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Thread: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

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    Default (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    Before I start describing the state of the Late Roman army and listing quotes from The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, is there anyone that is interested in reading my information? I ask this before I start an AAR or any other writing task simply to know if what I'am writing will be noticed. If you're interested, you will be entertained by my writing and the various quotes I'll list. Before I start the main task, there will be a prelude to show the disparity between Gallienus and Claudius in their reigns.
    Last edited by Imperator of Rome; June 25, 2010 at 10:11 AM.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Gothicus Claudius - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    I'm sure the writers will be interested.

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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Gothicus Claudius - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    Prelude Overview- The Usurpation of Power by the Roman army and the Reign of Gallenius

    " Such was the unhappy condition of the Roman emperors that, whatever might be their conduct, their fate was commonly the same. A life of pleasure or virtue, of severity or mildness, of indolence or glory, alike led to an untimely grave ; and almost every reign is closed by the same digusting repetition of treason and murder."-Gibbon, Reign of Tacitus, Probus, Carus and His Sons

    That was what commonly happened after the soldiers first figured out they could control the outcome of their empire by controlling the person who would succeed to Imperial splendor, or the current emperor. The soldiers were often the enemy of the people and the Senate, and in one instance, of that of the cruelty of Maximinus the Goth/Alani emperor, the Senate formed a regular army and started nominating emperors. Actually to digress a bit, the majority of the emperors selected by the soldiers were often incapable of remorse, while the ones selected by the Senate were relics of a bygone age- The Age of the Antonines and often skilled at serving the empire than the selections of soldiers, yet the Senate was continually weakened( later on, they couldn't even raise armies in their defense simply because they did so when a barbarian horde was coming on Italy). Now back to the point, many of the emperors till Claudius were playthings of the soldiers or either inspired great fear in them to keep in control, the majority of them increased soldier pay and sent a shook of laziness into the Roman soldiers, who were inclined to support the man who would increase their donatives before the man who would save their empire from destruction. I will supply a vicarious quote of what usually occurred when a virtuous senator inspired to reinvigorate the Republic and what happened afterwards.

    " On a sudden, before the break of day, the senate was called together in the temple of Concord to meet the guards and to ratify the election of a new emperor. For a few minutes they sat in silent suspense, doubtful of their unexpected deliverance and suspicious of the cruel artifices of Commodus; but when at length they were assured the tyrant was no more, they resigned themselves to all the transports of joy and indignation. Pertinax, who modestly represented the meanness of his extraction and pointed out several noble senators more deserving than himself of the empire, was constrained by their dutiful violence to ascend the throne and received all the titles of Imperial power, confirmed by the most sincere vows of fidelity." Gibbon- The Cruelty, Follies, and Murder of Commodus

    Here is what Pertinax did before he was killed off. I'll try to use broken quotes.

    " To heal, as far as it was possible, the wounds inflicted by the hand of the tyrant was the pleasing but melancholy tast of Pertinax. The innocent victims who yet survived were recalled from exile, released from prison, and restored to the full possession of their honors and fortune. The unburied bodies of murdered senators ( for the cruelty of Commodus endeavored to extend itself beyond death) were deposited in the sepulchres of their ancestors; their memory was justified and every consolation was bestowed on their ruined and afflicted families." Gibbon- The Cruelty, Follies, and Murder of Commodus

    The reformation of the government was also one of his other tasks.
    " One of the most grateful was the punishment of the Delators; the common enemies of their master, of virtue, and of their country. Yet even in the inquisition of these legal assassins, Pertinax proceeded with a steady temper which gave everything to justice and nothing to pupular prejudice and resentment." Gibbon- The Cruelty, Follies, and Murder of Commodus

    " Yet under these distressed circumstances, Pertinax had the generous firmness to remit all the oppressive taxes invented by Commodus and to cancel all the unjust claims of the treasury; declaring, in a decree of the senate"that he was better satisfied to administer a poor republic with innocence than to acquire riches by the ways of tyranny and dishonor.""Gibbon- The Cruelty, Follies, and Murder of Commodus

    That was what Pertinax accomplished in less than a year, which corresponded with the ideals of the Republic and not with the demands of the soldiers, that led to his downfall. What I will quote next will occur in such repitition that I can only name 2 or 3 emperors who died from old age or war.

