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Thread: Faction - Kingdom of Hungary

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    Default Faction - Kingdom of Hungary


    Kingdom of Hungary

    * Magyar Királyság *



    * * * * * * * * * * * UNITS * * * * * * * * * * *


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    Last edited by Tzar; January 18, 2008 at 12:05 AM.
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Last edited by Tzar; February 02, 2008 at 02:32 PM.
    The House of Wilpuri ~ Proud Patron of: The Noble Lord & Sumskilz


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    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    I would be glad to help with research and I could try to source some pictures for you... although i'm not quite sure how yet... Just say if you need it.
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    phoenix[illusion]'s Avatar Palman Bracht
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Quote Originally Posted by \Vazul's Ghost/ View Post
    I would be glad to help with research and I could try to source some pictures for you... although i'm not quite sure how yet... Just say if you need it.
    We need anything that you could find
    long time no see, but still twc drug kickin'
    check out Tsardoms: Total War!
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    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Well I'll start by posting what I have on hand which is mainly stuff on heraldry. Computer problems are stoping me from posting much but I can upload these images wich are the heraldry of the regions of Hungary. Hungary was divided into 64 regions in the 1800s, the period from which these coats of arms come from, before that the Hungarian proper wasn't really divided into divisble counties, however most of these crests didn't change from the medieval unofficial ones.

    Between the Danube and Theiss (Tisza)
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    Last edited by \Vazul's Ghost/; January 17, 2008 at 07:13 PM.
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    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    [sorry for the incomplete post i'm still figuring this out... well lets continue]

    Between the Theiss River and the Maros River
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    Left Bank of the Danube (Duna)
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    Left Bank of the Theiss River
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    Right Bank of the Danube
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    Right Bank of the Theiss
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    Transylvania
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    Croatia-Slavonia
    The above 64 crests confirm to the system set up by the Austro-Hungarian administration, and did not apply to Croatian and Sclavonian lands. You probably already have plenty of sources for these lands but I may as well post what I have anyway.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Bjelovarsko-Križeva?ka (Belovar-Kreutz, Belovár-K?rös)

    Li?ko-Krbavska (Lika-Krbava)

    Modrus - Fiume

    Modruško-Rije?ka (Modrus-Fiume)

    Požeška (Pozega, Pozsega)

    Srijemska (Syrmien, Szerém)

    Viroviti?ka (Virovititz, Ver?ce)

    Zágráb

    These croatian/slavonic crests are from different sources and of different periods so use them at your disgression.


    Once y computer problems are fixed I will post a map that displays these regions to put them in perspective, and will post more mod time frame relevant pictures and info.
    Last edited by \Vazul's Ghost/; January 17, 2008 at 07:17 PM.
    γνῶθι σεαυτόν ~ μηδὲν ἄγαν

  7. #7

    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Just please look at the time-period of the Mod ,when you posting pictures. You have nice collections of CoA.
    Thanks
    The House of Wilpuri ~ Proud Patron of: The Noble Lord & Sumskilz


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    Manuel Komnenos's Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    spoiler pics please - image heavy for weak pc's
    Why we dig up the past? To understand it.

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    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Tzar: Thanks, I know its a bit off period but many of the symbols of these regions haven't changed since the Arpad era, they just became official during the Hapsburg era so i thought you may find a use for them. Will post more closely historical ones once my internet connection is fixed.

    Manuel Komnenos: Please help me here... Could someone please tell me how to insert spoiler tabs on pictures I can't find out for the life of me and for some reason the help and advice thread was never opened.
    γνῶθι σεαυτόν ~ μηδὲν ἄγαν

  10. #10

    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    When you edit your post put this in front of the stuff you would like to hide this [spoiler] and then this in the end /spoiler put this brakets around []

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    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Thanks! You are my Saviour! I've been trying to find out how to do that for ages, anyway back to Hungary!
    γνῶθι σεαυτόν ~ μηδὲν ἄγαν

  12. #12

    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Quote Originally Posted by \Vazul's Ghost/ View Post
    Thanks! You are my Saviour! I've been trying to find out how to do that for ages, anyway back to Hungary!
    No problem bro
    The House of Wilpuri ~ Proud Patron of: The Noble Lord & Sumskilz


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    Manuel Komnenos's Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    For me personally isn't problem but for someone sertainly is. Anyway excellent coats. Thanx vazul ghost. But who is vazul?
    Last edited by Manuel Komnenos; January 22, 2008 at 02:05 PM.
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    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Quote Originally Posted by Manuel Komnenos View Post
    For me personally isn't problem but for someone sertainly is. Anyway excellent coats. Thanx vazul ghost. But who is vazul?
    Thanks! Vazul was a Hungarian pagan prince of the early 11th century who fought against St. Stephen when Hungary converted to christianity. He was obviously on the loosing side... and his punishment for his rebellion was that he had his eyes gouged out and molten lead poured down his ears. Poor blighter...

