October 06, 2016, 07:15 AM
Rise of Persia 3.0 |PREVIEW| Lydia Roster
Lydia in Asia Minor is the home of a warrior nation that has survived the greatest disasters one can imagine. It fought back the Kimmerian nomad horses that brought empires to ruins, they held against the Assyrians and when their time had come, they advanced forging the most powerful empire in Asia Minor seen since the Hittite Fall. The valiant warrior did not shy in front of the bronze clad hoplites, but engaged and finally overwhelmed all Greeks of Asia Minor. Likewise every other nation west of the Halys shared the same fate, yet alone Kilikia and Lykia were spared for now. Far greater lands are to conquer under the leadership of Kroisos.
His wealth became proverbial as in "rich like Croesus" and this reputation is well deserved. Crops from the fields, metals from the mines and trade income from the ports provide excellent economy. It is further boosted by the world's first professional and centralized coinage. The army is no less impressive. The Lydian Lords are renowned for their skill of riding into battle with long lances, additionally a variety of light and heavy infantry, including the dreaded Hoplites, can be levied just like more cavalry, which is of good quality, too. Even better, the rich court attracts Philosophers and poets from all of Hellas increasing the glory of the King.
What to do with this might? In the east, the arch-enemy of Lydia, the Medes, struggle with an uprising while the city of Bâb-Ilû (Babylon as known to the Greeks) has fallen into an odd deadlock since their old King voluntarily exiled in the desert. The Greeks in the west, on mainland Hellas, are friendly, especially a small but powerful state called Lakedaimon. The Pharaoh is another, greater ally of your plans. So you have free hand as your back is safe, use this wisely and you will prevail.
Bithyni Taru (Bithynian Peltasts) UNIT MADE BY HEGEMONIA CITY-STATES TEAM
he Bithynian Thracians wear on their heads fox-skin caps, the so called "alopekis", and they are dressed and equipped like the Thracian peltasts typically are. Unlike the Greeks who tradtionally fight as heavy hoplites, the Thracian lifestyle gave birth to the peltast warfare. Those peltasts are lightly equipped, fast-moving skirmishers who wear down enemies with a hail of accurately thrown javelins.
The "Thraco-Phrygian" migration from the Balkans to Asia Minor would have taken place at some point following the Bronze Age collapse or during the early Iron Age. The Thyni and Bithyni appear to have settled simultaneously in the adjoining parts of Asia, where they expelled or subdued the Mysians, Caucones and other minor tribes, the Mariandyni maintaining themselves in the northeast. The Bithynians were incorporated by king Kroisos within the Lydian monarchy, with which they fell under the dominion of Persia (546 BC), and were included in the satrapy of Phrygia, which comprised all the countries up to the Hellespont and Bosporus.
Pamphyloi Hoplitai (Pamphylian Hoplites) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
The Pamphylians were another subjugated people of the Lydian empire, native to Anatolia they were not Hellenes but the close contact with the Greek peoples of the world has influenced them enough to produce a good hoplite corps. Whilst not as well trained or practiced as the constantly warring Greek city state hoplites the Pamphylians are still able to maintain the well drilled cohesion of the hoplite formation. With the protection of the Lydian imperial army the Pamphylians have been allowed to relax their military endeavors and as such their hoplites are not a match for more experienced infantry.
The Pamphylians are a mixture of aboriginal inhabitants, immigrant Cilicians and Greeks who migrated there from Arcadia and Peloponnese in the 12th century BC. The significance of the Greek contribution to the origin of the Pamphylians can be attested alike by tradition and archaeology and Pamphylia can be considered a Greek country from the early Iron Age until the early Middle Ages. There can be little doubt that the Pamphylians and Pisidians are the same people, though the former had received colonies from Greece and other lands, and from this cause, combined with the greater fertility of their territory, had become more civilized than their neighbours in the interior.