    " Amidst the general joy, the sullen and angry countenance of the Praetorian guards betrayed their inward dissatisfaction. They had reluctantly submitted to Pertinax; they dreaded the strictness of the ancient discipline which he was preparing to restore; and they regretted the license of the former reign. On the twenty - eighth of March, 193 A.D, eighty - six days only after the death of Commodus, a general sedition broke out in the camp which the officers wanted either power or inclination to suppress. Two or three hundred of the most desperate soldiers marched at noonday, with arms in their hands and fury in their looks, towards the Imperial palace. The gates were thrown open by their companions upon guard and by the domestics of the old court, who had already formed a secret conspiracy against the life of the too virtuous emperor. On the news of their approach, Pertinax, disdaining either flight or concealment, advanced to meet his assassins, and recalled to their minds his own innocence and the sanctity of their recent oath. For a few moments they stood in silent suspense, ashamed of their atrocious design, and awed by the venerable aspect and majestic firmness of their sovereign, till at length, the despair of pardon reviving their fury, a barbarian of the country of Tongress leveled the first blow against Pertinax, who was instantly despatched with a multitude of wounds. His head, separated from his body and placed on a lance, was carried in triumph to the Praetorian camp in the sight of a mournful and indignant people, who lamented the unworthy fate of that excellent prince and the transient blessings of a reign, the memory of which could serve only to aggravate their approaching misfortunes." Gibbon- The Cruelty, Follies, and Murder of Commodus

    That is the prelude to the sale of the empire to Didius Julius, and to the reign of Septimius's family in which all of his successor were killed off for various reasons. Afterwards is the reign of Maximinus, that tyrant whose palace was the camp and whose camp resided on the Danube. He caused Italy to rebel from him because of his cruelty to all who knew he was originally a barbarian peasant. Afterwards are the emperors who were nominated by the Senate, 2 of whom were killed in Africa and the other 2 killed off by the Guard. Gordian III was the descendent of the first 2 mentioned, and his noble spirit was cast to the other world by Philip the Arab. Finally Philip fell and Decius also fell, consumed by the blade. He died in one of the first contacts between the raiding Goths who would be such an object of terror to the Romans and their defeat showed them the weakness that they obtained by usurping the people and the emperor and not maintaining the discipline of their ancestors. Next was Gallus, who made Valerian his censor( It's a very powerful title in the 3rd century, so much that Valerian said himself that he couldn't do it) and was overthrown by Aemilianus. He sadly forgot that Valerian was in control of a legion and Valerian came to aid his emperor to find that he was one( he didn't want to be). Now, I'll talk about the character of Gallienus, after Valerius was captured by the Persians and when the empire was breaking up so rapidly it seemed as the world was going to end.
    Last edited by Imperator of Rome; June 26, 2010 at 09:10 AM.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Gothicus Claudius - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    Ok, that is the prelude. I'll write and quote about the heroes of the Illyrian province and the fall of Gallienus+ his character.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Gothicus Claudius - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    I follow this with interest!

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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Gothicus Claudius - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)


    So, we are presented with the bust of Gallienus and you shall be presented with his traits and his conquests(if he attained any) and his failures( which were many). As for research, I consulted one or two books and wiki, which said Gallienus did some good as some bad, but insight provides truth, and I doubt a man who lost some 3/4ths of the empire could be of any benefit for the wellfare of the Republic. To remove any doubts, I'll provide this quote oh, and I'll add this in to more vicariously illustrate the situation that was occuring after the downfall of Commodus.