    ANYWAY...

    I cannot find a cohesive map of the counties of the 14th century anyware... the only one I could find was in impossible bad resolution. There are however plenty of maps of the counties of the 18th century, and I have compiled enough sources to modify one of those to a 14th century map. This is necessary trust me... as the main place that changed from the 14th to the 18th century were the lands around the serbian border and around key cities like Pecs. I would just like to know if anyone has a map of the 14th century regions to save me the effort...
    γνῶθι σεαυτόν ~ μηδὲν ἄγαν

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    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    I found this concise yet accurate and detailed account of the military organisation of hungary on the net.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    I have taken the approach when describing the Hungarian army of placing information where I feel it makes most sense rather than sticking rigidly to my headers. For example the Szekely and Cumans appear under the light horse heading yet the information on them includes a brief history and other notable items not really relevant to Light horse. It is also worth noting that where Hungarian is used it does not cover Transylvania. Transylvania is covered separately within the text.

    Organisation

    Generalis Exercitus

    The Generalis Exercitus was a mass levy of all lesser Noblemen of Hungary. Originally the core of the Hungarian army this mass levy had provided their Kings with a large and enthusiastic army. By the 14th Century though the levy was an anachronism unable to provide any realistic military force. This was mostly due to changes with in the Hungarian society where the lesser nobility had increasingly been absorbed into the wealthier peasant class though they still insisted on the right of Generalis Exercitus as a means to distinguish themselves. This right though did not equip such men for war and throughout the 14th Century references abound to the complete lack of suitable equipment of those called by the Generalis Exercitus. Additionally the organisation of the Generalis Exercitus was limited to the 'local' or county level. There were no arsenals, leaders or basic organisational units. This situation was mostly political in origin, partially due to the King and partially due to the men of the Generalis Exercitus themselves. The men most experienced in war and most likely to be able to organise the levy into an effective military force were the Barons of the Kingdom. The Kings of Hungary though were not prepared to trust the Barons as local leaders of the levy as it represented a significant threat to their own power. Also the levy were unlikely to wish Baronial interference as in undermined their own independence. The Golden Bull of Andrew II of 1222 further limited the use of the Levy. By this Bull the Levy were only obliged to serve within the boundaries of Hungary and only for a period of fifteen days. The levy did however provide a counter point to Baronial power in Hungary. Charles Angevin used the levy to considerable affect against the rebellious Nobles on his accession to the throne. Yet even he seems to have limited its use to 'minor' wars. His son Louis followed a similar policy and we find that for his foreign wars mercenaries were the preferred troops though significant numbers of Hungarian infantry appear to have taken part in his Italian campaigns.
    In the 15th century, much like the General Levy of Poland the Generalis Exercitus when called up was singularly ineffective. The last mobilisation of it was in 1439 by king Albert. The Generalis Exercitus dutifully massed and followed the King fifteen days later it disbanded itself and went home, forcing the King to abandon his campaign and retreat.



    The Banderium (Bandiera)

    The decline in the Generalis Exercitus increasingly lead to the responsibility for providing sufficient military forces shifting to the senior Nobles of the realm. As with almost all feudal societies the Nobility of Hungary had their own armed retinues. These retinues were originally made up of kinsmen called Familiaris or Servientes. This gave rise to the term familiaries to describe a Noble's armed following. Unlike western practises though those that served as familiaris were not automatically vassals of their chosen Noble. Service was not equated to vassalage, the familiaris only committed himself and not his own family, lands or retainers. It also fell to the Lord in question to equip and supply his familiaries. In this way the majority of the retinues tended to be made up of Hungary's lesser Nobility. The break down in Royal authority in the 13th and 14th Century saw an increase in the size of these familiaries. No longer were they comprised solely of trusted kinsmen but included anyone willing to serve. The name of these retinues also changed, they became Vexillum (flag/banner) and they also became a significant threat to the King's power. Vexillum came into use as it was customary for the familiaries to be fielded under their Noble's personal standard and leadership. The requirement for vexillum to provide the King with troops also brought about the risk of civil war. A situation clearly shown at the end of the 13th century with the death of the last Arpad King. The Nobles of Hungary used their Vexillum in the power struggle for the throne and created a myriad of 'little Caesars' in Hungary.
    The accession of Charles Angevin brought about some changes to the Vexillum system. Once Charles had successfully regained control of Hungary he altered just who was allowed a Vexillum. He limited it to those of Baronial rank only, this also included senior figures of the Church as well. It should be noted that about this time the term Banderium came to be used instead of Vexillum. This is probably due to Italian influence (banderia being the Italian). This shift in name has often been used to justify a radical overhaul of the Hungarian military by Charles. There is however little proof of new practises other than the limiting of just who could raise a Banderium. Never the less the Banderium were private armies and as such answered to their Lords. To ensure their service to the Crown it became customary for the King to compensate Barons for their Banderium expenses. The Banderium system remained the primary source of troops for the Crown until the time of Matthius. It should be noted that Banderium was used in several contexts Firstly it described the private army of a Baron or the King and in this respect could number in the thousands. Secondly it was used to describe a unit of men fighting under a standard, much like the Polish 'banner'. In this way it was possible for Janos Hunyadi's Banderium to be made up of several Banderium. For Hunyadi we find the term Familaries being used to describe his Personal Banderium, recruited from kinsmen and his private estates and then Banderium being applied to the numerous mercenary companies that he employed. King Ulászló is described as having a Royal Banderium at Varna, comprised of some 300 to 500 Polish guards, yet another Royal Banderium is mentioned fighting alongside Hunyadi and being comprised of Hungarian guards.