Phruges Khereki (Phrygian Infantry) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
The Phrygians inhabited the rich plains of eastern Anatolia and their infantry forces comprised the typical light skirmishers of the Asia Minor cultures. Armed with a small shield and a set of Javelins the Phrygians fight in a similar way to the Mysians. However the Phrygians also carry a spear for close combat making them more able to provide light support on the flanks of the hoplites. Their famous Phrygian cap distinguishes them on the field and their speedy assaults, harrying the enemy with javelins are a key factor in disrupting enemy formations. The phrygian caps will be a sort of inspiration for the hellenes in the creation of a new helmet; the phrygian helmet, that gain its popularity in the time of Phílippos II of Makednos.
The Phrygians founded a powerful kingdom which lasted until the Lydian ascendancy. Under kings alternately named Gordias and Midas, the independent Phrygian kingdom of the 8th and 7th centuries BC maintained close trade contacts with her neighbours in the east and the Greeks in the west. Phrygia seems to have been able to co-exist with whatever power was dominant in eastern Anatolia at the time. The invasion of Anatolia in the late 8th century BC to early 7th century BC by the Cimmerians was to prove fatal to independent Phrygia. Cimmerian pressure and attacks culminated in the suicide of its last king, Midas, according to legend.
Whend the Lydian Empire was conquered by Cyrus in 546 BC, Phrygia passed under Persian dominion. Under Persian rule, the Phrygians seem to have lost their intellectual acuity and independence. Phrygians became stereotyped among later Greeks and the Romans as passive and dull. Phrygians remained subjects to the Hellenistic kingdoms that ruled the area and later to the Roman Empire, but the Phrygians retained their culture and their language until it became extinct in the 5th Century.
Phabos Ala (Paphlagonian Cavalry) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
The Paphlagonians also provided cavalry for the Lydian emperor’s armies, but their soldier’s arms were far less magnificent than their Lydian overlords. The Paphlagonians fought in the same manner as the Lydian knights but were not respected or feared in the same way due to their lack of heavy armor. They wore woven caps instead of helmets and long leather riding boots to maximize on maneuverability whilst on horseback. Whilst lacking in armor the Paphlagonians made up for this with the speed of their cavalry, without the heavy weight of a lydian noble the Paphlagonians can chase down routers more effectively and also provide fast assistance to critical areas on the field.
The Paphlagonians are one of the most ancient nations of Anatolia and listed among the allies of the Trojans in the Trojan War, where their king Pylaemenes and his son Harpalion perished. A group of Paphlagonians, called the Enetoi in Greek, were expelled from their homeland during a revolution. With a group of defeated Trojans under the leadership of the Trojan prince Antenor, they emigrated to the northern end of the Adriatic coast and later merged with indigenous Euganei giving the name Venetia to the area they settled.
Paphlagonians are mentioned among the peoples conquered by Kroisos, and they sent an important contingent to the army of Xerxes in 480 BC. Xenophon speaks of them as being governed by a prince of their own, without any reference to the neighboring satraps, a freedom perhaps due to the nature of their country, with its lofty mountain ranges and difficult passes. All these rulers appear to have borne the name Pylaimenes as a sign that they claimed descent from the chieftain of that name who figures in the Iliad as leader of the Paphlagonians.
Silewte'r (Mysian Slingers) UNIT MADE BY THE ARISTEIA TEAM
Silewte'r are men who use the sling, to hurl stones and lead bullets over a great distance. The sling is easy to make, consisting of little more than a leather thong, and so is common among poorer warriors. Slings are long-range weapons that have good penetrative power, though their missiles are very small and light. Sphendonetai are drawn from among young athletic men, generally low down the social ladder, who do not have much experience in warfare. They are swift-moving and can easily pepper the enemy with stones and then retire before the enemy can counter-attack. However, their lack of armour and experience means that they are vulnerable to enemy missiles and to enemy infantry and chariots. Moreover, their morale is not strong and could break in tough situations.
Mysians are brethren of the Karians and the Lydians, originally Lydian colonists in their country, and as such, they had the right to worship alongside their relative nations in the sanctuary dedicated to the Karian Zeus in Mylasa. There is also mentions of a movement of Mysians and associated peoples from Asia into Europe still earlier than the Trojan War, wherein the Mysians and Teucrians had crossed the Bosphorus into Europe and, after conquering all of Thrace, pressed forward till they came to the Ionian Sea, while southward they reached as far as the river Peneus.
