(Athens) famous has not yet come to pass, Athenai is ruled by one man Peisistratos, son of Hippokrates. Solon the Law giver has recently died and the poor people of Athenai have lost their benefactor. But the recent war with Megara has left the Athenaioi in need of a strong leader and Peisistratos is that man, with the drive to succeed and a strong army at his back it is only a matter of time before Greece is unified under an empire with dominating Athenaioi. Athenai has yet to come into her golden age, but it is only a matter of time before Athenai bursts into her prime and creates a legacy that will last through the ages.
The army of the Athenaioi is not a strong cavalry force, neither do they possess masterful archers, but Athenai's infantry is a master of the hoplites and certainly a force to be reckoned with. A charge from the hoplites can tear through almost any infantry, this wall of bronze is an unstoppable force when engaged head on, however, a skilled commander will always keep a reserve to stop his valued hoplites from being flanked. The troops are drawn from the citizens of Athenai, each man fighting with what he can afford but all of them fighting for their city. It is this strong belief that the citizens are part of the city that gives the Athenaioi such courage in battle, and in defense of Athenai it would be hard to find a man who fled rather than fight for his stake in the city.
Athenai will soon be on the lips of every Easterner fearing Greek as the valiant defenders of Greece who played David to the Great King's Goliath. But for now Athenai will build up her forces and exert the power she is destined to have over the Hellenic world.
| Hellenic AOR |
Iōnes Hoplitai (Ionian Hoplites) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
Many years ago the chariot was the supreme weapon in Hellas, though with the improvement of smithing techniques better weapons and armor could be made, and slowly infantry made a comeback. Furthermore, as war became a less elitist activity (although there still is no such thing as a standing citizen army), more people could take part. Combined with the rugged terrain of Hellas, which made cavalry largely unfeasible, this brought about the rise of the phalanx. Contrary to popular opinion, the hoplites did not derive his name from the shield (which is correctly known in this period as the 'aspis') but from the general word for 'weapon' - 'hoplon'. Hoplitai fight together in a compact formation, forming a solid front with their large round shields and advancing slowly so as to maintain order. Their principle weapon is the xyston thrusting spear, though more often than not the victorious phalanx is the one that can push forward the hardest, and hold formation the longest. These are generally reliable infantry against most other infantry types, though they are hard to maneuver and are quite vulnerable to cavalry.
Hoplitai are generally drawn from the higher strata of cities, and minor cities can often find their hoplitai being used as pawns by more powerful, influential cities. Sparta, for example, mostly filled her armies up with allied hoplitai, as her own troops were too valuable to waste.\n\nThe Iōnes are one of the four major Greek ethnē into which the Greeks of the ancient period considered themselves divided, along with the Aioloi, Achaioi and Dorikoi. Unlike the austere and militaristic Dorikoi the Ionikoi are renowned for their love of philosophy, art, democracy, and pleasure - Ionikoi traits that were most famously expressed by the Athēnai.
Perioikoi Hoplitai (Perioci Hoplites) UNIT MADE BY HEGEMONIA CITY-STATES TEAM
Perioikoi are free people but not Spartan citizens. As their name suggests they live in town of Laconia but also inside Sparta city itself. They are allowed to trade and travel to other cities, therefore having contact with foreigners. They have rights in owning land and they were probable making the weapons of the Lakedaimonian army.
The Perioikoi are distinct from both the Spartans and the helots. They dont receive the famous Spartan training (Agōgá) but they serve the Lakedaimonian army as heavy hoplites. They could not participate in any political decisions and could not marry Spartan men or women.
Akontistai (Hellenic Javelinmen) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
The current military trends in Hellas are very much in favor of heavy infantry. Lighter troops and cavalry generally fall into very slim supporting roles, and often don't make an appearance on the battlefield at all. Very few people have looked into the possibilities of skirmishers, and few have studied skirmishing tactics in any detail. Thus the harassing role is left to the poorest sections of society who cannot afford the armor of a hoplite nor spare the time for the training. The Akontistes is, as a result of his lack of armor and his hard, hand-to-mouth farming lifestyle, extremely fast and well able to read the land and hide in long grass, but he suffers from poor morale. He is named after his javelin, the akontion, and this weapon can be quite useful, even against the well armored hoplite, though as his only side arm is a club, the Akontistes should stay away from melee.