    Mercenaries

    Louis the Great frequently employed mercenaries. Mostly for his Italian wars but some for garrison duties within Hungary as well. In 1380 for instance the castle of Bran in Transylvania was manned by a contingent of English archers (source: Thuroczy p182). However like the later practises of Poland Hungary employed domestic mercenaries in preference to all others. These mercenaries were hired and led by Knights of the King and paid directly from the Royal Treasury. Normally these mercenaries took to the field as part of the Royal Banderium under the direct command of the King. Though under Louis parts of the Royal army fought in Italy under the command of Barons. The Hungarian mercenaries of one of these armies formed their own company when it was disbanded. This mercenary company, the Magna Societas Ungarorum played a significant part in the Italian wars of the later 14th Century.
    Mercenaries were increasingly hired to serve in the Banderium of the Barons as well. Janos Hunyadi particularly employed large numbers of Bohemian and Germans. The other major mercenary presence in the Hungarian army was that of her infantry, here almost overwhelmingly ex-Hussite and Germans prevailed.
    It would be under Matthius that mercenaries became the backbone of the Hungarian army forming its own 'black army'. The name 'black army' was actually first applied to Matthius' army in the early 16th century so is anachronistic but does make a convenient tag. During his reign Matthius created possibly the most formidable 'regular' army of the time. The core of Matthius army was originally mercenaries brought over by Jan Jiskra in 1462 after he made his peace with the King. Bonfini, the Italian chronicler records that Matthius' standing army in 1463 was some 2000 cavalry and 5,000 infantry. The same chronicler records that the army Matthius used in his campaign of 1487 in Austria was some 20,000 cavalry, 8,000 infantry and 5,000 wagons. Sources repeatedly state that the core of Matthius' army remained Germans and Bohemians but that it increasingly included Serbian light cavalry as well.



    The Militia Portalis

    The Militia Portalis was born out of attempts to reorganise and reform the general levy. It first appeared in documents of 1397 during the reign of Sigismund. It outlined that for every twenty serf-lots (portae) a Noble was expected to raise and led 1 archer (probably mounted). What is often assumed is that this soldier was a peasant from such holdings this though is never actually specified by the documents of this time or later. This specific levy was not to be limited by service within Hungary nor the 15 day period of service. It appears that this initial attempt failed under opposition from the Nobility. Failure of the Generalis Exercitus during the Hussite wars saw further attempts at reform between 1432-35. These appear to have been more successful and there is documentary evidence of the use of the Militia Portalis from then on.
    For more detailed information and examination of the evidence on the Hungarian organisation see the following articles:

    Military reform in early fifteenth Century Hungary by Joseph Held, Eastern European quarterly, Vol. XL no 2

    Militia Portalis in Hungary before 1526 by Andras Borosy, From Hunyadi to Rakoczi



    Transylvania

    Transylvania appears to have organised differently from the rest of Hungary and was instead militarily organised along the lines of Wallachia and Moldavia. Transylvania appears to have retained an effective militia system comprised of a the 'great' and 'small' armies. The small army was a levy comprised of the wealthier Nobles of Transylvania and as such was probably fairly effective. The great army was a general levy called in times of emergency. Janos Hunyadi is known to have called on every able bodied man in 1442 to defend against an Ottoman invasion. There is no recorded instance of a similar occurrence with in Hungary itself. Alongside these levies there was also soldiers available from the Szekely and the Saxons and these are covered below.


    I found it from the following website:
    http://www.warfareeast.co.uk/main/Hungarian_Armies.htm

    I hope it helps.
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Thanks!!!
    The House of Wilpuri ~ Proud Patron of: The Noble Lord & Sumskilz


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    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Here is some information on the soldiers of the Hungarian army. Its from the same website as the one from my last post so you may have already got it but I thought I would post it just in case, as its pretty good info.