The Mysians in accordance with their religion abstained from eating any living thing, including from their flocks, and that they used as food honey and milk and cheese. Citing the historian Xanthus, the name of the people was derived from the Lydian name for the oxya tree.
Karuwa Hoplitai (Karian Hoplites) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
The Hoplites from Karia are traditionally credited with the invention of the proud plumage displayed from bronze helmets of the era. The bright decoration of the Karian helm earned them the nickname of “Cocks” by the Persians because of the pride in their appearance. These hoplites are not ethnically Greek but Herodotus describes them as vastly similar to the Hellenes. However the Karians also implement the deadly sickle as a secondary weapon used against cavalry. The heavy curved blade is ideal for chopping and slashing away at cavalry, unseating the rider and leaving him exposed or trampled underfoot. With the combination of a phalanx and the lethal sickle the Karians are the ultimate in anti – cavalry infantry.
It is not clear when the Karians enter into history. The definition is dependent on corresponding Karia and the Karians to the "Karkiya" or "Karkisa" mentioned in the Hittite records. Bronze Age Karkisa are first mentioned as having aided the Assuwa League against the Hittite King Tudhaliya I. Later in 1323 BC, King Arnuwandas II was able to write to Karkiya for them to provide asylum for the deposed Manapa-Tarhunta of "the land of the Seha River", one of the principalities within the Luwian Arzawa complex in western Anatolia. This they did, allowing Manapa-Tarhunta to take back his kingdom. In 1274 BC, Karkisa are also mentioned among those who fought on the Hittite Empire side against the Egyptians in the Battle of Kadesh.
The Karians next appear in records of the early centuries of the first millennium BC; Homer's writing about the golden armour or ornaments of the Karian captain Nastes, the brother of Amphimachus and son of Nomion, reflects the reputation of Karian wealth that may have preceded the Greek Dark Ages and thus recalled in oral tradition. They are also named as mercenaries in inscriptions found in ancient Egypt and Nubia, dated to the reigns of Psammetichus I and II.
Karia was then incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire as a satrapy in 545 BC. The most important town was Halicarnassus, from where its sovereigns reigned. During the Second Persian invasion of Greece, the cities of Caria were allies of Xerxes I and they fought at the Battle of Artemisium and the Battle of Salamis. Themistocles, before the battles of Artemisium and Salamis, tried to split the Ionians and Karians from the Persian coalition; which works and makes the Karians members of the Delian League after the unsuccessful invasion of Greece.
Trmmi Epibatai (Lycian Marines) UNIT MADE BY THE BATTLE FOR HELLAS TEAM
Excellent heavy infantry, a formidable force on the battlefield. Lycian Marines served the Lydian kings for many years. Now they are the one who pays more. It does not change their fighting qualities. Armed with these warriors is quite unusual; a kind of fighting sickles, which are well suited for combat with both horse and foot to the opponent. Fighting sickles are widely distributed among the various tribes in the southern part of Asia Minor. Lycian Marines also are well protected by their shields, helmets and cuirasses.
A popular story of the origins of the Lycians is that they are colonists from Crete; saying that Europa's sons, Sarpedon and Minos, When they contended for the kingship of Crete, their native land, Minos drove Sarpedon and his people, the Termilae, into exile; thus landing on Milyas, the birth place of Lycia. This story, however, proves to be false; since the Lycians are known to have been a Luwian-speaking people, and there is not a trace of evidence that Luwians lived on Crete.
The Achaemenid Persian policy toward Lycia was hands-off. There was not even a satrap stationed in the country. The reason for this tolerance after such a determined initial resistance is that the Iranians were utilizing another method of control; the placement of aristocratic Persian families in a region to exercise putative home rule. For closer attention to their conquered, the Persian government preferred to establish a client state, setting up a monarchy under their control. Lycia had a single monarch, who ruled the entire country from a palace at Xanthos. The monarchy was hereditary, hence the term "dynast." It was utilized by Persia as a means of transmitting Persian policy. It must have been they who put down local resistance and transported the prisoners to Persepolis, or ordered them transported. Some members of the dynasty were Iranian, but mainly it was native Lycians.
