Here is some of The Most Important Battles of 1500s, 1600s, and 1700s
EDIT: I dont take credits for the text because I'm not the writer of the original text.. I have just made some minor changes..
I have done some minor changes.. But are these battles the most decisive battles of the world of 1500s, 1600s, and 1700s or is it more.. wanted to bring a thread discussion about 1500s, 1600s, and 1700s because I haven't seen so much discussion of the eras in Vestigia Vetustatis, just a few. well hope that this one is going to be a great discussion. I know there is more decisive battles but just more decisive to their country (that is fighting) alone than to the world..
1514, Battle of Orsha (Orsza). The Battle of Orsha halts Muscovy's expansion into Eastern Europe. It was one of the biggest battles of 16th-century Europe. The Polish-Lithuanian forces defeated the Muscovite army, capturing their camp, all 300 guns, and their commander. Due to the spectacular proportions of the defeat, information about the Battle of Orsha was suppressed in Muscovite chronicles. Even reputable historians of the Russian Empire such as Sergei Soloviov rely on non-Russian sources. Upset at word of the massive defeat, Muscovite ruler allegedly remarked that "the prisoners [were] as useful as the dead" and declined to negotiate their return.
1521, Siege of Tenochtitlan (modern day Mexico). It was the final, decisive battle that led to the downfall of the Aztec civilization and marked the end of the first phase of the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Tenochtitlan was a flourishing city with an estimated population of 200,000 ! The siege of Tenochtitlán began at a time when smallpox struck with a vengeance. Cortés's Indian allies suffered as well, with an estimated 40% mortality, but the effect on morale in Tenochtitlán, as they began to starve as well, must have been horrendous. Cortés took the city after a three-month siege, razed it, and captured the ruler, Cuauhtémoc, successor to Montezuma. The Spaniard founded present-day Mexico City on the ruins.
1525, Battle of Pavia: Spain and Germany defeat France in the decisive engagement of the Italian War. German and Spanish pikemen and arquebusiers descended on the French cavalry from all sides. Lacking room to maneuver, the French knights were surrounded and systematically killed. Suffolk and Lorraine, advancing to assist King Francis, were met by arriving German landsknechts, both having been killed. The French king fought on as his horse was killed from under him. The French suffered massive casualties, including many of the chief nobles of France; king Francis himself, was captured by the Spanish troops.
1533, Battle of Cuzco: Capital of the Inca empire taken by the Spanish. For Pizarro, this represented his ultimate goal - the occupation of the capital city. The importance of the Spaniards' horses was apparent to the defending Indians. The Indians "thought more of killing one of these animals [horses] that persecuted them so than they did of killing 10 men..." The Indians had only clubs and maces to fight against the mounted Spaniards with their armor, lances and swords, and the mountainous Andes did not provide enough suitable wood for pikes and arrows. The Spanish tactics of charging straight into the enemy time after time was remarkably brave and devastatingly effect.
1571, Battle of Lepanto: The Holy League's fleet consisted of 206 galleys and 6 galleasses, Ottoman Empire's fleet consisted of 220 galleys and 50-60 galliots. To this day, it is held by historians to be the most decisive naval battle occurring anywhere on the globe, in terms of size of the battle waged coupled with geopolitical ramifications, since the Battle of Actium of 31 BC. This battle marked the beginning of the downfall of "the Turk", the "Sempiternal Enemy of the Christian." One of the participants in the battle was Miguel de Cervantes, author of the world known masterpiece 'Don Quixote'.
1631, Battle of Breitenfeld: It was the battle where the redoubtable Gustavus II Adolphus sealed his fame and entered the annals of great military leaders, and from which some have labeled him as the Father of Modern Warfare for his unique mauneuver warfare style and early use of what is today referred to as combined arms tactics. While these matters are debatable as the innovations incorporated by Gustavus the Great were more derivative of others when taken singly, it is also true that he forged them and trained them into an army uniquely capable of high speed maneuver warfare with an extremely high rate of aimed fire.
Gustavus forces 23,000 swedes, 18,300 saxons (saxons escaped), casualties 3500 Swedes and 2000 Saxons dead. Tilly's forces 33,000-35,000, casualties 7,600 dead, 6000 captured (the captured later joined the swedish army.) Many deserted and Tilly only had around 6000-9000 men left after the battle.
1643, Battle of Rocroi: It was the first major defeat of a Spanish army in a century, although historians have noted that German, Walloon, and Italian troops actually surrendered first, while the Spanish infantry cracked only after repeated cavalry charges. The French carried out a huge cavalry encirclement, sweeping behind the Spanish army and smashing their way through to attack the rear of the Spanish cavalry that was still in combat with the reserves. The Battle of Rocroi put an end to the supremacy of Spanish military doctrine and inaugurated a long period of French military predominance. The 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees ended the war in favour of France and confirmed the new reality brought about by Rocroi.
1683, Siege and Battle of Vienna: This battle had the most far-reaching consequences as it was the turning point in the 300-year struggle between the forces of the European kingdoms, and the Ottoman Empire. Approx. 70,000 German and Polish troops under King Jan Sobieski (nickanmed by the Turks The Lion of the North) defeated 130,000 Turks under Kara Mustapha Pasha. Instead of focusing on the battle with the relief army, the Turks also tried to force their way into the city, carrying their crescent flag. Four cavalry groups totalling 20,000 men, one of them Austrian-German, and the other three Polish, charged down the hills. The attack was led by the Polish king in front of a spearhead of 2000 heavily armed Polish Winged Knights.
