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Thread: [Preview] The Lusitani

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    Default [Preview] The Lusitani

    The Lusitani









    Overview:
    The Lusitanians were a people formed by several tribes that lived between the rivers Douro and Tagus, in most of today's Beira and Estremadura regions of central Portugal, and some areas of the Extremadura region (Spain).They were a tribal confederation, not a single political entity; each tribe had its own territory and was independent, and formed by smaller clans. However, they had a cultural sense of unity and a common name for the tribes.Each tribe was ruled by its own tribal aristocracy and chief. Many members of the Lusitanian tribal aristocracy were warriors as happened in many other pre-Roman peoples of the Iron Age.Only when an external threat occurred did the different tribes politically unite, as happened at the time of the Roman conquest of their territory when Viriathus became the single leader of the Lusitanian tribes. Kaukainos (or Caucenus) was another important Lusitanian chief before the Roman conquest. He ruled the Lusitanians (before Viriathus) for some time, leading the tribes in the resistance against Carthaginian attempts of conquest, and was successful.

    Ancient Romans, such as Pliny the Elder and Varro (cited by Pliny), speculated that the name Lusitania was of Roman origin, as when Pliny says "lusum enim Liberi Patris aut lyssam cum eo bacchantium nomen dedisse Lusitaniae et Pana praefectum eius universae": that Lusitania takes its name from the Lusus associated with Bacchus and the Lyssa of his Bacchantes, and that Pan is its governor. Lusus is usually translated as "game" or "play", while lyssa is a borrowing from the Greek λυσσα, "frenzy" or "rage", and sometimes rage personified; for later poets, Lusus and Lyssa become flesh-and-blood companions (even children) of Bacchus. Luís de Camões' Os Lusíadas, which portrays Lusus as the founder of Lusitania, extends these ideas, which have no connection with modern etymology.
    In his work, "Geography", the classical geographer Strabo suggests a change had occurred in the use of the name "Lusitanian". He mentions a group who had once been called "Lusitanians" living north of the Douro river but were called in his day "Callacans".

    Classical sources also mention Lusitanian leader Viriathus as the leader of the Celtiberians, in their war against the Romans. The Greco-Roman historian Diodorus Siculus attributed them a name of a Germanic tribe: "Those who are called Lusitanians are the bravest of all Cimbri". The Lusitanians were also called Belitanians, according to the diviner Artemidorus. Strabo differentiated the Lusitanians from the Iberian tribes. Pliny the Elder and Pomponius Mela distinguished the Lusitanians from neighboring Celtic groups in their geographical writings.

    Categorising Lusitanian culture generally, including the language, is proving difficult. Some believe it was essentially a pre-Celtic Iberian culture with substantial Celtic influences, while others argue that it was an essentially Celtic culture with strong indigenous pre-Celtic influences.

    The Lusitanians worshiped various gods in a very diverse polytheism, using animal sacrifice. They represented their gods and warriors in rudimentary sculpture. Endovelicus was the most important god: his cult eventually spread across the Iberian peninsula and beyond, to the rest of the Roman Empire and his cult was maintained until the fifth century; he was the god of public health and safety. The goddess Ataegina was especially popular in the south; as the goddess of rebirth (spring), fertility, nature, and cure, she was identified with Proserpina during the Roman era.

    The Lusitanians were considered by historians to be particularly adept at guerrilla warfare. The strongest amongst them were selected to defend the populace in mountainous sites. They used hooked saunions made of iron, and wielded swords and helmets like those of the Celtiberians. They threw their darts from some distance, yet often hit their marks and wounded them deeply. Being active and nimble warriors, they would pursue their enemies and decapitate them.In times of peace, they had a particular style of dancing, which required great agility and nimbleness of the legs and thighs. In times of war, they marched in time, until they were ready to charge the enemy.