    "The rapid and perpetual transitions from the cottage to the throne, and from the throne to the grave, might have amused an indifferent philosopher; were it possible for a philosopher to remain indifferent amidst the general calamities of humankind. The election of these precarious emperors, their power and their death, were equally destructive to their subjects and adherents. The price of their fatal elevation was instantly discharged to the troops by an immense donative(or donation) , drawn from the bowels of the exhausted people. However virtuous was their character, however pure their intentions, they found themselves reduced to the hard necessity of supporting their usurpation by frequent acts of rapine and cruelty. When they fell, they involved armies and provinces in their fall." Gibbon - Emperors Decius, Gallus, Aemilianus, Valerian, and Gallienus

    Now on to Gallienus's reply in a letter.
    "There is still extant a most savage mandate from Gallienus to one of his ministers after the suppression of Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple in Illyricum. "It is not enough," says that soft but inhuman prince," that you exterminate such as have appeared in arms; the chance of battle might have served me as effectually. The male sex of every age must be extirpated; provided that in the execution of the children and old men, you can contrive means to save our reputation. Let every one die who has dropped an expression, who has entertained a thought against me, against me, the son of Valerian, the father and brother of so many princes. Remember that Ingenuus was made emperor: tear, kill, hew in pieces. I write to you with my own hand, and would inspire you with my own feelings." The bravest usurpers were compelled by the perplexity of their situation to conclude ignominious treaties with the common enemy, to purchase with oppressive tributes the neutrality or services of the Barbarians, and to introduce hostile and independent nations in the heart of the Roman monarchy." Gibbon - Emperors Decius, Gallus, Aemilianus, Valerian, and Gallienus

    Now, I'll try to compile what he basically did when he wasn't pissed off by some usurper and forced into battle. He talked with philosophers when the Goths and Franks were rampaging the provinces. He cooked and gardened while province after province rebelled. He once said that he didn't care as long as Egypt and Gaul supplied Rome with linen and cloth(although, Gaul did rebel). He lived his life with excess of indifference for his subjects and thus, he was eclipsed by the granduer of his successor, Gothicus Claudius.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Gothicus Claudius - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    He talked with philosophers when the Goths and Franks were rampaging the provinces. He cooked and gardened while province after province rebelled.
    I just could never understand how emperors could be so oblivious. Every time I read or hear of something so foolish I just think of what I would do.

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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Gothicus Claudius - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    I simply don't know. Gallienus was a tyrant type though and tyrants either were 1. Really tyrants(Valentinian I was just a pissed off badass)-"was also the last emperor to conduct campaigns across the Rhine and Danube rivers. He rebuilt and improved the fortifications along the frontiers - even building fortresses in enemy territory. Due to the successful nature of his reign and almost immediate decline of the empire after his death, he is often referred to as the "last great emperor", they fought their enemies as well as they persecuted their citizens. or 2. Like Commodus, or Gallienus and simply let the world burn up while they did useless tasks and killed people.
    Last edited by Imperator of Rome; June 28, 2010 at 01:57 AM.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Gothicus Claudius - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    The Illyrian Emperors


    Restitutor Rei Publicae - Claudius Gothicus

    The time of suffering was at an end for now. Even though its situation was dire and perplexing, Rome would once again arise out of the ashes that was fuelled by the tyranny of fools and murderers.

    " Under the deplorable reigns of Valerian and Gallienus, the empire was oppressed and almost destroyed by the soldiers, the tyrants, and the Barbarians. It was saved by a series of great princes who derived their obscure origin from the martial provinces of Illyricum. Within a period of about thirty years, Claudius, Aurelian, Probus, Diocletian and his colleagues triumphed over the foreign and domestic enemies of the state, reestablished, with the military discipline, the strength of the frontiers, and deserved the glorious title of Restorers of the Roman world" Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    The age of conquerors was upon Rome, and also the beginning of the Late Roman epoch.

    " The removal of an effeminate tyrant made way for a succession of heroes. The indignation of the people imputed all their calamities to Gallienus, and the far greater part were indeed the consequence of his dissolute manners and careless administration." Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    Gallienus's last action was his only selfless action in his life.