The concept of the skirmisher only really became popular in Greece in the Peloponnesian Wars in the second half of the fifth century BC, in his incarnation as the peltastēs, named after his shield, the peltē.
Toxotai (Hellenic Archers) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
In much the same manner as the Greeks have not had much of a tradition for javelin troops, so they are not really accustomed to fielding powerful contingents of archers. The Toxotai are of much the same social status as the Akontistai, and have largely derived their abilities with the bow from hunting wild animals. Their name comes from the Greek for bow, 'toxon', and they have the potential to be quite useful in battle, though their bows aren't really powerful enough to make them worthwhile to use against hoplites. Greek bowmen are not up to the standard of their Asiatic counterparts, and the usual advice applies concerning keeping them away from the enemy. Even though they aren't the best archers, when used properly they are still an asset to an army.\n\nThe Greeks never really used their own archers that much at all, preferring where necessary to hire foreign mercenaries or conscript conquered peoples. Even leaders such as Epimanondas and Alexander the Great followed this practice.
Thētes Sphendonetai (Hellenic Slingers) UNIT MADE BY THE BATTLE FOR HELLAS TEAM
Thētes are manual workers or sharecroppers, they served voluntarily in the role of personal servant, or as auxiliaries armed for instance with the sling or as rowers in the Navy. Slingers are much valued by commanders for their ability to maintain a barrage on an enemy unit for long periods. They can supplement the ammunition in their satchels with the stones on the ground at their feet, so they are much less likely to run out than other missile troops. Using slings of varying length according to the range of their target, their shots strike home with a terrible impact which can knock a man back even if it strikes his armour. Other than a knife and the simple clothes they stand up in, they carry nothing to assist them in a fight at close quarters, preferring instead to retreat to the shelter provided by friendly infantry when such danger threatens.
Hippikoi (Hellenic Cavalry) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
Again, thanks to the phalanx-centered nature of Greek warfare, and the mountainous nature of Greece (there are few large pastures), cavalry is not prominent. That’s not to say that it isn't used, but it is expensive and there aren't many men who can field horses from their estates. Greek cavalry are not poorly armored though - because horsemen have to be wealthy to afford a horse, they can generally also afford a cuirass and helmet, though the lack of stirrups means that their armor cannot be too heavy (the soldier would be more likely to fall off then). Hippikoi are typically used as advance scouts, skirmishers and strike forces, quick raiders who can lob javelins and hit a phalanx in the rear or the flank. Attacking a phalanx head on however is highly inadvisable, as the light Greek horses would not penetrate very far into the formation. Nonetheless, they are valuable troops, and their scarcity makes them highly valuable on the battlefield. Thanks to this scarcity though, they come in smaller unit sizes than most other cavalry.
Kretikoi Toxotai (Cretan Archers) UNIT MADE BY THE BATTLE FOR HELLAS TEAM
The island of Crete is renown for it's archers, and Cretans renown for their reputation as liars and brigands. These men hire themselves out as mercenaries for almost any Mediterranean power who can afford them, as their skills are often unmatched by other archers. Apart from their bow, they also have short swords and they carry a small shield. Not only are the Cretans good archers, but they can also fare well in melee, although against similarily equipped opponents.
Toxotai Kretikoi served in most Hellenic armies and other Mediterranean armies from early history, from Carthage in the west to the Seleukids in the east. One of their most famous exploits was in Xenophon's "Ten Thousand", where they gave a good account of themselves against the Persians. Crete during this time was rife with civil wars, and it was often those Cretans on the losing side or who get fed up with the unstable situation, who migrated overseas and hired themselves out as mercenary bowmen. The Diadochoi tried to gain control of the island, but were unsuccesful in their attempts. The constant civil wars attracted outlaws and other unwantables to Crete, that during the Hellenistic period bad behaviour was called "Cretan Way" and during the 1st century BC, the Cilician pirates established themselves on Crete and many Cretans joined them in piracy, which drew the ire of Rome. The first Roman expedition in 74 BC was soundly defeated, but the second expedition in 68 BC managed with great brutality to subjugate the island, which was afterwards made into a military colony, who for centuries to come supplied the Roman army with auxiliary archers, and their renown continued well into the Middle Ages. There is even distinct mention of Cretan archers defending Constantinople in 1453 AD!!
