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    Makedon






    1. Introduction
    Centered around the city of Pella and maintained at a distance by the greek confederations in a fragile peace, the Macedonians, ruled by the antigonid dynasty, had still a tremendous influence in the greek world, according to the origin of alexander the great, founder of the first eurasian empire (after the persians). Macedonian fleet was also the second biggest in the mediterranean sea, and this naval superpower was only balanced by the huge fleet of the ptolemaic dynasty, in open naval rivalry (see further, ships). But in 280, Macedonia was not ruled at all, and in an open civil war between factions for the crown, which ended with Antigonus II in 277. Under his reign until 239 bc, macedonia was re-established as a dominant power and enforce his control on the greek cities.

    The Macedonian army under Antigonus II kept a perfect organisation, inherited from the marvellous tool created by Philip II and briought to excellence by his son, Alexander the great, from Macedon to India. The Diadochis armies, were, in fact, a composite army with a strong greek-macedonian core and some trained locals. The Lagid egyptians called them "Machimoi", Seleucids, "pandotapoi", etc. The perfect tool was ever the phalanx, an evolution of the disciplined greek model hoplites phalanxes, but at the time of Philip II, it was, for the greeks who laughed after those they called "semi-barbarians", the pastoralists and mountaineers macedonians, the "phalanx of the poors", or a "peasant phalanx". They where poorely equipped, with no protection (a simple tunic) and a small pelt or wood shield, laced to one arm, no greaves, no but a very long spear, the famous Sarissa, which could be ranged up to 7 meters long. These "pezoi" (foot infantry) wore the phrygian iron or bronze helmet, from thracian and hellespontic style, who was himself an evolution of the old phrygian cap of the scythians, persians, and eastern people in general, and was easy to make. The light phalanxes of Philip II were capable of charging while running, another difference with the greek heavy hoplites. Theses levies were called "taxeis phalangitai".

    Pezhetairoi or "foot companions" fot "equals" where better equipped professional phalangists, richer citizens which could afford greaves, a leather or even bronze breastplate, and sometimes bronze aspis (shield). Their valets where suppressed later and the youngest citizens where used as a "medium infantry", known as "hypaspist"; At the origin, they use a larger aspis (greek style, one meter large), and a shorter pike, the "doratia", or "pike" (from the old greek doryphoroi or spearmen, ancestors of the hoplites). They where usually place at the right, the weakest position of the battleline, instead the phalanxes and the cavalry. Later, the hypaspists, recognised as an elite honor infantry, was used as foot bodyguards of the King (Basilikoi hypaspistai); These soldiers, after the conquest of alexander, appeared as elite infantry, well protected, using usually sword or pike, and with the best equipments (bronze breastplate, bronze large shield, bronze greaves, iron helmet, superior quality xiphos or machaira...).

    These long spears phalanxes where not the only innovation of Philip II who completed this battleline by light infantry, including the famous Peltasts, of thracian origin, better warriors than the very light Akontistai, Toxotai or classic peasant archers, and Sphendonetai or slingers. But the true force and originality of the macedonian army was the use of a powerful heavy cavalry, a feature uncommon to the greeks that considered the cavalry as an auxiliary, the best soldiers always fought in the hoplite phalanx. The Royal Macedonian system permitted to constitute a strong noble cavalry core, the "Hetairoi" or "companions". At the beginning, they were equipped with a phrygian helmet, painted in the colors of the ilè, or squadron, a 250 men unit. The elite cavalry was called "Agema", and counted some 300 men. Later, they where equipped with a more simple boeotian helmet, a shield, and always a lance, the xyston, double ended; and a curved asymetric sword, the Kopis or machaira. There was no medium cavalry at that time, but two light scouts, the prodromoi, or skirmisher cavalry, and the sarisphoroi or light lancers. They where poorey equipped and generally younger men than the hetairoi. Later, the Prodromoi where replaced by "real" scouts as Hippakontistai, the "prodromoi" beeing better protected, as mounted peltasts, and the sarisphoroi a true medium, well-protected charge cavalry, playing a master role in the philip II compaigns against the greeks. When the Thessalia falled into submission of the macedonians, Thessalian horsemen became the new standard medium cavalry of the macedonian force, and later, another heavy cavalry.

