The balance of great powers in the late Hellenistic wars of succession after the death of Alexander, cemented the geographical balance to the east of the Mediterranean. The city-states of Greece, petrified by the fate of Thebes, stood quiet and the disorders of succession occurred in Macedonia, the pressure is released somewhat on the particular city-states of the Peloponnese, including Sparta. The latter remained fully independent but will no longer hegemonic displayed, or the feeling of being a counterweight to the ambitions of the kings of Pella. The Achaian Confederation, after an alliance of cities in northern Peloponnese u and the Gulf of Corinth, already existed in the fifth century. She lived during the Peloponnesian War, disappeared, then reappeared with the Macedonian stranglehold on the states of Greece. In 220, the league was reconstituted and went to war against the Etolians, giving birth to the second war of the allied. \n\nThe league under Aratos, was allied to the young Philip V of Macedonia, who had taken part against the Etolians, seen mostly by some authors like Polybius as half-pirates and greek warband fallen into banditry. At that time, troops of the league were mainly composed of mercenaries and thureophoroi. In recent fighting in the manner of light troops and were not important compared with Macedonians or Spartans. It was under Philipoemen, the father of Polybius, as a strategist in the league, that the army was deeply reformed in 208, due to the adoption of the phalanx and hoplites for a heavy equipment. Phalanxes of Megalopolis (native city of both Philopoemen and Polybius) were particularly well equipped with large shields of bronze donated years ago by Antigonos Doson. Some wore the armor of bronze, the other more modern linothorax. The shield was made of bronze or wood, measuring about 60 cm, the sarisse was about 5.50 meters to 6 meters. The helmets were probably still chalcidien model for the most part, inherited from past wars, but the helmet thrace heavier and protects better had made a massive appearance. With these reforms in the Macedonian league put a campaign against the ambitious tyrant of Sparta, Nabis. The latter had undertaken the conquest of Messenia and philopoemen to deliver a decisive halt to the battle tected. After a betrayal of the Etolians, Nabis was killed, Sparta looted, then released and finally resumed and controlled in 189 by the achaian league. This was a renew for Sparta itself, because she was deeply reformed and fully assimilated to the league, which then controlled the entire Peloponesus. After 197, the Macedonian power underwent a strong roman diplomatical pressure. Phillopoemen had the misfortune to ally with the young Perseus, last king of Macedonia, and suffered the wrath of the Senate after the defeat of the latter in 168. The league continued to exist, however, and was the heart of a revolt against Roman domination in 146. Lucius Mummius reaches the end of a swift campaign to crush the achaian army and dissolve the league. By now all the greeks entered a Roman domination, for more than one and a half millenary, and under the byzantines.