    Knights
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    The core of any Hungarian army was the heavily armoured Knight of the Banderium. These Knights were equipped like those of their Western counterparts.
    The effect of their charge being regarded as the climax of battle. The heavy cavalry employed by the Hungarians fall into two main categories, Hungarians and Mercenaries.
    Hungarian Knights
    Hungarian is used here to indicate native Nobles recruited into the Banderium of the Barons. They were equipped at the expense of their commander and only offered themselves for service. It is likely that such Knights did not come with the usual combat effective support group seen in other European Countries. Emperor Sigismund made a specific order for the Nicopolis campaign of 1396 that Knights should be accompanied by two mounted archers. The implication being that this was not a normal state of affairs. The temperament of these Nobles also appears to have been more cautious that that of their Western Cousins. There are no obvious examples of Hungarian Knights displaying the impetuous behaviour of, for example their French counterparts. This in some way may be explained by the presence of mercenaries within a Banderium which might have acted as a stabilising influence. Though it has to be said any army consistently faced with the light horse tactics used by the Ottomans tended to adopt a very cautious approach to their battles, the Polish are a prime example.

    Mercenary Knights (Armigeri)
    Often referred to in the sources by the Italian term Armigeri these men were equipped as Knights and organised in the basic lance or Gleve system prevalent in Germany and Italy at the time. Each lance being a men at arms or Knight and a support group of between three to five less well equipped retainers. Whether employed in distinct units or as individual lances they differed from the Hungarian Nobility in that they were highly disciplined professionals. There were also two distinct types of mercenary units, foreigners and Hungarians.
    The Hungarian mercenary units first appear to have been recruited in Louis' reign. Knights of the Kings household were given commissions (dispositio) to recruit between fifty and eighty men at arms. These men at arms were expected to supply a support group of two to three mounted archers (pharetriarii). These archers were likely to be comparable to those raised by the Militia Portalis and are discussed under Hungarian Light cavalry.
    Foreign mercenary units tended to be recruited from Germany or Bohemia. Probably for no other reason that they were the most readily available at the time. There is no evidence of how these mercenaries were recruited but it is likely that this varied from unit to unit. The core of Matthius' mercenaries originated from the army of Jan Jiskra as did many of his senior commanders so they were probably on a rolling contract, as long as they were paid they served. Others may well have been on fixed contracts. Janos Hunyadi certainly seemed to have little difficulty in recruiting and replacing these mercenaries when ever required.


    Mounted crossbowmen
    Froissart mentions mounted crossbowmen at Nicopolis in 1396. It is generally assumed and likely that this is a mistaken reference to light bow armed cavalry (see Light cavalry). However Bonfinius mentions mounted arbalesters at a battle in 1441 (Sava). These are deployed with the Knights on the wings of the army and are differentiated from the light horse who form a skirmish screen. Based on Hunyadi's known preference for using German mercenaries and the well documented use of mounted crossbowmen in the Holy Roman Empire it is probable that these were such mercenaries.


    Light Cavalry
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    The Hungarian army contained various types of Light horse.
    Hungarian Light Horse, Hussars (Gusars), Szekely, Cumans, Wallachians and Moldavians


    Hungarian Light Cavalry
    These are the archers recruited by the Militia Portalis and appearing in the retinue of Hungarian Knights. They appear to have been recruited directly from the wealthier peasants of Hungary. Their role may well have varied. Those recruited as part of a Knightly retinue, be it as a mercenary or part of a Banderium, may well have been expected to form rear ranks to their Knights. Much like the western practise with retainers. This is based mostly on supposition. As stated previously Sigismund requested such archers to accompany his Knights at Nicopolis. Froissart implies the presence of these archers, though he describes them as mounted crossbowmen. However at the battle it was the Transylvanian and Wallachian contingents that were expected to clear away the Ottoman Akinji skirmishers. This feature appears time and again in Hungarian battles of the 15th Century. Reliance is placed on foreign or specialist light horsemen to act as skirmishers or counter skirmishers. These were often Wallachians (Varna and Kosovo Polje), Serbians (the long campaign and many of Matthius' battles) or Szekelers and Tatars from within Hungary itself. What is notably absent from the primary sources of the 15th Century is the use of native horse archers as massed skirmishers. The Militia Portalis may well have been an effort to create an effective light horse contingent like those of the Wallachian or Serbians. One later edict for the Militia Portalis requests light horsemen armed with bows, lance and armour. All this suggests that the native Hungarian light horsemen may not have been sufficiently skilled or equipped for a dedicated battlefield role in the 15th century and many may in fact have become the infantry element of the Hungarian armies.