Katpatuka Ala (Cappadocian Cavalry) UNIT MADE BY THE BATTLE FOR HELLAS TEAM
Katpatuka Ala are excellent horsemen, best suited to charging into and breaking through enemy formations with their long lances. They are not as headstrong as other elite heavy cavalry and will not charge without orders - war is a serious business that has little room for vainglorious folly. They wear heavy chainmail and carry a composite bow to harass the enemy before the charge. While not in quite the same class as the super-heavy cavalry from nearby Lydia, these men are a powerful force. They should not, however, be expected to charge into prepared spearmen.
Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age, and was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. After the fall of the Hittite Empire, with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians after their defeat by the Lydian king Kroisos in the 6th century BC, Cappadocia was ruled by a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition, which later made them apt to foreign slavery. It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius but continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none apparently supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributaries of the Great King.
Khilikku Khereki (Cilician Infantry) UNIT MADE BY HEGEMONIA CITY-STATES TEAM
The Cilicians are excellent and well-armed skirmishers, if somewhat hot-headed! They try to weaken less mobile enemy formations by showering them with their hunting spears before closing to finish the job with their daggers which resembled the Egyptian machaira sword. They wear on their heads their native helmets, carried bucklers of raw oxhide for shields, and are clad in woolen tunics.
The area of Cilicia has first been known as Kizzuwatna in the earlier Hittite era, around the 2nd millennium BC. The region is divided into two parts, Uru Adaniya (flat Cilicia), a well-watered plain, and "rough" Cilicia (Tarza), in the mountainous west. In the 8th century BC, the region was unified under the rule of the dynasty of Mukšuš, whom the Greeks rendered Mopsos and credited as the founder of Mopsuestia, though the capital was Adana. Mopsuestia's multicultural character is reflected in the bilingual inscriptions of the 9th and 8th centuries BC, written both in Indo-European hieroglyphic Luwian and West Semitic Phoenician.
The Cilicians became a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, with its capitol at Tarsus. It was conquered sometime in the 540 BC by Cyrus the Great. Cilicia was a vassal, and although it had a vassal king it had to pay a tribute of 360 horses and 500 talents of silver. The fertile Çukurova plains were the most important part of the satrapy. The last vassal king of Cilicia became involved in the civil war between Artaxerxes II and Cyrus the Younger. Having sided with Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated, the king was dethroned and Cilicia became an ordinary satrapy.
Kolophoi Hippokoi (Kolophonian Cavalry) UNIT MADE BY THE BATTLE FOR HELLAS TEAM
The Kolophonian Cavalry are of a similar nature to the Lydian cavalry, but they were of Greek stock and as such their armor and arms reflect this. Using heavier armor than the Paphlagonians the men of Kolophonion can fight well in close order with the Lydian Nobles. Kolophon had been under the influence of the Lydian empire for many years now and as such the horsemanship of these Greeks has as a result improved in contrast to the more mountainous Greek lands. With far more opportunity for cavalry warfare and a good breed of horse to ride, these Greeks are by no means the stereotypical horsemen of mainland Greece. Whilst not the heavy shock cavalry of later Greco-Macedonian times, these Hellenes are not in the least weak in the melee.
Kolophon was the strongest of the Ionian cities and renowned both for its cavalry and for the inhabitant's luxurious lifestyle, until Gyges of Lydia conquered it in the 7th century BC. Colophon then went into decline and was eclipsed by neighbouring Ephesus and by the rising naval power of Ionia, Miletus.
| Lydia |
Kwalanalli Toxotai (Lydian Archers) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
The Lydians, like many eastern cultures, utilized archers to rain a lethal volley of arrows upon the enemy. With their long range and high velocity projectiles the Lydian Archers can not only disrupt enemy formations but also cause a high casualty rate in the enemy before they even close for the melee. Whilst not being as practiced in the art of archery as their eastern neighbors the Lydians were perfectly capable of delivering organized volleys of missiles with good accuracy. However, their lack of armor prevents them from engaging in close combat.
