Results 1 to 13 of 13

Thread: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

  1. #1
    Hrobatos's Avatar Tribunus
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Location
    Berlin, Germany
    Posts
    7,189

    Icon6 AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    Atilla Total War Croatia playable, Age of Charlemagne Croatia Playable, Duchy of Croatia playable

    New Croatian units




    Croatian Units

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Slavonic Levy Spearmen

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 



    Slavonic Levy Bowmen
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 




    Slavonic Levy Skirmishers
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 



    Slavonic Light Horsemen
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Croat Spearmen
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Croat Bowmen
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Croatian Axemen
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Neretvani Raiders
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 



    Croat Lancers
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Croat Heavy Spearmen
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Croat Heavy Swordmen
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    [IMG][/IMG]

    Vlastela
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Druzhina Pretorianes
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 





    Historical Overview


    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Quick historical overview

    Croats were one of Slavic tribes which invaded balkans in late VI. and early VII. century. Frankish, Latin and Byzantine chronicles mostly refer to Slavs as Sclaveni, although they report that Sclaveni are only one of three branches - two others were Wenedi and Antae.

    First contemporary source about Croats is a document from first half of IX. century, where duke od Dalmatia Trpimir is titled Rex Sclavorum in one text and dux Croatorum in another, and rules over a Regnum Sclavorum in one document and Regnum Croatorum in another.

    All early sources use terms Slav/Croat as synonims and Croatia is often also called Slavonia ( as lands of Slavs ) or Dalmatia. Often sources reffer to whole are of western Balkans as Sclavonia or Ilyria.

    One of most important documents is De Administrando Imperio (mid X. century) in which Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII. mentions each of nations that border Byzantines and explains shortly their history. According to him Croats lived in White Croatia which was located north of Pannonia, and came to Dalmatia as Byzantine foederati to expel Avars, they fought Avars and then settled the land. This happened in time of emperor Heraclius, in first half of VII. century.

    We have also several others sources about these White Croats. One sources tells us of fightings between White Croats and Chezcs, another source tells us of Russian princes which fought against White Croats, and also White Croats are mentioned as one of tributary Slavic tribes which took part in Russian raids against Byzantines.

    Last mention of those White Croats in the north is X. century, it would appear that later they were incorporated into Russian and Polish states and were no loger independent tribe.

    To the south Croats funded two princedoms, as DAI tells us, one in Dalmatia and another in southern Pannonia, and these two were independent one of the other and each had its own prince.

    When Franks expand to these lands in start of IX. century, and fight againt Avars, they are supported by local Slavs, the Carinthians which soon got conquered by Bavarians, and two more slavic duchies, one in lowere Pannonia and another in Dalmatia. Both of these became tributary to Franks and had to accept frankish rule.

    In later period with Frankish decline, Croats became independent, and after Hungarian migration, southern dukes from Dalmatia managed to take control of southern Pannonia, setting Croatian - Hungarian border at Drava river, which became ethnic border for more then thousand years. From this point Croatian rulers started to use title king for themselves.

    Last Croatian king was married to Hungarian princess, after his death and with no heir, her brother Hungarian king invaded Croatia,and attempted to claim Croatian crown as protector of her sister. Her husband late king was first a ban of Slavonia ( the area of southern Pannonia ) and thus she too had there most of her supporters )
    Northern part of Croatia thus accepted Hungarians right away but southern resisted. Several years later an pact was made according to which Hungarian king obligated himself to recognize all rights of Croatian nobility, their land possesions and so forth and in turn they recognized him in 1102. as king of Croatia. He was crowned in Biograd na Moru as king of Croatia with a crown of late king Zvonimir. Practice of dual coronation continiued to be used another 100 years. After this event Croatia remained in such perosnal union with Hungary until 1918. and end of World War I.


    Croatian army of this period was divided into 3 categories

    - Genereal Levy - in time of war, duke could for a short time raise all able men for war. These are in my roster called Slavonic Levies. They were reliable only in defense and ambushes.

    - Tribal Warriors - land was divided in zhupas, each led by zhupan. At this time, Croats are divided into tribes and tribes into clans. Elders of clans and tribes would hold these positions. Each of those tribes or zhupas were obligated to equip armed horsemen for the duke. These troops would form most of the army. Since they were equiped by whole tribe, these men were well equiped and also well trained.