    " Emcompassed by his declared or concealed enemies, he soon, amidst the nocturnal tumult, received a mortal dart from an uncertain hand. Before he expired, a patriotic sentiment rising in the mind of Gallienus induced him to name a deserving successor; and it was his last request that the Imperial ornaments should be delivered to Claudius, who then commanded a detached army in the neighborhood of Pavia. The report at least was diligently propagated and the order cheerfully obeyed by the conspirators, who had already agreed to place Claudius on the throne." Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    As for the history of Claudius, he was an Illyrian native who caught the eye of Decius. Claudius was recognized by the Senate for his merit and by the order of Valerian, made leader of the Illyrian bands, who engaged the barbarians so often with their superior discipline. Last but not least, he was given a statue before Gallienus death for the defeat of the Goths, which made Gallienus jealous because he could not do what his subject could with vigor or vigilance. As for Claudius's character, it can be observed in what he endeavored to accomplish, and in such a small amount of time, his accomplishments had such a reaching effect that for decades, the fall of the empire was delayed.

    " In the arduous task which Claudius had undertaken of restoring the empire to its ancient splendor, it was first necessary to revive among his troops a sense of order and obedience. With the authority of a veteran commander, he represented to them that the relaxation of discipline had introduced a long train of disorders, the effects of which were at length experienced by the soldiers themselves; that a people ruined by oppression and indolent from despair could no longer supply a numerous army with the means of luxury, or even of subsistence; that the danger of each individual had increased with the despotism of the military order, since princes who tremble on the throne will guard their safety by the instant sacrifice of every obnoxious subject. The emperor expatiated on the mischiefs of a lawless caprice which the soldiers could only gratify at the expense of their own blood, as their seditious elections had so frequently been followed by civil wars which consumed the flower of the legions either in the field of battle or in the cruel abuse of victory. He painted in the most lively colors the exhausted state of the treasury, the desolation of the provinces, the disgrace of the Roman name, and the insolent triumph of rapacious Barbarians. It was against those Barbarians, he declared, that he intended to point the first efforts of their arms." Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    As for the results of the campaign, it was successor. All that remained of the Goths were a band of deprived men, who avoided the calculated wrath of disease and of the Romans. However.

    " The pestilence which swept away such numbers of the Barbarians at length proved fatal to their conqueror. After a short but glorious reign of two years, Claudius expired at Sirmium, amidst the tears and acclamations of his subects. In his last illness, he convened the principal officers of the state and the army, and in their presence recommended Aurelian, one of his generals, as the most deserving of the throne, and the best qualified to execute the great design which he himself had been permitted only to undertake." Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    As for Claudius's character, he inherited all the virtues of Alexander and Marcus Aurelius and none of their faults. There is no blemish that I have read of except the catching of an illness that proved to be his greatest adversary. It is also worth noting, that the house of noble Constantius Chlorus, whose progeny produced the tyrants and the hero Julianus, was related to Claudius. Claudius had completed his main task, which was putting forth a program of reformation that would once again gave Rome supremacy in war.
    Last edited by Imperator of Rome; August 01, 2010 at 11:33 PM.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    RESTITVTOR ORBIS- Aurelian


    Now, with the Goths of the border being beaten back, it was time for the revenge of the Caesars, and that task was indebted to Aurelian, who in the period of four years, conquered the Roman world and imposed a strict and absolute discipline on the chaos caused by the Roman legions. It was he, that allowed later emperors to survive the decay, he that led to the last great outburst of Greco-Roman valor in the soul of Julian and Theodosius. Now the character of the hero and his exploits must be discussed to give respect to his name and title.

    In the heart of Aurelian was the heart of a soldier, but one endowed with sense and control. He inspired the legions with the fear of his fierce and decisive actions, but he was able to spare his foes with the same resolute nature he displayed in his punishments of the legions. He forced the legions, on fear of death, to keep their arms sharp and armor bright, and to keep their minds chaste. They were to be reminded that they were the saviors of their society, and they shouldn't exploit their right to arms or Aurelian will exploit his right to impose exquisite punishments on them. These quotes will speak much about his reformations in the army, and their return to greatness.