    Hussars (Gusars)
    Formally created in the reign of Matthius these light horsemen were the primary defence against Turkish raiders. Operating in and around Hungary's southern defences they attempted to intercept Turkish incursions. The origin of the Hussars though stems from the 1427 when Serbia submitted to Ottoman authority. Though the Serbs would periodically resist Ottoman control the Turks now had access to Hungary's borders. The instability in Serbia also led to what Hungarian sources describe as 'robbers and evil doers ' raiding across the borders. These raiders were called Gusars (mounted robbers). To combat these Gusars and their Turkish counterparts it seems that the border districts recruited their own horsemen. Often as not these Hussars where recruited from the Gusar elements themselves. It should be pointed out that parts of Southern Hungary had until 1426 been part of Serbia and where ceded to the Hungarian Crown by Stephen Lazarevich. These first Hussars were irregulars with no position in Hungary's military. Traditionally the Hussar equipment was a large shield and light lance though whether this evident from the start is unknown and probably unlikely given the disparate sources of recruitment.
    Whether these Hussars gained their place in the Hungarian army as a distinct type of soldier, in their own units, prior to the reign of Matthius cannot be proved for certain. However by the time of Janos Hunyadi's Long campaign there appear units of Rac horsemen who played a significant part in the campaign. Rac derives from the name of the Serbian fortress/city Ras and is often used to describe Serbia as a whole. The majority of the Rac horsemen where undoubtedly part of the contingent supplied by Serbia itself for the campaign. In Matthius' reign the Hussars were equally referred to in the sources as Rac. The primary reason for this being that the majority of Hussars were supplied by Serbian exiles or mercenaries. So it is quite possible that the Hungarians had either their own 'home-grown' Rac horsemen or at the very least were hiring mercenaries of their own by the time of Janos Hunyadi. Certainly Serbian troops in Hungarian employ are mentioned at the siege of Belgrade in 1456 where they were dismounted to provide crews for the boats used to break the Ottoman naval blockade. Their original duties are mentioned as being fortress garrison troops.
    The numbers of Hussars available to the Hungarians rose dramatically from 1459 when the Serbian State was finally absorbed by the Ottoman Empire. This led to an influx of refugees and Noble exiles to Hungary. It is no coincidence that the formal creation of Hussar units dates from this time. The basic unit was a Turbae comprising some 25 Hussars. Recruitment was at the demand of the Crown and they were paid direct from the Royal treasury. By 1474 there were sufficient Hussar companies to allow large scale independent action. While the main Hungarian army was besieged at Wroclaw Hussar groups under Stephen Szapolyia and Paul Kinizsi captured and burned the Polish towns of Poznan and Crarow. These Hussars also completely destroyed the Polish supply lines which contributed greatly to Matthius' success.
    The decline in Royal authority and more importantly finances after Matthius' death caused a rapid decline in the number of Hussars available to the Hungarians. It is worth noting that the impact of the Hussars during Janos and Matthius' lifetime was sufficient to create a permanent place for them in the Hungarian army.


    Szekely
    The precise origins of the Szekely are unknown and subject to a long running scholarly debate. What is known is that they were a separate ethnic group from the Magyars and they believed they were direct descendants from the Huns.
    By the 13th century the Szekely formed the largest Hungarian speaking group in Transylvania. Their lands covered some 12,000 kilometres and were divided into seven districts called szek (seats). The name Szekely does not apparently originate from this. Six of these districts, comprising the vast majority of the Szekely were in one block in the South of Transylvania, the seventh formed a small enclave near the town of Tuda. The Szekely lands were outside of traditional Hungarian law, even the Voivode of Transylvania had no authority within their borders. Instead the administration of law fell to the Count of the Szekely. The Count was appointed by the King and was usually a Hungarian Lord, often but not always the Voivode of Transylvania as well. From 1462 the two offices were combined on a permanent basis.
    Through out this period the Szekely remained a semi-nomadic people who made their living from horse and cattle breeding. As such they were regarded as some of the finest light horsemen available to the Kings of Hungary. This in some way goes to explain why the Szekely were able to retain their unique life style while other ethic groups like the Cumans (see below) became absorbed into Hungarian society. The only obligation the Szekely had to the Hungarian Crown was supplying troops for military service.
    The Szekely were divided into six tribes, each subdivided into four branches. These divisions were purely political and military in origin and spread over the entire Szekely lands. Each branch was obligated to provide the Hungarian Crown with 100 horsemen for military service. This gives an obligated total of 2400 horsemen. This appears to have been further supplemented by a militia only obligated to serve for 30 days. In 1473 the Szekely militia is recorded as being made up of three distinct groups, those that serve with three other mounted men, individual horsemen and finally infantry. It is probably no coincidence that this mirrors the last two 'ranks' of the Szekely Social structure. There were three orders of rank, the Primores, the Primipili and the community. The Primores were equivalent to Nobles, though Chieftains would probably be more accurate. They provided the military leadership. The Primipili have been described as a sub-officer class probably responsible for their own local militia. The community were the bulk of the Szekely Nation and would have provided the mounted common soldiers and an infantry militia. Though there is almost certainly no connection the officer and three mounted men mirrors the early Ottoman arrangement for Spahis recruitment.
    So the Crown could rely on 2400 Szekely cavalry when they were needed and a militia for local defence as well. Janos Hunyadi certainly used a large number of Szekely and 'Saxon' troops at the battle of Vasaq in 1442. The Venetian Baduario reports that Matthius' army in the 1470's had some 16,000 Szekely horsemen. When compared to a figure of 4,000 from 1430, which is the combined totals of available Saxon and Szekely troops this appears to be a massive rise. This is however not necessarily an unbelievable figure. Matthius relied on mercenaries for his army and it is more than likely given the preference for competent horsemen that the Szekely would have been prime candidates for recruitment. The figure of 1430 also matches quite closely to the numbers the Saxon and Szekely communities had to provide to the Crown so probably should not be taken as indicative of the number of soldiers potentially available.
    The Szekely appear to have fulfilled a similar role to the Serbian Hussars providing Light Horse. Baduario describes the Szekely as armed with lance, Shield and bow. Given their background of semi-nomadic herders its seems more than likely that this was indeed their primary military function. There are however several anomalies with Szekely troops. At Vasaq in 1442 a group of Szekely are described as elite and assigned to a bodyguard role. At Varna Szekely are described as forming up with the heavy cavalry. It is possible that some Szekely were more Hungarian in their weapons and battlefield role. In both cases above they were Janos Hunyadi's troops so may have represented a bodyguard element associated with him as Count of the Szekely.