    In 270 bc, two new units appeared, around the concept of "fast light hoplite" or "iphikrates hoplitai", a response of the greeks to the Macedonian hypaspist. The first where Theurophoroi, a replacement for the upgraded hypaspistai, as skirmisher spearmen. They where usually protected by a larger composite shield, the theurophoros, hence the name, wore greaves, have a long spear or doru, a xyston (symetric sword), and a leather breastplate. They usually went between the phalangists and peltasts, and where often described as "heavy peltasts". The Thorakitai where an evolution of the theurophoroi, as wearing a chainmail, as in more modern armies. They where also described fighting together, as two separate units. Later, in the seleucid armies, the thorakitai became an imitation legionary, able to form the turtle, and fighting with a shorter spear or a roman-style combination of heavy spears and sword. The veterans where then called "argyraspidai". The aspis or "shield" was usually made with wood and pelt, but later, when the macedonian grown richer, new callings appeared as describing "Argyraspidai" (silver shields, veterans), "Chalkaspidai" (bronze shields), and Chrysaspidai (golden shields). The lasts where common to the Ptolemaic armies as an elite agema, as Chalkaspides where used by all the diadochis armies as standard pezhetairoi.



    2. Starting Positions




    3. Preview: The Antigonid Macedonian Army

    PANTODAPOI:
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    The basic infantry was always guaranteed by emeregency recruits of light spearmen, with a wicker thureos and a short spear. Recruited amongst peasantry and low-class citizens, they were unarmoured, few if not trained, and of poor morale, beeing of safer use as garrison, although their massive presence in the battlefield can always being useful to fill the gaps and absorb the major impact of enemy attacks. The meaning of "pandotapoi" was "auxiliary" but they were seen mostly as militias or light local troops of limited fightning value.






    SYMMACHOI HOPLITAI:
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    The macedonian citizens in 300 bc were generally trained in phalanx units instead of hoplitic fashion. But allied cities furnished a valuable amount of hoplites, which were usable as auxiliaries, alongside the phalanx, but rarely integrated in the main battle core. They were equipped in a classic way, but with modern equipment, including a linothorax and thracian or chalcidian helmet.






    IPHIKRATES HOPLITAI:
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    Iphikrates Hoplitai were the true ancestors ot the philippic phalanx, an invention of the athenian general Iphikrates (see also pyrrhic army of details). They were basically peltasts equipped with longer spears than hoplites, still quite more agile than the former. This agility allowed them to perform intermediate mission and beeing a relatively cheap infantry, equipped with light armor or a simple tunic, no greaves, a light shield, but there is still a mystery about this last piece of equipment; There is no descriptions about the shape of this shield, and it is dubious that any iphikrates hoplite could ever used the thureos while having a much more longer spear (about 4 or even 4,50 meters) with only one hand. It would have been really impracticable. Thureophoroi troops seems to have used 3 to 3,50 m spears, like hoplites, but not more. The only way to handle such spears was with their two hands, which rendered problematic the use of a thureos, which was rendered cumbersome in such configuration. The term of "hoplite" was also an allusion to their shield, which was probably a lighter and reduced version of the famous hoplon, and strapped to the forearm, leaving the fore hand hanging the spear instead of the shield strap. As shown in these screens above, the early iphikrates were given typical athenian helmets, currently phrygians, no greaves but a light quilted armour. Later ones could have been equipped with more various helmets and armors, and boots instead of sandals, shadowing the thureophoroi evolution.






    DEUTEROI PHALANGITAI:
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    Alos called "pantodapoi phalangitai", these last phalangites were the cheapest form of sarissa bearer, driven from the low-status citizens militiamen. They were equipped with a cheap, no armor or a light one, like the quilted armor, or a second-class leather armor, no greaves but sandals or boots, and a dagger or affordable short sword like the xyphos. They used the famous 5-meters long sarissa and were deadly with it, beeing well trained, although not as pezhetairoi, and valuable to the point of being placed in the main phalanx in campaign. Beeing affordable they were also disciplined, sturdy and courageous, but weakened by their limited protection. Although the main helmet was probably "ogival" and of pylos-like type, the phrygian helmet also used by the pezhetairoi was increasingly popular.