    "It was the rigid attention of Aurelian even to the minutest articles of discipline which bestowed such uninterrupted success on his arms. His military regulations are contained in a very concise epistle to one of his inferior officers, who is commanded to enforce tham as he wishes to become a tribune, or as he is desirous to live. Gaming, drinking, and the arts of divination were severely prohibited. Aurelian expected that his soldiers should be modest, frugal, and laborious; that their armor should be constantly kept bright, their weapons sharp, their clothing and horses ready for immediate service; that they should live in their quarters with chastity and sobriety, without damaging the cornfields, without stealing even a sheep, a fowl or a bunch of grapes, without exacting from their landlords either salt, or oil or wood."The public allowance." continues the emperor, "is sufficient for their support; their wealth should be collected from the spoils of the enemy, not from the tears of the provincials."Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    Also described are the effects of his punishments.
    " The punishments of Aurelian were terrible; but he had seldom occasion to punish more than once the same offense. His own conduct gave a sanction to his laws, and the seditious legions dreaded a chief who had learned to obey, and who was worthy of command." Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    Now, it will be time to describe his campaigns, specifically the battles between the Alamanni and the famous Zenobia and also his untimely death.(will write later).
    Last edited by Imperator of Rome; August 01, 2010 at 11:31 PM.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    Does anyone want an update to this review of the reigns of Roman emperors? Just asking to see if anyone is actively reading it.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    It's up to you, I think.

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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    It is, but it isn't worth typing it if no one is interested in it continuing.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    As long as you write, I'll read. I'm not sure who else, though.

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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    It has been updated.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    I have just read it all, keep it up, there are many that don't half of this stuff, you are doing a service, especially to those that may know little of the Roman empire, you might spark the interest to learn more


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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    The Campaigns of Aurelian


    The campaigns will be sorted according to the foes he encountered and eventually vanquished in the field of battle.
    1. Italy, vs the Alamanni-
    Prior to the engagements, the Goths and Aurelian had agreed to a treaty with the Goths providing support to the Romans. It also resulted with Aurelian relinquishing the Dacia province in order to make the Illyrian border easier to control. However, the Alamanni did not follow through with that peace agreement, and suddenly, the Alamanni surged from the Danube to the Po, alarming Aurelian. Aurelian was forced to appear in arms at Placentia, and Aurelian's army was ambushed by an army of Alamanni coming out of a forest nearby. The fact that the Roman army had just did a swift march almost meant the end for the Romans, except that Aurelian rallied the troops and was able to perform a retreat.

    The second battle was fought at Fano in Umbria, where Aurelian, shadowing the horde, slammed in their formation and forced the Alamanni to escape by way of river. The third battle, of Pavia, killed off any of the remaining Alamanni and recovered the honor of the Roman name. Still, however, it did frighten Aurelian and provoked him to build a series of walls in Rome, just in case the situation ever became that dire.

    2. Aurelian vs Tetricus I, Emperor of Gaul- In Gaul, after the disorder of Gallienus had provoked them to rebel, there had been a series of monarchs who acted in their own power or was controlled by another inside the state. Tetricus I was the reigning monarch, and he met Aurelian in battle at Chalons. Tetricus eventually surrendered to Aurelian, and Aurelian, always looking for reason instead of malice, simply spared him and allowed him to take up a job in the bureaucracy.

    3. Aurelian vs Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra- In 272 A.D, Aurelian departed to deal with the brave, intelligent, and beautiful, Zenobia. In the disorder resulting from Gallienus's stupidity, Zenobia, and Odenathus, who had resisted the power of the Sassanid King, rose to glory and insulted the name of Rome and of the Sassanid with their victories. Odenathus and his son was eventually killed for a small punishment done to his nephew and Zenobia avenged the memory of her son and lover by wiping him from the face of the Earth.
    She then, with support from her country, ruled with an uncorrupted hand, defeated Roman generals attempting to conquer her and obtained the respect of foreign powers.