    - Druzhina - this would be core of the army. Druzhina means fellowship or band, and comes from singular drug, whichmeans a friend or companion. It is common Slavic word, used even today. Early Byzantine sources report that Balkan Slavic chieftains had warrior retinues, warbands, usualy not more than 200 men. Each of Croatian zhupans would have such druzhina, and Croatian duke would have the biggest druzhina, as it was source of his power. These men were constantly ready for war, equiped and payed by their lord. They were also used to garrison important fortresses and towns and to guard the duke.

    in early 9. century, Dalmatian duke Borna, frankish vasssal, fought against Pannonian duke Ljudevit, who rebbeled against Franks. Borna lost this battle, but frankish sources tell us that Borna was betrayed by Guduscani ( his tribe, as earlies he was titled dux Guduscanorum ), but he was saved from the battle by his pretorians. It is likely that name od these pretorians in Slavic would be druzhina, as it was in Poland and Russia, although we unfortunately dont have Croatian name for them recorded.

    Druzhina of Svetoplek, king of Moravia is estimated to count as manny as 5500 men, so druzhinas could be quite large, depending on the strength and financial means of the ruler.


    -Weapons and armors - as Byzantine sources tell us, Slavs fought mainly on foot and exceled at guerilla warfare, skirmishes and ambushes. They used round shields, but also very large shields, as large as doors. Primary weapons were curved bows, javelins, spears and axes. Swords were rather rare and expensive, and used only by nobles and druzhina. They were mostly Carolingian, imported from Francia. Archeology also found frankis9h winged spear heads, and spurs, even for children, as well as franciscas.

    One Byzantine sources estimates Croatian army in 10. century at 60 000 horsemen and 100 000 infantry. This is surely too large, but does suggest importance of cavalary in Croatian army. It is likely that anyone who could afford horse, would also fight mounted. There were no mounted horse archers among Croats, primary weapon would be lance, and as secondary likely a sword, an axe or mace.


    Armors - there is very little we know about armors, but likely they were rare, and used only by the rich. Primarily it would be mail, and possibly also scales or lammelar, as those were used by Franks, Avars, Bulgars and Byzantines - chief Croatian enemies and neighbours.


    Croatian enemies - as sources tell us, Croats arrived as Byzantine allies, fought against Avars ( and likely their Slavic allies too ) who invaded Dalmatia previously, and then settled the region.
    Several coastal towns survived, and those remained as Byzantine possesion, theme of Dalmatia. It did not had howover strategos, but money usualy reserved for him was instead payed to Croatian duke as tribute. Sources tell us that in mid 9. century Croatian duke fought against Greeks. Likely it was against strategos of Dalmatia.

    Soon after Franks defeated Avars, Croats had to become Frankish vassals. Duke of Dalmatia supported Franks, as it was means of gaining the control of Dalmatian towns, but Pannonian duke raised rebbelion which was eventualy crushed. Soon aftewards with declince of Carolingians, Croats gained independence.

    Croats also fought several wars against Bulgars, and were often allied with Byzantines.
    Chief enemy on see was Venice, which at the time attemted to gain control of Adriatic trade routes. Venice had to pay tribute for safe passage. Piracy was very popular, especialy among pagan Neretvani, tribe which was incorporated into Croatia by 11. century, altought it remained long independent and fiercly paganic. Adriatic was also very often raided by Arabic pirates.


    Title of the ruler and name of the land- Croatia was callel in Latin usualy Regnum Croatorum or Regnum Sclavorum. Name Dalmatia as old roman name was also often used. Later on Latin sources use Regnum Croatie. It was initialy kingom of Croats, and later changed to kingdom of Croatia, once name Croatia started to replace Dalmatia, and name Dalmatia starts to be used only to several enclaves on the coast.

    Rulers are titled with manny different titles :
    -Byzantines haved used mostly title strategos, that way they did not accept Croatian independence, and claim the region as part of Roman Empire, and saw Croats as their foederati, in their imperial province. Byzantines recognized Croatia as independent kingdom first in 976. when Croatian king Drzislav received crown from Konstantinopol and was given name Stjepan ( Stephan ) which means "crowned one". It is at this time that Byzantines renounced their claim on Croatia and Dalmatian towns, as those were officialy Byzantine Thema ( but without strategos ) until this period.