    In 194 BCE, war first broke out between the Romans and the Lusitanians, who were an autonomous people. By 179, the Romans had mostly succeeded in pacifying the region and signed a peace treaty. In 155, a major revolt was reignited under the leadership of Punicus, who allied with the Vettones. Caesarus succeeded after Punicus's death. Another warlord, Caucenus, made war against the Romans in the region south of Tagus down to North Africa.
    The praetor Servius Sulpicius Galba and the proconsul Lucius Licinius Lucullus arrived in 151 and began the process of subduing the local population. Galba betrayed the Lusitanian people he had invited to peace talks and had roughly 10,000 massacred in 150, thus ending the first phase of the war. This would be later proven to have been a costly mistake as the Lusitanians became embittered and began open warfare against Rome and its allies. Not only that, but future Lusitanian leader Viriathus had escaped alive from the massacre, having now developed a vendetta against Rome.
    In 146, the Lusitanians elected Viriathus after rescuing a great number of Lusitanian warriors pinned down by a Roman Legion after reminding them of Rome's betrayal three years prior and convincing them not to accept any Roman offers. Upon preying on the Legions unwillingness to break formation, he succeeded in saving the entire band from massacre or capture, an incredible feat. With this success he was elected leader by the Lusitanian tribesmen. Viriathus was to gain renown throughout the Roman world as a guerrilla fighter. In the words of Theodor Mommsen, "It seemed as if, in that thoroughly prosaic age, one of the Homeric heroes had reappeared." In 145, the general Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus campaigned successfully against the Lusitanians, but failed in his attempts to arrest Viriathus. In 143, Viriathus formed a league against Rome with several Celtic tribes, for resisting the Romans and getting revenge against them for the betrayal and massacre three years previously.
    Eight years later after having become leader of the Lusitanians in 139 BCE, Viriathus was killed in his sleep by three of his companions (they were Tartessians, Lusitanian allies), Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus. The three men had escaped by the time the Lusitanians discovered the death of their leader. Unable to avenge him they instead held feasts, gladiator battles and a grand funeral. These three men who had been sent as emissaries to the Romans had been bribed by Marcus Popillius Laenas into betraying their mission. The popular story of their fate has Roman general Servilius Caepio having them executed, declaring "Rome does not pay traitors."

    After the death of Viriatus, the Lusitanians kept fighting under the leadership of Tautalus (Greek: Τάυταλος), but gradually acquired Roman culture and language; the Lusitanian cities, in a manner similar to those of the rest of the Romanised Iberian peninsula, eventually gained the status of "Citizens of Rome".


    This faction overhaul will be released with 1.2


    Units
    This faction overhaul adds 18 new units to the Lusitani. Here are some pictures of the unique units:

    Spear Infantry
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    (Lusitani Nobles) The sight of the Vobrim strikes fear into the hearts of their enemies and inspires the chieftain's men to fight and thereby gain the approval of Bandua, the god of war who sees all. They wield spears and the gladii or falcatas that hang from their waist are used to deadly effect.


    (Lusitani Medium Spearmen) Scortamareva (Skor-tam-ar-eev-ah; "Long-Shield Carriers") are some of the most well equipped and heaviest warriors the Lusotannan can muster. They are a fierce, well drilled and well equipped force, making them a great medium infantry. They are armed with a well made Iberian steel shortsword, a bronze breastplate, greaves, a bronze montefortino helmet and well made javelins and spear.


    (Lusitani Light Spearmen) They are the semi-professional line infantry of the Lusotannan. They are well in life, owning farmland and cattle and taking the occasional mercenary service to pay for their equipment. They are equipped with light armour made of leather combined with a small bronze breastplate, a "galea" leather helmet and a rather large shield. Their armament includes a bundle of javelins and a sturdy spear. In battle they form a loose shieldwall that can stand most regular cavalry.


    (Lusitani Armoured Spearmen) The armour of these skilled men are better than their mostly lower class counterparts, as they can afford scale armor and bronze greaves. They also carry the famous Gladius Hispanicus, a bunch of Solifera and a strong thrusting spear, making them excellent anti-infantry soldiers when combined with their caetra shields.


    (Lusitani Veteran Warriors) Among the most able and skilled warriors, some men became veterans and assume in warfare a more permanent warrior role near their chieftains. Used to take advantage of the spoils of war that more permanent fighters are able to enjoy, these men are therefore better equipped than the lighter Caetratii, having as protection a breastplate and leather armour combination supplementing their "bascinet"-type bronze helm.


