :(

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    bloody hell, what an update...PROPS!

    20,284 Officers Lost in the Line of Duty as of 2010-12 this month- 124 this year
    Red: Suspect inflicted: Blue Accident
    Officer Christopher A Wilson: End of Watch 10/27/10: San Diego PD, CA
    Lt. Jose A Cordova Montaez: End of Watch 10/26/10: Pureto Rico PD
    Cpt. George Green: End of Watch 10/26/10: Oklahoma Highway PD
    Deputy Sheriff Odelle McDuffle Jr. 10/25/10: Liberty Country SD, Texas
    Officer John Abraham: End of Watch 10/25/10: Teaneck PD New Jersey
    Sgt. Timothy Prunty: End of Watch 10/24/10: Shreveport PD. Louisiana

  14. #14
    paradamed's Avatar Praepositus
    Join Date
    Jun 2006
    Brasília, Brasil

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Those units are really good!

  15. #15

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Those units are just....speechless.. Extraordinary work!

    Cant wait to roll over Romans wih that cavalry...

  16. #16

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    @ Mathais

    thank you but it was made with the efort of whole team. specially pirates_say_arrgg and hamsha. pirates shared his knowledge with us and this is how our units apeared . hamsha put some stuff as historian and designed iberians. there are some materials gathered by Bigus_Dickus and magpie unrevealed yet, but that'a the matter of upcoming updates. Actually whole team worked on this.

    i am going off for a while so...


  17. #17

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    ......Awesome preview!
    Last edited by pirates_say_arrgg; December 25, 2008 at 09:59 PM.

  18. #18
    Mathais's Avatar Ordinarius
    Join Date
    Sep 2008
    Some where in deep space?

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Well then I must correct myself then Thank you pirates_say_arrgg I am must thank you for your love of Carthage I still reading this and learning new things still. Lady Hamsha Thank you for putting your efforts in the work you done in iberians designe and your historical knowlegde in this as well. As for Bigus_Dickus and Magpie I must thank you as well for this as well Sorry I didnt make mention of you guys For I was unaware as to you all was involed in this. I must say that this has been better than a history class
    Last edited by Mathais; December 27, 2008 at 07:03 PM.

  19. #19
    Worm's Avatar Bravo
    Join Date
    Mar 2008
    Stockholm, Sweden

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Very nice gents

  20. #20
    hamsha's Avatar worship your daemons
    Join Date
    Aug 2008

    Default Re: RotN Faction Preview - CARTHAGINIAN EMPIRE

    Carthaginian Units Preview updated: Samnite Infantry added. Enjoy preview

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