    Aurelian quickly marched to the East and accepted the surrender of Ancyra, conquered Tyana and also pardoned the fugitive and traitors of Antioch, by allowing them to return to their homeland unharmed. Zenobia, eventually met the Imperator at Antioch, and Emesa, and provided an obstinate resistance, but she was defeated at both and forced to defend her capital. Aurelian also commanded the future emperor Probus to occupy the Egyptian provinces. The siege of the capital was inevitable. At Palmyra, Aurelian was forced to appear in arms personally, and was recorded to be wounded by a thrown dart. Here is his commentary.

    ""The Roman People," says Aurelian, in an original letter, "speak with contempt of the war which I'am waging against a woman. They are ignorant both of the character and the power of Zenobia. It is impossible to enumerate her warlike preparations, of stones, of arrows, and of every species of missile weapons. Every part of the walls is provided with two or three ballistae, and artificial fires are thrown from her military engines. The fear of punishment has armed her with a desperate courage. Yet still I trust in the protecting deities of Rome, who have hitherto been favorable to all my undertakings." Doubtful, however of the protections of the gods and of the event of the siege, Aurelian judged it more prudent to offer terms of an adventageous capitulation; to the queen, a splendid retreat; to the citizens, their ancient privileges. His proposals were obstinately rejected and the refusal was accompanied with insult." Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    Eventually, with no hope of there being relief , Zenobia attempted to escape and was overtaken by one of Aurelian's units of horse and the city of Palmyra surrendered. All were spared, except Palmyra's riches of course, and Zenobia was asked a simple question by the emperor.
    "When the Syrian queen was brought into the presence of Aurelian, he sternly asked her, How she had presumed to rise in arms against the emperors of Rome! The answer of Zenobia was a prudent mixture of respect and firmness. "Because I disdained to consider as Roman emperors an Aureolus or a Gallienus. You alone I acknowledge as my conqueror and my sovereign."" Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    On the way back to Rome, Palmyra, as some know, rebelled and Aurelian besieged the town and executed a great part of the inhabitants. He once again let any of the traitors and refugees come back, but the town never recovered. In 274 A.D, the emperor had a triumph with Tetricus and Zenobia in the march. Both were allowed to live and flourish, with Tetricus's fate being mentioned before and Zenobia becoming a noble in Rome. Still, he had no reason to celebrate, as his flaws would lead to his demise. In the night, the arms of the soldiers of Rome were used by Aurelian to capture and kill some senators and nobles who had been judged a threat to him or the Roman empire. With this deed done, he was forced to leave Rome in order to deal with the Persians.

    During the trip, one secretary had the misfortune of being threatened by Aurelian, which often meant a painful and absolute death. Sadly, this is a record of his fate.

    "He had threatened one of his secretaries who was accused of extortion; and it was known that he seldom threatened in vain. The last hope which remained for the criminal was to involve some of the principal officers of the army in his danger, or at least in his fears. Artifully counterfeiting his master's hand, he showed them, in a long and bloody list, their own names devoted to death. Without suspecting or examining the fraud, they resolved to secure their lives by the murder of the emperor. On his march between Byzantium and Heraclea, Aurelian was suddenly attacked by the conspirators, whose stations gave them a right to surround his person, and after a short resistance fell by the hand of Mucapor, a general whom he had always loved and trusted[January 275 A.D]. He died regretted by the army, detested by the senate, but universally acknowledged as a warlike and fortunate prince, the useful though severe reformer of a degenerate state." Gibbon- Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths

    There lies the flaw and cause of death for Aurelian. A man whose flaw was his absolute devotion to justice, and his lack of concern or consideration for whatever small offense was done against him. It led to his secretary knowing no way to escape his death except by using treachery to escape his judge.
    Last edited by Imperator of Rome; August 02, 2010 at 12:09 AM.
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    Default Re: (History) Character of the Roman Emperors Claudius Gothicus - Justinian(The one who didn't lose his nose)

    I see Zenobia in there, I'll have to catch up with this.

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