    Cumans
    1239 is the traditional date given for the arrival of the Cumans in Hungary. These nomadic horsemen would provide the Hungarian Kings with another vital source of light cavalry. Like 'native' light horsemen the Cumans were horse archers, skilled in skirmishing. The Cumans appear to have fought under their own chieftains and formed their own tribal units. In the 13th and the early 14th Centuries Cuman units appear frequently in the sources. King Ladislas IV was known as 'the Cuman' not only because his mother was a Cuman princess but for his continual support for the Cuman people against that of the Catholic Church. The main power of the Cumans was broken in 1280 (82 in some sources) when their revolt was crushed at the battle of Lake Hod and large numbers migrated out of Hungary. Never the less Cuman light horse continued to play a part in the armies of Hungary. The Cumans supported Charles Angevin in the critical early years of his reign. Charles success against the nobles of Hungary was in no small part due to the Cumans. The Cuman troops finally disappear from the sources towards the end of the reign of Louis the Great. It appears that the Cumans merged into the society of Hungary. This settled existence not only eroded their culture but probably caused a rapid erosion of their horse and archery skills as well. Even though Cumans appear as a distinct ethnic group in later sources they are no longer mentioned in military terms. The loss of the Cuman archers may in part explain why Sigismund attempted in 1397 to enforce the creation of the Militia Portalis
    for a more information on the Cumans of Hungary see Andras Paloczi Horvath's book Pechenegs, Cumans, Iasians (steppe peoples in medieval Hungary)

    Wallachian and Moldavian Light horse
    Hungary employed light horse from both these nationalities. For more detailed information on their light horse see the Moldavian pages. The Hungarians had an additional source of Rumanian cavalry, those from the Transylvanian region. Transylvania location put it in an ideal position to accept refugees from other Balkan states. These refugees bolstered the already substantial Rumanian population of the area. Janos Hunyadi's family were just such refugees, arriving sometime during Micea the Old's struggle with the Ottomans. These refugees and the native Rumanians of Transylvania provided significant numbers to the Hungarian forces. Janos Hunyadi's troops are invariably described as containing large numbers of Transylvanians a description unlikely to be used to describe troops of Hungarian descent. At the battle of Kosovo Polje in 1448 there was a large contingent of Wallachians, it has however been convincingly argued that these were in fact mostly Transylvanian troops and not external Wallachians. See the battle of Kosovo Polje for more details.


    Edit: sorry forgot to put in spoiler text
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  18. #18
    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Here is some more information from the same site (I didn't want to make the one post too big so I split it into two). This is all information concerning Hungarian Infantry.

    Hungarian Infantry
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Infantry were very much a secondary concern in Hungarian warfare. They rarely appear in the native primary sources. As such it is very difficult to obtain a clear idea of just what infantry was available to the Hungarians. Sources tend to include infantry when they were mercenaries. The anonymous Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum, more usually known as the Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle mentions seventeen hundred mercenary spearmen fighting for one of Charles Angevin's rivals at the battle of Rozgony, June 15, 1312. It is only in the late 15th century under the Hunyadi's that there is sufficient evidence to form a reasonably coherent picture.


    Archers
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Up until the time of the Hunyadi's the mainstay of the infantry were foot archers. These foot archers almost certainly represented the poorer elements of the various levies of Hungary. The tradition of mounted archery in Hungary and surrounding Nations makes in almost inevitable that a massed levy would produce significant numbers of foot archers as well. Theoretically the Generalis Exercitus was an entirely mounted levy however Italian sources and drawings of the Italian campaigns of Louis the Great show a significant number of foot soldiers present. These foot soldiers are described and drawn carrying composite bows and many have sabres. The drawings of these foot soldiers tally closely to that of mounted figures representing Hungarian light horse. It seems likely that at least some of these infantry were those of the militia too impoverished to afford to fight mounted or those whose mounted skills had declined to such an extent that it was no longer possible for them to serve in their expected role. Transylvanian and Szekely foot archers also appear in the sources, especially those dealing with Janos Hunyadi. The Transylvanian Great levy could have raised large numbers of peasant bowmen. Transylvania's borders were more exposed that that of Hungary itself and it suffered frequent Ottoman raids. The end result appears to have been a highly effective local militia. This militia probably did not see service outside of Transylvania except with one notable exception at the siege of Belgrade in 1456.


    The Saxons
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Saxon was the name used to describe the significant German population settled in Transylvania. German immigration to the region started as early as 1150. By 1300 there were three large areas of Saxon population in Transylvania. The largest in size and importance was the settlement around the town of Sibiu (Hermannstadt in German). Sibiu was situated on of the few easily navigable routes through the Carpathian mountains to the black sea. As such it was a major trading town and defensive stronghold. In 1224 King Andrew II granted significant rights to the Saxons of Sibui. Much like the Szekely the Saxons were given practical autonomy in return for a special annual tax to the Crown and some military obligations. These military obligations were the supplying of 500 warriors for internal defence and 100 warriors for foreign service. This document, subsequently called the Andreanum, is the only direct record of Saxon military obligations. By the reign of Emperor Sigismund the Saxons of Sibui had organised into eight Seats, each centred on a different town around and including Sibui. To this Sigismund added an additional two towns, already mostly Saxon in population. The second major area of Saxon settlement was started by the Teutonic Order during their brief involvement in Hungary during the 1420's. The removal of the Order in 1225 did little to stem the tide of Saxon settlement. This area was centred on the town of Brasov and like Sibui straddled a trade route through the Carpathians. The third geographical area was centred on the three districts of Kyralia, Rodna and Bistrita. These districts and that of Brasov appear to have enjoyed similar rights to that of the Saxons of Sibui. There were additional settlements of Saxons especially in the towns of Transylvania but they were a minority and the smaller settlements probably became absorbed into the general Transylvanian population. The precise numbers of men the Saxons could supply the Crown are unknown, even the figures of the Andreanum cannot be used as proof for the later period. A figure of 4,000 men is quoted for a combined levy of Saxons and Szekely in 1430. Given that the obligated number of Szekely was 2400 men then this would leave 1600 Saxons. A not unreasonable figure for a population that supposedly made up only 15 or so percent of Transylvania's total population.
    What is not recorded is just how the Saxons fought. Given the Germanic origin of the settlers it is not unreasonable to assume that their style of warfare mirrored that of the German States. Hungarian Saxons apparently fought alongside German mercenaries employed by Janos Hunyadi. If accurate this implies that the wealthier Saxons were equipped as knights. The bulk of the Saxons though probably fought on foot as spearmen, crossbowmen and in the later period handgunners. For a population centred on towns and responsible for defending them the above would make sense. Also given the difficult terrain of Transylvania and the limited lines of communication infantry were much more effective than they would be on the plains of Hungary. The battle of Vasaq in 1422 saw Janos Hunyadi use large numbers of militia troops to defeat a Ottoman force. The army is described as including large numbers of townsmen and this is probably a reference to Saxons.


    Mercenary Infantry of the Hunyadi era
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Infantry would always be a secondary arm for the Hungarian army. However under the Hunyadi's they played a much more important role. The infantry described above continued to be used but the major change was the employment of large numbers of mercenaries. Mercenary foot began to appear in significant numbers under Janos Hunyadi, first in his position as Voivode of Transylvania and then as Regent. The process continued under Matthius and at its height his 'black army' included some 10,000 mercenary infantry.
    The majority of Janos Hunyadi's foot were ex-Hussite troops from Bohemia and it is no coincidence that their employment dates from the same time that Janos adopted the Hussite warwagons. Matthius incorporated almost all of Jan Jiskra's Bohemian troops in 1462 and continued to employ Bohemians in preference to all others. Germans formed the next largest foot contingent followed by Silesians.
    In 1480 Matthius wrote a description of his infantry, this is the first definitive source for how they were employed.