    (Callaeci Medium Infantry) Proud, skilled and bold, they are a fearfull sight for any enemy. Wearing bronze helmets, scale armour woven to hard leather, bronze forearm protections and bronze Ocreas, these men have as their main weapons the spear, the Solifera (a full-metal heavy javelin) and the Gladius Hispaniensis.

    Melee Infantry
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    (Lusitani Elite Shock Infantry) Ambakaro (Am-bak-ar-oh; "Arms Bearers") are men that have proved their valour and dedication to their chieftains in the heat of battle. They use their trademark bronze helmets with the "bucula" ("facemask") along with the standard steel falcata and caetra known of other Iberian warriors.


    (Lusitani Light Infantry) Vaeirione are the Lusotana variant of the typical Caetratii found in all Iberian armies, and no less fierce than their Iberian brethren. They wear light quilted linen armour, besides the tunics and thick cloaks that also give a degree of protection. They wear a tough sinew and leather helmet called a "galea" and carry a bundle of javelins to throw before the melee. Their javelins make them ideal skirmishers, and their earth toned clothing allows them to excel at ambushes.


    (Lusitani Bear Warriors) These men are small in number, but they serve a strong purpose on a battle field. Their weapons, skill, and fair quality armor, allow them to be used as strong anti-armor infantry.


    (Lusitani Heavy Infantry) In times of peace they practice a kind of armed dance, similar to those practised in Britannia, which require a great deal of dexterity to do properly, effectively training them for combat. In war they march at an even step, and then raise a battle-song as they charge on their foe.


    (Northern Axemen) (Klon-ah Tek-oh-nuk; "Axemen of the North") - The Astures and the Cantabrii were groups of indigenous tribes with a similar Celtic-influenced but distinctive culture, which were well-known for their fierceness, lust for freedom and indomitable character.

    Missile Infantry
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    (Lusitani Slingers) With the abandonment of the bow by the end of the Bronze Age, the sling was the only long-ranged missile weapon to be found in 3rd century Iberia. It had always been the weapon of choice of the shepherd, who relied on its range and accuracy to keep predators such as wolves and lynxes from threatening his valuable flock.


    (Lusitani Levy Skirmishers) The Cateramuniti are the skirmishers of any Lusitani force. Used to harass and antagonise the enemy with showers of iron-tipped javelins, they weave to and fro, avoiding direct hand to hand combat whenever possible. These warbands were the lightest and among the most 'annoying' harassment troops that the Romans had to deal with. They caused many casualties before they retired back into the night or hills and attacked again the following day.


    (Lusitani Ambushers) Equipped with daggers, small spears or javelins and round shields of wood, they are well accustomed to mountain warfare, and well adapted by training and equipment to rapid assaults over craggy and broken ground. They lead a simple life, sleeping on the ground, and letting their hair stream down in thick masses after the manner of women.

    Cavalry
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    (Lusitani Noble Cavalry) Their mounts are fast, deep-lunged and untiring. The men, wealthy retainers of their lord, have proven themselves in battle and have been rewarded with lands and silver to buy and tend their mounts, and they can afford the protection offered by scale or chain mail armour and bronze helmets. The Nuri Ippaece sing songs of victory and the brave deeds of their ancestors only to suddenly disappear, and reappear as if from nowhere, bearing down on their enemy in a swift, lethal charge until the outsiders are driven screaming from the field of battle.


    (Lusitani Light Cavalry) A thunder of hooves, a hail of iron-tipped javelins and they are gone, only to reappear from another quarter. Again and again they harry in this manner until the enemy, fearful and demoralised, break formation, whereupon the Epones Aeiste strike home, unsheathing sharp swords and parrying their foes blows with the small round shields, they ride down their enemies without mercy.


    (Lusitani Elite Medium Cavalry) They are not a numerous unit of Lusitanian armies, these cavalrymen are fundamental as scouts and, most of all, as good skirmishing medium cavalry, allowing them to use the agility and speed of their horses. They are courageous and very competent but should use avoid spear infantry at all costs. They protect themselves with a form of light armour made up of quilted linen under a composite of leather. They also use their trademark bronze helmets with the "bucula" ("facemask") along with the standard steel falcata and caetra shields.