    Franks used motly title dux, as both Croat duchies had to recognize Frankish emperor Charlemagne as overlord after war of which we know very little about, between 800. and 805, and as such couldnt style themselves kings ( anymore ). Still sometimes title rex was still used, as well as princeps. The land itself was always reffered to as regnum ( kingdom ) howover, even if ruler was dux ( duke )

    With decline of Carolingians Croats became independent again around 880s , but only in first half of 10. century have Croatian rulers started to use title rex consistently. We dont know how did early Croat rulers titled themselves in Croatian language unfortunately, but we do know from Baska tablet, written in Croatia, that title of king Zvonimir was kralj, which is even today a word in west and south Slavic languages for a king, coming probably from name of Karlo the Great.

    Title knez has been used for powerfull noblemen in Croatia, but it was possibly also title used by early Croatian ruler as well. Interestingly in Kievan Rus, title of ruler was Veliky Knyaz which means grand duke. In Serbia ruler was called Veliki Zhupan, which means grand zhupan.

    Along those, there is another unique croatian title called ban. Recorded first time in early 10. century, it appears ban was bannermen of the king, who held 3 zhupas in border area toward Franks in Carinthia, as was thus more powerfull than other zhupans who only held one zhupania. Later on South Pannonia/Slavonia, was also ruled by ban, and formed separate banate within kingdom. This title became also title of rulers of Bosnia, since in early period it was often part of Croatian Kingdom. Once Croatia entered personal union with Hungary, the title of ban, and banates as duchies in border areas of the state was used extensivly by Hungarians trougout their kingdom, and ban ruler Croatia as royal viceroy all the way to end of WWI.



    DOWNLOAD

    The mod can be downloaded here for steam users, and here for non-steam users

    The shields are creation of paleologos, from his Slavic Christian and Pagan shield pack, which along his other work you can check here out. He was most kind to allow me to use his great textures!



    Plans for future
    - I would like to make AOR regions, so if Croatia conquers Bavarians, it cannot recruit Croats/Slavs there, but Germanic units. I would make AOR ethnic groups, and any faction could only acces local units in foreign regions.
    Last edited by Hrobatos; January 14, 2018 at 02:13 PM.

  2. #2
    Hrobatos's Avatar Tribunus
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Location
    Berlin, Germany
    Posts
    7,189

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    reserved

  3. #3
    Frunk's Avatar The Duke Will Return...
    Patrician Moderator Emeritus

    Join Date
    Jun 2009
    Location
    Melbourne
    Posts
    5,903

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    Congrats on the release Hrobatos! +rep

    Feel free to share an announcement here, if you like!
    FrunkSpace | Mod Announcements | Colonies & Empires

    Under the patronage of Iskar of the House of Siblesz. I'm proud patron of:

    atthias | PaulH | Athos187

  4. #4
    paleologos's Avatar You need burrito love!!
    Artifex Modding Staff

    Join Date
    Feb 2011
    Location
    Variable
    Posts
    6,659

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    Good job Hrobatos, though I do think the models of TW Attila could benefit from the higher resolution textures, especially those troop types that are using the larger round shields (eg Druzhina Pretorianes, or Croat Heavy Swordmen).

    For anyone would would like a closer look to the shield textures you can browse post #2 of my resource thread.

  5. #5
    Hrobatos's Avatar Tribunus
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Location
    Berlin, Germany
    Posts
    7,189

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    Thank you very much my friend. If you send me higher resolution pictures, I can import ofcourse! I am quite satisfied with them as they are now as well, but they could possiby look even better.

  6. #6
    delmat's Avatar Tiro
    Join Date
    Oct 2009
    Location
    Dalmatia, Croatia
    Posts
    280

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    congratulations on your release and thank you for your work!! units are great looking!!! svaka čast brate!