    LEUKASPIDAI:
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    These phalangites were a sub-distinction inside the whole phalanx, more distinguishable on the battlefield by any strategos. They were quite better trained than the levies, but had no experience of battle and were rather young. Their equipment was also less impressive, although theorically submitted to the amphipolitan decree which dictated a standardized lot. The Kotthybos or linen armor could be of fast, mass-production (from the royal arsenal) and lighter and thinner than usual, multi-layered ones. At the same time, the konos helmet was more easy to produce than more stylish models like the attic and chalcidian, and lighter than the thracian model. Greaves could have been of hardened leather rather than bronze. The standard sword was the short xiphos. With good officers and their perfect training, they can smash any heavy infantry.






    PEZHETAIROI:
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    It was really the main part of any phalanx, the backbone of the infantry. The name "foot companion" was given like a reward by alexander to his fellow phalangites after his campaigns. It was keeped from there. Pezhetairoi were given a payful attention, severe training and managment, with officers from the sub-level of the file rank (Lochoi) to the Syntagmas, Taxeis, and beyond. They usually walked in "open order" with 1,20 to 1,80 m between them and regrouped for offensive, tightening their ranks to 0,90 m between each file and man, like the hoplitic phalanx. But with such configuration, the five first ranks had their sarissa emerging before them, a forest of Cornel wood sticks ended by deadly leaf-shaped iron spearheads. While marching, even running, an impressive living hedgehog which left such feeling to the Roman Consul and general Paulus Aemilius that he later described it as "the most frightening and impressive thing he never seen in his life"... Early typical wargrear of the phalanx was the bronze armor; short leather pteryges, phrygian helmet, bronze greaves, and beeing bare-foot. The aspis was 60 cm large, apparently not shorter because of some descriptions of their use in the thracian campaign for covering them while leaving the thracian carts rolling over them... Their main weapon was the 5-meters long sarissa, usually carried in two parts, and assembled by an iron ring, and given a former iron cross-section. These Pezhetairoi were subdivised between the regular ones and the asthetairoi, the latter beeing probably veteran units, later confound with argyraspidai. The Leucaspidai and Chalkaspidai, having wood and bronze shields respectively, were also another sub-distinction. Later pezhetairoi were diven a leather, linien, quilted or composite armor, sometimes a leather gilet with bronze scales, and various helmet models, although an Alexandrian specification mentioned "ogival" helmets, which means "mass-product" and cheap helmets; Few of them were discovered, and the most current ones would have been probably of thraco-phrygian family.






    KATOIKOI PHALANGITAI:
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    Settled foreigners on the macedonian territory, hellenized thracians, paeonians, illyrians, thessalians, epirots or the sons of veterans of the alexandrian conquest whose returned home were all granted the full citizenship when choosing to embrass the military carreer. This relatively late feature in the antigonid kingdom was crucial to muster more capable troops for the phalanx. Well equipped and hardly trained, they gave good accounts of them on the battlefield.






    CHALKASPIDAI:
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    An elite unit, the "bronze shields" were not using the usual wooden aspis covered with a thin bronze layer, but a strong bronze shield backed with wood. It was heavyer but also gave an extra protection. This was the case for the armor, a full bronze cuirass or a hardened linen one with interlapped scales. The helmet was generally the Thracian one, giving a perfect covering of the face with its huge cheeks. Some variants were full thracian masks-helmets. They were given a longer sarissa, bronze or even iron greaves, and in fact, were though, experienced, hardened phalangists in any way, capable to afford and effectively use such equipment, a combination which made them deadly and impressive on the battlefield. The "chalkaspidai" were an informal unit in macedonian service, usually spread amongst the best pezhetairoi units, and probably used as "promachoi" (vanguards) in any Lochoi. The Pontic, Achaians and Seleucid had such units as a distinctive one, depending on the period.






    BOTTIAIOI / AMPHIPOLITAI PHALANGITA:
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    Phalangites form the western and eastern districs of macedonia. They were sturdy and disciplined mainland phalangists, differing from veterans by their lack of experience, but still having excellent training and equipment which made them quite impressive opponents for any phalanx.






    SYMMACHOI PHALANGITAI:
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    Greek nearby allied cities send their main citizens to form phalanx units in the macedonian way, beeing a part of the main phalanx during the post-alexandrian era. Their number increased slightly at the end of the Alexandrian era, then fall after his death and difficult, if not tumultuous succession, then known a new peak with the Antigonid dynasty, and especially in late period, during Philip V and Perseus rules. At that time, most of the greek city-states were integrated in wide confederacies like the aetolian and achaian leagues, and both armies were composed of phalanxes and thureophoroi infantry.






    HYPASPISTAI:
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    An old and specifically macedonian feature, the hypaspistai or litteraly "shield bearers" were given bronze shields reserved to 3000 picked-up men, appointed to the royal guard. These elite troops fought outside of the phalanx and were equipped like hoplites, with a dory and a xiphos, kopis or machaira. They had brightly colored tunics and armors, and decorated helmets with plumes and feathers. They were also usable for many tasks, from beeing foot guards both in camp and in battle, protecting the advance of the basilikè Ilè of the Hetairoi in battle, as they did at Issus and Gaugamela while running and securing the flanks of the royal squadron, allowing a decisive breakthrough in enemy lines. When running, they would have taken only their shield, sword and perhaps a javelin, but retained their tunic in order to be more agile, and in standing battle configuration, when they secured the weak point of the phalanx, they were then heavily protected, with greaves and bronze or linen armor. With time, the royal foot guard evolved in more distinctive kind of troops, those which were effectively royal guards and used for special operations, and those which fought with the phalanx, but as fast troops.






    PELTASTAI MAKEDONIKOI (PHERASPIDAI):
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    These troops were mentioned but were relatively mysterious. They were a kind of very heavy peltasts (which were given aspis and not light peltè), capable of performing the same duty as peltasts, but fightning in melee with high skills as well. This was a late unit and an evolution of the Hypaspistai, confined in a "commando-like" duty. They were elites and trustworthy soldiers, a kind of "regular" peltasts alongside the mercenaries. They main equipment comprised javelins and a heavy sword (probably a machaira).





    EPIBATAI:
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    The antigonid fleet was the second biggest fleet in the mediterranean, rivalling the ptolemaic navy. With huge "battleships" like "20", and smaller "cruisers", which have complete decks with siege weapons and up to 50-80 naval troops (epibatai) became specialized both in boarding assault and "marine" coastal operations. They were versatile and highly skilled troops. However, the main tactics favourized by the hellenistic fleets were based on tactics like the diekplous, periplous and others rather than purely a boarding tactic as the romans did. These ships were fast and the most pupular tactic was the "breakthrough", using heavy "cruisers" (penterei and above) to brake the enemy line at full speed with their deadly rams, crushing enemy rows, and then revolving behind them in confusion to try to ramming disabled ships.








    4. Preview: PSILOI (skirmishers and light troops)

    AKONTISTAI:
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    The backbone of the light troops were the akontistai, from the acontos, a light wooden javelin, tipped with a simple rolled sheet of metal as spearhead. The acontos was light and could be used with the "armentum", a leather strap, in order to be thrown at great distances. So these light troops, recruited among peasants and foreigners, were used at the forefront to harrass enemy lines from a great distances, as slingers and archers. They were of course not intended to fight closer.






    TOXOTAI:
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    Regular archers were also peasants, mostly from mountaineous and forest regions, and were skilled as hunters. They have a greater range than slingers and javelinmen, but were a few compared to thracian archers and cretans, much more capable in this way.






    PELTASTAI:
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    By far the biggest part of the macedonian light troops, the peltasts were generally mercenaries from many surrounding nations : Paeonians, Illyrians, Dardanians, but mostly thracians. They were given a "peltè" and various melee weapon (the long dagger or akinakes, various kopis and xiphos, curved swords like the sica or axes. Lately the peltasts integrated in the macedonian army became more heavily equipped, with greaves, bigger shields (the thureos) and helmets. They were no more pure "mercenaries" but became a part of the regular army. Later they evolved as spearmen and most of them were upgraded as medium troops, the thureophoroi. In any case, their versatility and capabilities in close combat were well-used alongside the phalanx.






    KENTROSPHENDONETAI:
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    From "kestros", the dart which was thrown by a specially made sling, or propelled by a staff on a sling. This weapon remained obscure but it was known by a Polybian short account about some of these new weapons in the army of Perseus, shortly before the last open condrontation between the macedonians and the roman republic (168-169 bc). The only other depiction is from Livy, which spoke more deeply about its general construction, but not exaclty about its use or effect. Modern reconstruction by reenactors and sling specialists show that it was reliable and could perform well, but only after a severe training. It was also longer to reload, but allowed more deadly and accurates shots than any other weapon of the time, if correctly used, thanks to the shape of the darts, which allowed straight and precise trajectories.






    GASTRAPHETES:
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    This infantry was the forerunner of medieval arbastriers. Although in china this kind of weapon was well-known and even more refined, Hellenistic Gastraphetes were cumbersome and heavy, slow-rating, but with long range, shock power and accuracy. It was more a siege one-man weapon than a battlefield weapon. However, this weapon was probably invented between 399 bc and mentions from posterior authors like Hero of Alexandria which talsk about the ancestor of the katapeltikon as a one-manned weapon. The first army would have held it was probably Syracuse, and the gastraphetes were one unit of psiloi of the tyran Dionisyus I. Later, the macedonian army of Alexander managed several sieges and it is not abvious that several specially trained soldiers manned this weapon to kill the defensers. Another probable user was the famous Demetrios Poliorcetes and his huge war tower, the Helepolis, housed probably dozens of gastraphetes, firing from upper stages. Many assault towers would have been also equipped with upper structures, housing several of these units, the configuration of these towers was better than for archers. Another use of them occured during the sieg of Syracuse by the Romans, then, defended by Archimedes. This was one of his famous machines, although not credited to his genius, but those of the ancient rulers of Syracuse... Polybe is the only one to not mention the Gastraphetes, although speaking of other psiloi in the army of Perseus, with a kind of staff-sling, the "Ceste".








    5. Preview: Hippeis (Cavalry)

    HIPPAKONTISTAI:
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    The lightest part of the macedonian cavalry was these auxiliary scouts from the peasantry. They were lightly equipped but hihly skilled horsemen, biing used to harrass enemy light troops and cavalry. They avoided melee combat in any case, but were usable as a scouting force.





    MAKEDONIKOI HIPPEIS:
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    Alongside the heavy cavalry or hetairoi, which was a noble cavalry, the macedonians needed a regular vesatile medium cavalry to fight alongside. These were knwon as the "hippeis", recruited amongst citizens which could afford a horse and light equipment. Macedonian cavalrymen were known to used a distinctive "cap", a kind of hat, and of course wore boots and thick cloaks. They were lancers, equipped with a light version of the xyston, machaira or xiphos for close combat, and were fast. Their duty was to protect the flanks of the hetairoi and to chase enemy light cavalry. They reinforced the breakthrough made by the hetairoi and were a highly capable screening force, also excelling in pursuing routed units. However, this kind of cavalry was lately replaced by more heavily equipped sarissphoroi.






    MAKEDONIKOI PRODROMOI:
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    The main body of the mercenary cavalry was provided by thracian cavalrymen, which were lightely equipped, but highly skilled and known as "prodromoi" ("scouts"). In fact, they were given the same equipment as peltasts. Lately they became a part of the regular cavalry, and many of them under Philip II were given a cavalry version of the sarissa, slighty shorter, to reinforce the heavy cavalry. The "sarissphoroi" became a major part of the macedonian cavalry later (see above), but regular and mercenary prodromoi still made their job as scouts, screening force, and hippakontistai hunters.






    THRAIKOI PRODROMOI :
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    As auxiliaries, thracian cavalrymen were integrated in the Alexandrian army just before the persian campaign. They proved highly reliable, and then were derivated into several light and medium units, not always of thracian origin. The Antigonid army still relied on its thracian auxiliaries for scouting duties. They were light, fast, endurant, and able to deal with light cavalry and infantry as well. They had no armor. Their armament was made of javelins and a machaira, and they have a large thureos for added protection. Some were provisionally rearmed with a cavalry sarissa (a kind of light xyston), the last would be carried split in half to allow the cavalryman to carry also additional javelins, like any prodromoi did, or sarissas were given to them in the pitch of battle. Anyway, they became known as "sarissphoroi".






    SARISSPHOROI:
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    These rearmed prodromoi became in time permanently equipped as lancers, and a distinctive part of the medium cavalry. By the antigonid period, they became even heavyer, to supply the depleted ranks of the noble cavalry (hetairoi). During the third macedonian war which saw Perseus engaging roman troops, the major part of its heavy cavalry was made of sarisphoroi of thracian descent, alongside many "xystophoroi" and mercenary lancers like rearmed paeonians...





    XYSTOPHOROI:
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    The xystophoroi were macedonian hosemen, formerly the old "hippeis" with upgraded equipements, including leather or linen armor, helmet, and a kyston, the lance cavalry which was probably 5 meters long and usually taken by one hand and lay over the shoulder. In charge, it was manned by two hands. Relatively light and fast, the xystophoroi were skilled lancers, and their xyston was used against light and fleeing troops, rathers than a heavily cladded line of experienced soldiers. It was not used to make breakthrough but still to reinforce the flanks and engaging in melee other cavalrymen and light troops or broken enemy lines, hammering infantry with a machaira. As for the phalanx, they used to pay their own equipment, and their helmets could be really diversein shapes and styles, ranging form the classic attic and chalcidian model to the cheap konos or the popular phrygian model, and lately the heavy thracian model, or the elegant Beotian helmet. Their officers wore probably feathered phrygian helmets.






    ASPIDOPHOROI:
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    In fact, it is still difficult to have a clear view of the tactics of this kind of cavalry unit, rarely mentioned by ancient authors. The main question was "were they just regular cavalrymen using a aspis in an isolated battle action, or was it a regukar unit ? " Still debatable. However, the tactic used seems obviously to have a better action in melee combat, against other cavalrymen and infantrymen as well, even dismounted actions, the horse beeing only a way of transportation. In fact, betwwn the noble cavalry and the versatile, but lightly protected prodromoi, a gap existed, which was filled with time by many cavalry units, with many names and varied armament but a single goal : Add their weight in melee combat. The Aspidophroi were specifically designed to deal with javelin armed troops, peltasts and derivated thureophoroi and thorakitai which were common and more agile than the highly static phalanx, and defined new tactical approaches. So the aspidophoroi were first armed as prodromoi, but quite better protected, with an aspis and an armor, and a beter hemet, perhaps thracian with large cheeks. It was also a useful melee cavalry, protecting the heavy lancers which leads the charge, making like a "safety corridor" on its sides.






    LONCHOPHOROI:
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    The "lonchophoi" were in fact "rearmed aspidophoroi", they were equipped with a lance as a main weapon, the machaira still doing its bloody business in close quarters. But their main origin was the prodromoi, they were rearmed with a lance like the sarisphoroi for tactical actions and an excellent protection to deal with medium and light infantymen on the battlefield. With time, some could have been given greaves for added protection.





    HETAIROI:
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    With 200 men strong contingents, the noble land owners formed the bulk of the macedonian cavalry before alexandrian conquest. After it, and after the long and harsh Diadochi wars, their number has fallen dramatically. To reinforce this core, many former light and medium cavalry units were reequipped as lancers. But they were not high-spirited and well equipped as could be the Hetairoi then, in 300 bc. They are still the strong core of the cavalry and the most trusted cavalry unit in the civilized world. They were generally more lightely equipped than the royal squadron, but their tactical training and overall stamina gave them the upper hand in many cavalry combats, and their manoeuvers were still decisive.





    EPILEKTOI SARISPHOROI:
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    With the the alexandrian conquest, the number of nobles which were part of the Hetairoi, later called also "philoi", or companion cavalry, gradually decrease dramatically. To fill the ranks of the heavy cavalry, the Antigonids used to select the best of their regular cavalrymen, usually the prodromoi and sarisphoroi, often of thracian, agrian, or paeonian origin, trained and equipped them as heavy cavalrymen. They could have ben called either "beltistoi" and "epilektoi", and they were not nobles, but a prominent and growing part of the cavalry during the Antigonid era. But still, they were not used to crush compact infantry lines, but to harass the flanks and rear, and to execute fast and decisive manoeuvers alongside the hetairoi.






    AGEMA HETAIROI (early bodyguards):
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    Or "Basilikè Ilè", they were the royal squadron, 300 close companions of the king. After Alexander death, many of them became even kings. Highly skilled cavalrymen, hardened in their youth by a fierce military formation and later by hunting parties against wild animals like the greek Lion, they were, at the beginning, lightly equipped, with a beotian helmet, a tunic, boots, a wide cloak, and a xyston. But after some battles and war expereince capitalized under Philip II, many of them were rearmed more heavily in the Thessalian style. The Royal squadron, 300 strong instead of the regular 250 units, was designed to lead the charge, at the forefront edge. So they were also the best protected, and most of them would have in time bronze armors, and greaves. Other hetaroi were more lightely equipped but later, during the diadochi wars and after, tactics became less inspired by tactical speed and the lancers were even more heaily equipped, with "cataphract" horses, especially in the eastern kingdoms, while fightning the parthians. But still, these cataphracts were not designed to charge compact blocs of infantrymen, but disrupt thoses which were already weakened (by psiloi for example), and the rear and sides, never the front of them. The protection was merely of better use against all array of missiles, no more.





    AGEMA HETAIROI (Late bodyguards):
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    : At the time of Perseus, the king's companions still formed a 300-strong elite unit of crack cavalry, but tactics used made them far more heavyer than during Philip II era... Probably under contact with evolved eatern hetairoi, they were partial cataphracts, and much more slower. Their main task was to peform a descisive maneouver at the weakest point of the enemy formation, but now they were reinforced by many other no nobles cavalrymen. And with mixed successes : Alexander the great was still the greatest cavalry captain ever.







    6. Preview: Macedonian AOR and Mercenaries

    METOIKOI - PERIOIKOI PELTASTAI:
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    This infantry was the low-class inhabitants of areas beyond the rule or hegemony of the most powerful greek city-states yet, the Achaians or Peloponnesians (Perioikoi) and the Attic (Metoikoi). Both enjoyed different origins and social status but they usually made auxiliary troops for the local hegemon.





    ACHAIOI PHALANGITAI:
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    The balance of great powers in the late Hellenistic wars of succession after the death of Alexander, cemented the geographical balance to the east of the Mediterranean. The city-states of Greece, petrified by the fate of Thebes, stood quiet and the disorders of succession occurred in Macedonia, the pressure is released somewhat on the particular city-states of the Peloponnese, including Sparta. The latter remained fully independent but will no longer hegemonic displayed, or the feeling of being a counterweight to the ambitions of the kings of Pella. The Achaian Confederation, after an alliance of cities in northern Peloponnese u and the Gulf of Corinth, already existed in the fifth century. She lived during the Peloponnesian War, disappeared, then reappeared with the Macedonian stranglehold on the states of Greece. In 220, the league was reconstituted and went to war against the Etolians, giving birth to the second war of the allied. \n\nThe league under Aratos, was allied to the young Philip V of Macedonia, who had taken part against the Etolians, seen mostly by some authors like Polybius as half-pirates and greek warband fallen into banditry. At that time, troops of the league were mainly composed of mercenaries and thureophoroi. In recent fighting in the manner of light troops and were not important compared with Macedonians or Spartans. It was under Philipoemen, the father of Polybius, as a strategist in the league, that the army was deeply reformed in 208, due to the adoption of the phalanx and hoplites for a heavy equipment. Phalanxes of Megalopolis (native city of both Philopoemen and Polybius) were particularly well equipped with large shields of bronze donated years ago by Antigonos Doson. Some wore the armor of bronze, the other more modern linothorax. The shield was made of bronze or wood, measuring about 60 cm, the sarisse was about 5.50 meters to 6 meters. The helmets were probably still chalcidien model for the most part, inherited from past wars, but the helmet thrace heavier and protects better had made a massive appearance. With these reforms in the Macedonian league put a campaign against the ambitious tyrant of Sparta, Nabis. The latter had undertaken the conquest of Messenia and philopoemen to deliver a decisive halt to the battle tected. After a betrayal of the Etolians, Nabis was killed, Sparta looted, then released and finally resumed and controlled in 189 by the achaian league. This was a renew for Sparta itself, because she was deeply reformed and fully assimilated to the league, which then controlled the entire Peloponesus. After 197, the Macedonian power underwent a strong roman diplomatical pressure. Phillopoemen had the misfortune to ally with the young Perseus, last king of Macedonia, and suffered the wrath of the Senate after the defeat of the latter in 168. The league continued to exist, however, and was the heart of a revolt against Roman domination in 146. Lucius Mummius reaches the end of a swift campaign to crush the achaian army and dissolve the league. By now all the greeks entered a Roman domination, for more than one and a half millenary, and under the byzantines.





    THRAIKOI PELTASTAI:
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    These classic mercenaries were used since Philip II to Antigonos, with sheer numbers as skirmishers and versatile light infantry. Contrary to the akontistai, raw recruits from the peasant class, the peltasts were professional soldiers, hardened thracians by any standards. Despite their lack of protection they were a match against any infantry. They fought with good quality tipped javelins, and various weapons, ready to kill in hand-to-hand combat with anything available to them : Spears, clubs, axes, daggers (like the akinakes), and of course the Sica, the famous curved blade derived from agricultural tool. They were hired both as auxiliaries and mercenaries. Auxiliaries were better trained, equipped, and under close command of macedonian officers. Mercenaries were leaded by local warband chieftains, and more undisciplined, they best used in ambushes and scouting missions.