Up till then that was the greatest cavalry charge in the history of Europe. It was not exceeded until the times of Napoleon. In honor of King Jan, the Austrians had erected a church atop a hill of Kahlenberg, north of Vienna. Also, the train route from Vienna to Warsaw is named in Sobieski's honor. Pope Innocentius XI regarded the defence of Vienna as his major achievement and the relief on his monument in St. Peter's was dedicated to this event, with the Catholic soldiers portrayed as ancient Romans.
1704 Battle of Blenheim (Höchstädt): It was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. Eugene of Savoy (Austria) and Duke of Marlborough (England), defeated French-Bavarian army. and inflicted the first major defeat on the French for over 40 years. It ended King Louis XIV’s plans to dominate Europe and extend his power from Spain to Germany and Italy. Marlborough's descendant Winston Churchill wrote: “The destruction of the Armada had preserved the life of Britain: the charge at Blenheim opened her to the gateways of the modern world.” Eugene of Savoy's and Duke of Marlborough's forces: 52,000,
around 60 guns, casualties 4,542 killed,7,942 wounded.... Duc de Tallard's, Maximilian II Emanuel's, Ferdinand de Marsin's forces 56,000, around 90 guns, casualties 20,000,killed, drowned, or wounded, 14,190 captured.
1709 Battle of Poltava: It was a major battle of the War of the Great Northern War. The decisive victory of the Russians is said to have ended Sweden's role as a Great Power in Europe. Several thousand prisoners were taken, many of whom were put to work building the new city of St. Petersburg. Tsar of Russia, Peter the Great, modernized his army. King of Sweden, Charles, marched into Russia. When the battle opened, Charles had about 17,000 men and 8000 sieging Poltava, casualties 6,900 killed or wounded 2,800 prisoners, while Peter commanded 42,000–45,000 men and 72 cannons, casualties 1,345 killed, 3,200 wounded.
1746 Battle of Culloden: It was the last battle ever to be fought on British soil, between the forces of the Jacobites (5.000), who supported the claim of Charles Edward Stuart to the throne; and the Royal Army (9.000) which supported the Hanoverian sovereign, King George II. Culloden brought the Jacobite Rising to a close and broke the power of the Highland Scots, and severe civil penalties thereafter (e.g., it became a criminal offence to wear tartan). After their victory, Duke of Cumberland ordered his men to execute all the Jacobite wounded and prisoners, an act by which he was known afterwards as "the Butcher".
1757 Battle of Plassey: This battle is today seen as one of the pivotal battles leading to British Empire in India. The enormous wealth gained from the Bengal treasury after its victory in the battle allowed the British East India Company to significantly strengthen its military might. Robert Clive was appointed Governor of Bengal in 1765 for his efforts. Clive later committed suicide in 1774, after being addicted to opium.
At Plassey 800 British and 2,200 sepoys defeated 50,000 men led by Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal. The battle opened on a very hot and humid morning, where the Nawab's army came out of its fortified camp and launched a massive cannonade against the British camp. The battle cost the British East India Company just 72 killed and wounded, while the Nawab's army lost 500 men killed and wounded.
1757 Battle of Rossbach: This battle is considered as important from military point of view. This is one of the greatest masterpieces due to element of complete surprise and destroying an enemy army with negligible casualties (only 550 !) The total losses amongst the Allies were 10,000. Frederick the Great was heard to say "I won the battle of Rossbach with most of my infantry having their muskets shouldered." Frederick had defeated an entire Army of two combined European superpowers.
In this battle the Allies had 42,000-54,000 men against 20,000 under Fredrick. Frederick spent the morning watching them from a house-top and realized their intentions. The Allies offered him the battle for which he had manoeuvred in vain, and he took it without hesitation. Leaving a handful of light troops to oppose the Allied advanced post, he broke camp and moved. His swift move meant an attack upon the Allies before they could form up. Most of the allied cavalry in front was smashed to pieces by the charge of Prussian cavalry led by Seydlitz. Meanwhile the Allies tried in vain to form a line of battle. A few volleys of the iron-disciplined Prussian infantry sufficed to create disorder, and then von Seydlitz's cavalry charged. The Allied infantry thereupon broke and fled.
1757 Battle of Leuthen: It was a decisive victory for Frederick the Great that ensured his control over Silesia. This is important battle from military point of view as Frederick used Oblique Order. This is a tactic where an attacking army refocuses its forces to attack enemy flank. The commander would intentionally weaken one portion of the line to concentrate their troops elsewhere. They would then create an angled or oblique formation, refuse the weakened flank and attack the strongest flank of the enemy with a concentration of force. First recorded use of the tactic similar to oblique order was at the Battle of Leuctra, when the Thebans defeated the Spartans. This tactics required disciplined and well trained troops able to execute complex maneuvers.
1781 Battle of Yorktown: It was a victory by a combined American and French force led by Washington and Lafayette, and the French Comte de Rochambeau over the British army. A formal surrender ceremony took place on the morning following the battle. Cornwallis refused to attend out of pure embarrassment, claiming illness. According to legend, the British forces marched to the fife tune of "The World Turned Upside Down," though no real evidence of this exists. British Prime Minister Lord North resigned after receiving news of the surrender at Yorktown. His successors decided that it was no longer in Britain's best interest to continue the war, and negotiations were undertaken. The British signed the Treaty of Paris, recognizing the United States and promising to remove all her troops from the country.