  7. #7
    Hrobatos's Avatar Tribunus
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Location
    Berlin, Germany
    Posts
    7,189

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    - the people at the my steamforum noticed current build has no garrison units, I will try to fix this
    - I have now added Duchy of Dalmatia and Duchy of Pannonia. I have still not managed to do this, but I want to add a script, that if one defeats the other, and unites Croatian tribes, it will form Kingdom of Croatia
    -although it is start date 768. I have decided to name Dalmatian duke - Borna, and Pannonian - Ljudevit . In spoiler you can see duke Ljudevit marching against duke Borna. My fellow Croats will surely enjoy to see this!

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 





  8. #8
    Hrobatos's Avatar Tribunus
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Location
    Berlin, Germany
    Posts
    7,189

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    08/09/17 New update is done

    - issue with no garrisons has now been solved


    - Avar faction roster redone
    - as a note, I added Slavic and Bulgarian units while core remains Avar. What is important to keep in mind, is that in 2nd Avar Khaganate, any "Avar " group that would rebbel from Khaganate would be labbeled Bulgarian, but when they are part of Avar Khaganate, then they are Avaric. Once Avar Khaganate as political entitity is eliminated, there are no more Avars. So in this sence Avars are political indentity rather than an ethnic of a number of turkich tribes, of which manny formed earlier Huns ( such as Kutrigurs, Onogurs and others ). I have still decided to have separate Avar and Bulgarian units, to highlight this multiethnic nature of Avar Khaganate.




    - instead of Croatia, we now have Duchies of Lower Pannonia and Dalmatia. A new script has been added as well, if either manages to gain control of all 3 Croatian regions, a new Kingdom of the Croats will be formed. and both faction get a mission to form Croatian kingdom. They start at war.

    - Both factions now have Croatian marines on their ships, also those are now renamed to fit better into Croatian roster. I have at this time kept dromons, but would like to change them later perhaps with sagenas and konduras. Avars have those but actualy those are merely Viking longships renamed, so dromon is for now a better solution.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Two Croatian duchies

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 



    a mission has been issued

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 



    mission was succesfull, Pannonian duke Ljudevit gains control of Dalmatian coast

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Now his faction is called "Kingdom of the Croats"

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 




    It works the other way around as well, but somewhat harder to achieve because CA made Sisak large city and also Pannonia gets two starting settlements.

    Last edited by Hrobatos; September 08, 2017 at 08:02 AM.

  9. #9
    Hrobatos's Avatar Tribunus
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Location
    Berlin, Germany
    Posts
    7,189

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    my answer to a question posted at my TWC forum

    CigaretteJesus 3 hours ago DeleteJust want to clarify on the Slav/Croat terminology that most Slavs on the Balkans just called themselves Slavs around this timeline. Gradually military elites rose up, one calling themselves "Croats" and the areas they had infleunce over became their territory, hence over time the Slavs in those territories began calling themselves Croats. This is the same for Serbs in the east, and Bosniaks later on.

    It's generally believed that the people who speak the Serbo-Croatian languages descend from the Sclaveni tribes (once a single nation of allied tribes). Also it's thought the Bulgaro-Macedonians descend from another group called the Antes who also shared elements of the proto-Bulgarian language.


    I'd reccomend the books: When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans -and- The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century

    Slavs is a term that is common for Slavic peoples. Howover each of them also had their tribal name. Primary sources use those tribal names and common name ( Slavs ) as synonims. Further more oftern are also used older terms, from other tribes which had previously inhabited area. In such manner primary sources have refferd to Croats as Slavs and Croats most often but also Ilyrians and even Goths.

    Perhaps the greatest issue for us as historians which study early Croatian historyand migration period is lack of sources before Franks show up in 800s. We know that in late 500s and early 600s Slavs invaded Dalmatia, we know that in mid 600s Slavs hold Dalmatia and that is basicly it all the way till 800s. We have absolutely no idea what happens there.

    Around 800s Byzantines have reclaimed several coastal Dalmatian towns, and organised them as a theme, but this theme did not had military strategos, it had, but he didnt received tax, instead tax normaly reserved to him was payed to Croatian duke. This is very important. The duchy in hinterland was Croatia, and its ruler became frankish vassal and same is true for a duchy in lower Pannonia.