According to Herodotus, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins and the first to establish retail shops in permanent locations. The dating of these first stamped coins is one of the most frequently debated topics in ancient numismatics, with dates ranging from 700 BC to 550 BC, but the most commonly held view is that they were minted at or near the beginning of the reign of King Alyattes, who ruled Lydia from 609-560 BC.
Kwalanalli Hoplitai (Lydian Hoplites) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
Whilst the elite of the Lydian army and society relies heavily on their Cavalry and occasionally chariots, the average middle class citizen of the urban sections of the empire developed much in the same way of the Greek city states into a hoplite corps of infantry. Whilst being armed in a similar fashion to the Greeks they by no means have the same pride in hoplite warfare that the Hellenes so love. A Lydian noble’s place is on horseback, but the middle class, craftsmen and tradesmen favored the strong brotherhood of a close formed phalanx. The stalwart quality of a heavily armored hoplite charge thundering toward the enemy with spears at the ready has won the sons of Lydia many a battle.
Lydia arose as a Neo-Hittite kingdom following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in the twelfth century BC. According to Greek sources, the original name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia. Herodotus relates that that the "Maiones" were renamed Lydians after their king, Lydus, son of Attis, in the mythical epoch that preceded the rise of the Heracleid dynasty.\n\nThe boundaries of historical Lydia varied across the centuries. It was first bounded by Mysia, Karia, Phrygia and coastal Ionia. Later on, the military power of Alyattes and Croesus expanded Lydia into an empire, with its capital at Sardis, which controlled all Asia Minor west of the River Halys, except Lycia.
Kwalanalli Hármata (Lydian Chariots) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
The Lydian nobility had a long tradition of riding chariots to war. Similar to the Eastern style chariot warfare the Lydians would use the vehicle as a mobile weapon platform. Armed with javelins they harass the enemy with speed and mobility before closing in more vulnerable lighter troops in lightning raids. However the lack of heavy armor or offensive weaponry attached to the carriage means the Chariots cannot sustain prolonged stationary combat nor deal with excessive missile barrages. Drawn by richly decorated horses these chariots are both a fearsome and wondrous force to behold upon the battlefield.
Alyattes son was Croesus, who became synonymous with wealth, thus the expression "rich as Croesus". The Lydian capital Sardis was renowned as a rich and beautiful city. Around 550 BC, near the beginning of his reign, Croesus paid for the construction of the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, which became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Croesus is also famous for asking the Oracle at Delphi whether he should go to war against Persia. With typical ambiguity the oracle answered that if Croesus attacked the Persians, he would destroy a great empire. He went to war and was defeated in battle by Cyrus II of Persia in 546 BC, with the Lydian kingdom losing its autonomy and becoming a Persian satrapy... thus destroying his own empire.
Sawtaar Azzuwa (Lydian Noble Cavalry) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
The Lydian nobility rode into battle mounted on the richest steeds in Asia Minor. Kept in the finest of conditions the Lydian mount was constantly maintained in the best of health and ready for action. The Lydian nobles themselves having practiced horsemanship all their lives on the hunt and in the numerous wars of conquest for the Lydian Empire. They were feared throughout the civilized world as deadly knights able to turn certain defeat into a heroic victory.
Armed with a battle-axe and an extraordinarily long lance for the time period, the Lydian aristocracy, along their long lances, charge with great ferocity, making the enemy demoralized and confuse before closing in for brutal melee combat woth their axes. The Lydian cavalry are well equipped to destroy the enemy cavalry and cripple opposing armies, following this they can be used in conjunction with pinning infantry for shock tactics against infantry. But as with all horsemen their strength lies in continued mobility and they should not get bogged down in combat with infantry. It should be noted that in recent years the proud tradition of horsemanship among Lydian nobles has slipped due to the decadence of their rich empire and this may take its toll in battle.
SWIFT REMINDER THAT ALL HORSE MODELS AND TEXTURES COMES FROM THE CLASSICAL AGE: TOTAL WAR MOD
October 10, 2016, 09:49 AM
Re: Rise of Persia 3.0 |PREVIEW| Lydia Roster
Nice, looking forward to playing as them.