    'some are light foot soldiers, others are heavily armoured, and some are clipeati, who demand double pay because of their servants. In addition there are gun experts, but they are not efficient in firing as the rest of the infantry; they do best from behind the pavises at the start of the battle or in sieges. We make it a rule that a fifth of the infantry are arquebusiers.
    ……We regard the heavy infantry as an immovable wall that, if necessary, would fight and die to the last man where they stood. When opportunity presents itself the light infantry make forays, but, if their attack loses its impetus or if they are hard pressed, they fall back behind the heavy infantry……All the infantry and arquebusiers are surrounded by Armati and clipeati like a fortress. The pavises all round them give the impression of a fortress, behind which the light infantry shelter and fight as from castle walls, attacking when the time is right.'

    This translation is taken from Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath, published by Wargames research Group.


    Clipeati
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    The clipeati were heavily armoured men equipped with pavises. From Matthius' description they formed a solid shield wall from which other elements of the infantry could fight from. Matthius also mentions they receive double pay because of their servants. This could mean that the pavises were very large possibly mantlets and required several people to move them easily. Given Matthius' use of 'castle wall', 'fortress' and 'immovable wall' it is quite likely that these pavises of the clipeati were designed to create a defensive line. Use of such large pavises is not unknown in other parts of Europe, though they were normally restricted to siege warfare. More importantly the Hussites used man portable mantlets to create a second line of defence within their Tabors. This combined with the heavy Hussite presence amongst the mercenaries makes the use of large pavises or mantlets a reasonable assumption.


    Armati
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Armati was the name applied to armoured men who usually fought alongside the Clipeati. There is no direct evidence as to what the Armati were armed with. However given the parallels that can be drawn between the Clipeati and Hussite forces it is reasonable to assume that the Armati would act in a similar fashion to their 'support' squads. That is to say armed with pole arms which could be used to fight from, over and around wagons, or in this case the pavises of the Clipeati.


    Handgunners or Arquebusiers
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    The handgun was a popular weapon in the hands of the Hussites and its use spread through out the Balkans. Janos Hunyadi requested handguns, cannons and associated ammunition prior to the long campaign from the towns of Transylvania. So domestic production of these items is probable. As described by Matthius the handgun was not at that time a efficient battlefield weapon and required protection for the gunners. The use of tabor war wagons was long established as the ideal way to deploy handgunners in relative safety. The Hungarians clearly expanded on this by using the Clipeati as a protective screen. Nearly every major battle that Janos Hunyadi fought in has references to handgunners. Varna there were some 600 handgun armed Bohemians defending the Tabor. Kosovo Polje there were 2,000 handgunners defending the Tabor. Though usually described as German or Bohemian there are also references to Transylvanian handgunners as well, the army of 1475 had 2,000. Not unreasonable if the area was producing the weapons.


    Light Infantry
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Though never implicitly identified in the sources the usual assumption is that these light infantry were archers or crossbowmen. KomJathy in A thousand years of the Hungarian art of war says of the light infantry,
    'The main assignment of both lines was to protect the third line of musketeers and the fourth line of light infantry with bows, lances, and axes.' And
    'During attack they approached the enemy lines, protected by the musketeers' fire: once the enemy line was broken, hand-to-hand combat was carried out by the light infantry.'
    He unfortunately does not list the original sources for these statements though most of it is clearly based on Matthius' description. The numbers of archers available to the Hungarians and their vulnerability to hostile cavalry makes their use from behind more formidable foot a logical choice.


    WarWagons (Tabors)
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
    Under Janos Hunyadi the Hungarians began to use warwagons, not surprising given the large numbers of ex-Hussites employed as mercenaries. These wagons appear to have differed little from their original Hussite counterparts and fulfilled a very similar role.


    Help its useful.
    [ABOVE TWO POSTS COPIED FROM http://http://www.warfareeast.co.uk/...on.htm#Knights]
    Edit: Damn forgot to put in some spoiler marks again!
    Last edited by \Vazul's Ghost/; January 28, 2008 at 05:59 AM.
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  19. #19

    Default Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    This is from the same Link, wright?
    The House of Wilpuri ~ Proud Patron of: The Noble Lord & Sumskilz


  20. #20
    \Vazul's Ghost/'s Avatar Senator
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    Icon7 Re: Faction-Kingdom of Hungary

    Quote Originally Posted by tzar View Post
    This is from the same Link, wright?
    All the info is from the same website, just different pages on the website. i only posted the second articles in case you hadn't checked out the rest of the website because their pretty good and it would be a shame if they were to go to waste. Sorry if it was a useless post

    You should check out this website in depth if you haven't yet as they also have info on wallachia, serbia, the ottomans and even albanians and moldavians...
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