    AGRIANAI:
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    The famous Agrianians were feared thracian tribesmen, they hold a special mention in history. First and foremost, they seems to have been the main thracian infantry recruited in the macedonian army. Firstly as mercenaries, but quickly as auxiliaries. They seems to have been chiefly psiloi (skirmishers, archers and slingers), but throughout alexander campaign in asia, they shown reckless bravey and skills in close combat, and were especially praised as assault infantry, as they shown in many sieges. At the death of Alexander, they were the main assault infantry in the macedonian army. The name itself became a way of fightning and equipment. They became heavy peltasts, with impressive skills in close combat, usually with an axe and heavy javelins. So during the antigonid era, the "agrianai" were not necessarily of Agrianian descent, but recruited in various thracian tribes.





    THRAIKOI EPILEKTOI:
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    A the very end of the Alexandrian campaign, many thracian veterans (former peltasts) never returned home, they were settled on macedonian lands and given some lands. Such skilled infantryen were stillin demnd for leading assaults and be used against elite mercenaries. They were trustful and influencial. Thracian veterans were equipped with bronze-face thureos and romphaias, plus heavy javelins. They fought like heavy peltasts and fast assault troops.





    ILLYRIOI PELTASTAI:
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    Since the reign of Philipp II which submitted some of the most vicious illyrian tribes, illryian mercenaries became current in macedonian campaigns. Most of them fought with cheap weapons, expecting to gain better equipment while looting the enemy. A typical illyrian infantryman was used as a peltast. These fearsome raiders were known to use javelins, but also axes, falxes and clubs. A wooden shield, sometimes a leather helmet, were their only protection. They were hired in large quantities by alexander the great prior to his campaign in asia, and they gave excellent accounts of them in many pitched battles. The Antigonid kingdom still needed large supplies of auxiliary peltasts, so many illyrians were still recruited.





    MISTOPHOROI THRAIKOI PRODROMOI:
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    These classic cavalrymen were also used since the time of Philip II as scouts. It's the very sense of "prodromoi". Fast and agile, they were not well protected, but with a large thureos and a phrygian helmet, and with a bunch of javelins and a machaira they were a match for any horsemen on close combat. They were also brillant against light infantry, especially the "psiloi"...





    THESSALIOI HIPPEIS (MISTOPHOROI):
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    The Thessalians were a famous cavalry used by the Macdonian as a part of their heavy cavalry. They fought in many campaigns but their number decrease, and the best trained were killed when Antigonos still have a core of veterans. Such Thessalian auxiliary cavalry was probably reconstructed with less trained cavalrymen, but still highly reliable as were the Hetairoi.





    PAEONIOI HIPPEIS:
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    The Paeonians, a northern Balkanic people, were master horsemen, with tremendous skirmishing and close-combat skills. They were used as auxiliaries by Alexander and his Antigonid successors. Some of them were recruited as a part of the "prodromoi", others served as xystophoroi and lancers. They were agile, well protected, fierce and deadly in close-combat.



    Last edited by Nelduin; September 09, 2011 at 07:41 AM.

  2. #2

    Default Re: Preview - Makedon

    A bump for the new visitors of forum.
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  3. #3
    Basileos Predator's Avatar Campidoctor
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    Default Re: Preview - Makedon

    Cool

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    Visarion's Avatar Alexandros
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    Default Re: Preview - Makedon

    great preview!

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    Evalation's Avatar Centenarius
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    Default Re: Preview - Makedon

    I was just going back over this preveiw and I came across the Gastraphetes. Resef, bro, you know what you should do.. make an animation for the gastraphetes (if its possible, if not its all good).

    You would recieve soooo much rep from me.
    "I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a sheep; I am afraid of an army of sheep led by a lion." - Alexander the Great

  6. #6

    Default Re: Preview - Makedon

    Yeah, I have been looking into it already for the next release. Any others that need an animation let me know, since I only caught that one last month
    Contributor in The AI Workshop
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  7. #7
    Evalation's Avatar Centenarius
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    Default Re: Preview - Makedon

    Quote Originally Posted by Resef View Post
    Yeah, I have been looking into it already for the next release. Any others that need an animation let me know, since I only caught that one last month
    k will do.
    "I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a sheep; I am afraid of an army of sheep led by a lion." - Alexander the Great

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