    (Lusitani Heavy Cavalry) The men, wealthy retainers of their lord, have proven themselves in battle and have been rewarded with lands and silver to buy and tend their mounts, and they can afford the protection offered by scale or chain mail armour and bronze helmets. They wield iron spears and the gladii or falcatas that hang from their waist are used to deadly effect.

    Sources and credits:
    Men at Arms Series, 180
    Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula
    An Universal History from the Earliest Account of Time. 22. VI. Chapter XII, Section I: The History of the Celtes. T. Osborne, A. Millar, and J. Osborn.
    some unit names and parts of their descriptions from Europa Barbarorum
    Miri82 for some great models and textures - check his amazing iberian units mod




    Ritter's Cartoons and Artwork
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  2. #2

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Truly excellent, excellent work! BTW is the Lusitani Heavy Infantry 200 men per unit by any chance?

    This means the HatG campaign bought this holiday sale.
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  3. #3
    Dead*Man*Wilson's Avatar Centenarius
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    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Wow! These are absolutely gorgeous! Well done.

    Those new axe models look great. Man Ritter, I really wish there was some sort of unique charge animation for axemen
    Last edited by Dead*Man*Wilson; September 23, 2016 at 06:57 AM.

  4. #4

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Nice preview! keep it up! for the next one I would prefer some new mechanics or a hellenic kingdom

  5. #5
    Dead*Man*Wilson's Avatar Centenarius
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    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Most likely looking at revamped Mauryans next preview per DeI Facebook page. They actually had a poll of sorts for the next preview in this case.

  6. #6

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Very cool units! Nice one eye warrior

  7. #7

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Quote Originally Posted by suras333 View Post
    Very cool units! Nice one eye warrior
    Honestly, that was the only thing I disliked it from the entire preview. It looks like a pirate covering. Instead I would put this all around the factions and not just for the captains. Just a few soldiers inside the regiments (not every reg ofc)

    But I prefer to see a simple band around the eye.

  8. #8

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Excelent work guys! What dlc will be needed to play this faction?

  9. #9

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Hannibal at the Gates is required to play the Lusitani, Arevaci, and Syracuse.

  10. #10
    Dago Red's Avatar Vicarius
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    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Re: HatG, that sucks. CA keeps ripping us off after the biggest rip-off in gaming history. Hopefully an all factions playable submod skirts the issue at some point.

    Amazing write-up though. Learned quite a bit and have been recently fascinated by Viriathus. Several of the units are redundant to say the least, is that due to new AOR units mixed in with faction-only here?

  11. #11
    KAM 2150's Avatar Artifex
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    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Some will be reform specific probably.

  12. #12

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Quote Originally Posted by Dago Red View Post
    Re: HatG, that sucks. CA keeps ripping us off after the biggest rip-off in gaming history. Hopefully an all factions playable submod skirts the issue at some point.
    You can not unlock dlc locked factions. Just unlocking dlc non locked factions is posible

  13. #13

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Any word on how ambusher type units might be modified to make them more viable? Also, any lusitani units that have the scare mod?

  14. #14
    KAM 2150's Avatar Artifex
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    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Battle overhaul for 1.2 is currently at battle mechanics phase so no specific nation balancing is done until that is finished.

  15. #15
    Dago Red's Avatar Vicarius
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    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Quote Originally Posted by KAM 2150 View Post
    Some will be reform specific probably.
    Ah yes of course. My small brain momentarily forgot about reform units.

  16. #16

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Quote Originally Posted by Dead*Man*Wilson View Post
    Wow! These are absolutely gorgeous! Well done.

    Those new axe models look great. Man Ritter, I really wish there was some sort of unique charge animation for axemen
    There will be.

  17. #17
    Dead*Man*Wilson's Avatar Centenarius
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    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    Brilliant!

  18. #18

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    The Ambakaro troops look sick! Really intimidating look with those masks and deadly swords.

  19. #19

    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    It's nice to see visible javelins on these new units. Are there any plans to modify existing units of other factions to show javelins as well?

  20. #20
    Ritter-Floh's Avatar Artifex
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    Default Re: [Preview] The Lusitani

    i think Don is working on it, maybe he can explain it better...

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