Rhodioi Sphendonetai (Rhodian Slingers) UNIT MADE BY THE BATTLE FOR HELLAS TEAM
These men hail from Rhodos, one of the most storied states and greatest mercantile powers in the Hellenistic world, famous for its fine slingers throughout the Classical and Hellenistic periods. Men like these traveled with Xenophon, fought in the armies of Phillip and Alexander, and served as mercenaries with most of the major powers even through Roman domination. They are armed with slings made from leather, as well as hemp and flaxen cord. This gives them some longevity in melee combat, but they are best withdrawn before melee begins in earnest. Their missiles will rain death upon most foes, and they out-range most enemies.
Slingers from Rhodes and others trained in their methods made significant contributions to Hellenic and Successor armies. Xenophon's Anabasis is probably the clearest example, where slingers from Rhodos are able to outfight archers and presumably keep mounted archers at bay. They performed the latter function for Alexander as well, in concert with bolt-throwing engines. In the acceding Hellenistic age, their use by virtually every power is a testament to their effectiveness. Slingers from Rhodos appear later in the Roman army, but history from later periods becomes increasingly sketchy.
| Athens |
Zeugitai Hoplitai (Athenian Hoplites) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
In 594 the Athenian political philosopher Solōn realised the need for reform in Athenian society. The old aristocratic system had become stifling, and so he reorganized society in a more effective way. His clearer definition of social classes will be a major contributor to the democratic reforms of Kleisthenes that will occur in the early fifth century. The Zeugitai were the lower middle class, citizen farmers who, though not very wealthy, lived a reasonably comfortable life. Zeugitai Hoplitai are equipped in much the same way as ordinary Hoplitai, and are reasonable troops able, through the training they receive upon coming of age at 18, to keep fairly good order in a phalanx. They are not up to the standard of the Hippeis Hoplitai or Pentakosiomedimnoi, and their armor is not of such good quality, but they compare well with other Hoplitai and have the advantage of a cheaper upkeep and better morale, being Athenian citizens.
The other social classes in Athens were the Pentakosiomedimnoi (men whose estates produced five hundred bushels of grain each year), Hippeis (men whose estates could raise horses) and Thētes (hired laborers and such).
Hippeis Hoplitai (Athenian Heavy Hoplites) UNIT MADE BY THE HEGEMONIA CITY STATES TEAM
A 'hippeus' is literally a cavalryman, though the term is used more generally to denote someone who has enough money to be able to afford cavalry. As cavalry are actually quite rare in Hellas, most Hippeis fight in the phalanx. They fight in pretty much the same way as ordinary Hoplitai, though their equipment is of better quality and their training and morale is generally superior. They can often be seen sporting flamboyant plumes on their helmets to show off! As a result however, they are more expensive to maintain in the field. Hippeis Hoplitai can be relied upon to hold most enemies, though their lack of speed and flexibility means that they can only really be used for holding the battle line and launching direct assaults. The inflexibility of her armies is generally the Greek city's greatest weakness, though that is little comfort to the poor souls who have to face down the hoplite formation!
Pentakosiomedimnoi Hoplitai (Athenian Elite Hoplites) UNIT MADE BY THE RISE OF PERSIA TEAM
The reforms of Solōn in 594 split society into four distinct classes. The highest class of Athenians is the Pentakosiomedimnoi, a term of almost Germanic frankness meaning, "Those whose estates produce five hundred bushels of grain a year" (a medimnos is approximately 54 litres or 40 kilogrammes). People with such wealthy estates are themselves extremely wealthy, and have the money for the finest hoplite equipment and the leisure time for the best hoplite training. The Pentakosiomedimnoi are equipped with bronze cuirasses, greaves, the aspis shield, xyston over-arm spear and Corinthian helmets. They are generally superior to all other hoplites, save perhaps the Spartiatai.
The other social classes in Athens were the Hippeis (men whose estates could raise horses), the Zeugitai (farmers) and Thētes (hired labourers and such like).
SWIFT REMINDER THAT ALL HORSE MODELS AND TEXTURES COMES FROM THE CLASSICAL AGE: TOTAL WAR MOD