    Frankish Annals use old terms, Dalmatia and Lower Pannonai for these two duchies, but those are archaich terms, altough often used, also in later period. It became common later on to call seaside teritory Croatia and Pannonian teritory Slavonia. The second is also curius case because of lack of sources for it, but it would appear it was part of single kingdom in 10. century. Hungarians made a bishopy in Zagreb first in 1090. after death of king Zvonimir, who before becoming king was ban of Slavonia. So it is not likely that Hungarians controlled it before that. Or no sources to indicate it.

    Very important document for early Croatian history is De Administrando Imperio. This text from Byzantine Emperor explains us how Croats came to Dalmatia. According to DAI, Croats came from their homeland of White Croatia to Dalmatia as Byzantine allies, they fought Avars and settled Dalmatia. This White Croatia would be located somewhere in western Ukraine and southeastern Poland.
    There are number of other sources which mention these White Croats in the north in 9. and 10. century. For example Chezchs fought against Croats, Russian princes as well, Croats were also part of Russian expedition against Greeks. Later they were assimilated into Polish and Russian nations.

    Secondly DAI tells us that Croats migrated in the time of emperor Heraclius, that is in first half of 7. century, setled Dalmatia, and of those a part splitted of and settled Pannonia and Ilyricum, and have their own prince independent of the first. This duality of two duchies is also later visible in relation Croatia-Slavonia, as seen as of from the time of Borna and Liudewit, first recorded Slavic princes in the area.

    So, once we get to have sources about western Balkans we know of these two Croatian duchies, and to the southeast is frist several smaller duchies ( Neretvani, Zachumlia, Travunia, Dioclea ) and Serbia. Bosnia is small region within Serbia and at this time Bosnia was region around Sarajevo. So very small.

    But there are only two tribes. Only Croats and Serbs. Croats arrived from White Croatia, and Serbs from White Serbia ( which was located around Dresden in modern Germany )
    So first sources tell us of Slavs, and later of Serbs and Croats. These are tribal names of those Slavs. The sources always use terms Slav/Croat and Slav/Serb and synonims. Sometimes also Ilyrians, Goths, Tribals etc. This practice continiued up to modern terms, with new terms apppearing as for some populations which are now not important.

    One has to remember how this worked among Germanic and steppic tribes. When several tribes form a confederation, an alliance of tribes it is usualy the stronges tribe which also becomes name of whole confederation. This was surely also true in case of Croats and Serbs.

    There were never such tribes as Slavs, this is common name for all of those tribes, but each had a name of their own.We just didnt know those right away because they werent recorded. In first two ceturies after Slavic settlement of Ilyricum we have practicly no sources at all, till late 8. century. That is almost 200 years.


    PS at time of migrations all Slavs still speak old Slavic, it is considered that dialects developed only several centuries later.
    I personaly wasnt much awed with book of Mr Fine, too much of modern libelarism and attempts to project modern views and values to a time period where this should not be the case.
    Last edited by Hrobatos; September 26, 2017 at 04:11 AM.

  10. #10

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    Great job on the mod! It's perfect, historically accurate and awsome to play. The only thing I would change is trait. You could change the trait for Dalmatia to something connecting with the sea to make it more realistic.
    And i have a question: are you planing to do more things for this mod or make more others?

  11. #11

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    Let's give this a shot, looks great! Hvala

  12. #12
    Hrobatos's Avatar Tribunus
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
    Location
    Berlin, Germany
    Posts
    7,189

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    Thank you very much gentlemen!

    Indeed it is my intention to rework the traits, current one is more of a placeholder.
    I also plan to add Moravians with kingdom event, to become Kingdom of Great Moravia it will need to controll al of Bohemia and Pannonia and Moravia.

    Then I also want to add ethnic based AOR, so any faction could recruit only local ethnic units.

  13. #13

    Default Re: AoC Regnum Chroatorum

    Quote Originally Posted by Hrobatos View Post
    Thank you very much gentlemen!

    Indeed it is my intention to rework the traits, current one is more of a placeholder.
    I also plan to add Moravians with kingdom event, to become Kingdom of Great Moravia it will need to controll al of Bohemia and Pannonia and Moravia.

    Then I also want to add ethnic based AOR, so any faction could recruit only local ethnic units.
    Thanks for the reply and good luck on the mod, I really hope it becomes more popular.

Tags for this Thread

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •