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Thread: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

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    Default Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions




    The Marian Reforms

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    With his election as Consul in 107 BC, and his subsequent appointment as commander of the Roman legions in Numidia, Marius faced a difficult challenge. Invasions of Germanic Cimbri and Teuton tribes into southern Gaul had forced large Roman armies to counter them. Thoroughly defeated in every engagement, Rome faced a manpower crisis similar to those faced during Hannibal's offensive in the Second Punic War. Prior to Marius, Rome recruited its main legionary force from the landowning citizen classes, men who could equip themselves and who supposedly had the most to lose in the case of Roman defeat.

    Especially since the end of the Punic Wars and conquests in the east, the small landowning classes had dwindled to dangerous numbers. Wealthy senatorial aristocrats and equestrian elite land owners bought up small farms from struggling families and worked them with vast numbers of imported slaves. The jobless and landless mobs in Rome swelled out of control and led directly to the rise of the Gracchi, who championed political reform for the common citizens. By the time Marius came to power, the typical Roman recruiting base was literally non-existent. There simply weren't enough landowners available who weren't already fighting the Germanics or Jugurtha to field a new army.

    Marius offered the disenfranchised masses permanent employment for pay as a professional army, and the opportunity to gain spoils on campaign along with retirement benefits, such as land. With little hope of gaining status in other ways, the masses flocked to join Marius in his new army. Besides gaining an army to confront the Germanic tribes, he also gained the loyalty of these men. The recruiting of the masses changed the entire relationship between citizens, generals, the Senate and Roman institutional ideology. Before Marius, armies fought for the survival or the expansion of the state, including their own lands, but after Marius, they fought for their Legate who gave them equipment and salaries, and who they came to like. With nowhere to return to in Rome or beyond, these new soldiers became career full-time professional soldiers, serving terms from 20 to 25 years. Now the Legates with their armies fought for their own glory. This extreme loyalty to the Legate led to rebellion and civil war as epitomised by Julius Caesar, who with his legions gained supreme power. Eventually this led to the crowning of the emperors.

    Besides the social impact of Marius' decision, he made several major changes to legion structure and tactical formations. Most importantly, he mostly replaced the maniple structure which consisted of four distinct legionary units (though it did continue as a style of formation at least until the mid 1st century AD). Each used different weapons, served different purposes tactically and were arranged in varying sizes and formations, essentially based on the class of citizen they were recruited from. Each soldier in the pre-Marian system provided his own gear and armour, resulting in wide ranges in quality and completeness. Marius supplied his new army's gear partially through the resources of the state, and through his own vast wealth. In the future, most new recruits would be uniformly equipped through the state treasury or their recruiting general.

    To replace the maniple as a formation, the cohort was adopted (though the formation had been used in moderation at least since the Punic Wars). Each soldier was equipped the same and assigned to one of six identical centuries of 80 men, making up the cohort unit. There were then 10 cohors of 480 men making up a legion, which standardized the entire system. The legion was made into a single large cohesive unit with interchangeable parts, capable of tactical flexibility not available with the complex structure of the Republican manipular system. The long single lines used prior to Marius were also eliminated in favour of a tiered 3 cohort deep battle line. This allowed rapid and easy support or rotating of fresh troops into combat.

    Additionally, officers began to be recruited from within the ranks on a regular basis. While political appointments and promotions based on social or client status would still occur, this now allowed the common soldier a way of advancing based on merit. This improved the strength of the legion as a whole and instilled confidence in the soldiers, knowing their officers were capable leaders, not favoured clients of Senators in Rome. Marius, while adopting uniform gear for all, such as the gladius and scutum, also made significant changes to the common legionary spear (the pilum). It was made for the point to break off upon impact, making it ineffective to be thrown back by the enemy.

    To eliminate another problem, the way the soldier's kit and baggage were carried was completely adjusted. From this point on, the legionary would carry their entire standard package including weapons, armour, food, tents, supplies and tools. The "Marius' Mules" allowed bulky, slow and cumbersome baggage trains to be shortened, making the infantry faster and more efficient. Finally, the legionary standards of the Eagle, wolf, minotaur, horse and boar were reduced to a single standard. The Eagle, representing Jupiter Optimus Maximus, replaced them all as the single symbol or loyalty, duty and pride among the soldiers.



    Third Servile War

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    In 73 BC, one out of every three people living in Italy was a slave. Slaves were considered property, their life and death depended on their master. Only the strongest among them were trained as gladiators to fight and die in the roman arenas.

    The Third Servile War (73-71 BC), also called the Gladiator War, was a rebellion of slaves, lead by Spartacus, Crixus and Oenomaus. In 73 BC, a group of 78 gladiators (according to Plutarch), managed to escape from the Capuan ludus of Lentulus Batiatus, eventually gathering a force of up to 120,000 supporters over the course of the rebellion. Little is known of Spartacus’ life prior to being captured and made a Gladiator. Even his Thracian origins are doubtful, as he was a Thraex Gladiator, so that the title "Thracian" may simply refer to the style of combat in which he was trained.

    Rome dispatched a force of 3,000 ill trained militia, lead by the praetor Gaius Claudius Glaber, which was annihilated at Mount Vesuvius by the ingenuity of the Gladiators. A second expedition, under the praetor Publius Varinius, was then dispatched and defeated as well. With these successes, more and more slaves flocked to the Spartacan forces, swelling their ranks to some 70,000 men in the winter of 73/72 BC.
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    The historians Plutarch and Appian left significantly different descriptions of what happened next:
    According to Plutarch, in the spring of 72 BC, the slaves left their winter encampments and began to move northwards towards Cisalpine Gaul. The Senate, alarmed by the size of the revolt and the defeat of the praetorian armies of Glaber and Varinius, dispatched a pair of consular legions under the command of Lucius Gellius Publicola and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus. Gellius engaged a group of about 30,000 slaves, under command of Crixus, and killed two-thirds of the rebels, including Crixus himself. However, Spartacus managed to defeat both Legions and continued his march north where he defeated yet another Roman army of some 10,000 soldiers, led by the governor of Cisalpine Gaul, Gaius Cassius Longinus.
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    At this point, the slave army could have crossed the Alps unhindered, thus reaching relative safety and escaping the influence of Rome.
    The very successes of their army against Roman legions may have been their undoing. Spartacus wished to continue north to relative freedom from Roman interference, but victories, with the confidence and plunder they provided, had a powerful effect. Many of the Germanics and Gauls wished to stay in Italy and reap the rewards of their success. Rather than escape himself with a smaller army, Spartacus, either with visions of grandeur himself, or feeding off the power of a large force, next turned south. Some have suggested Rome itself was the target, but a rendezvous with Cilician pirates seems a more likely course. If they would not cross the Alps, his army may have been willing to cross to Sicily or even Africa as an alternative. Nevertheless, Spartacus and his army that had swelled to 120,000 men did move south. In the mountains near Thurii, they set up camp and gained much supply from local trade and plunder from raids. Equipping themselves into an appropriate military force, the slave army had grown from a minor nuisance to a formidable and legitimate power. The Senate, now facing this power, as it easily won victory after victory, looked to an experienced commander to deal with the threat. The current Consular commanders were withdrawn and the Propraetor Marcus Licinius Crassus was appointed to the special command. Crassus too command with 6 new legions and the four remaining veteran legions, making it quite apparent that Spartacus was considered a serious threat.

    With M. Licinius Crassus in command, the tide was about to turn in the Romans favor. Initially, an over eager subordinate of Crassus led an attack on Spartacus that failed miserably.

    In this defeat several Romans fled the battle in the face of the gladiator army. In order to put an end to the terrible performance of the legions against Spartacus, Crassus ordered the seldom used penalty of decimation as punishment.

    In decimation, one of every ten men is beaten to death by their own fellow legionaries. While ancient reports are conflicting, at least one full cohort was subjected to decimation, or possibly his entire force. Whether those put to death numbered around 50 men or 4,000 is in dispute, but there was no question among legionaries that Crassus was not a man to accept defeat with grace.

    Crassus then moved his entire body against a detached segment of Spartacus' forces. Crassus wiped out 10,000 of the rebel slaves commanded by Crixus, who had seperated from spartacus and the main army. Spartacus fled to Rhegium, across the straits from Sicily, with the hope of securing passage to the island, but was never able to secure passage with Cilician pirates.

    Crassus pursued and built an extensive length of earthworks across the entire toe of Italy, trying to hem Spartacus in. At first Crassus was successful in trapping the slave army in, but the Senate viewed this as a demoralizing siege against an inferior foe. The great general Pompey was just returning from Spain, and they offered him an additional command to put an end to Spartacus once and for all.

    Crassus was eager to achieve the victory himself and avoid sharing anything with his successful rival. He stepped up the pressure on Spartacus until he finally had little choice but to attempt a breakout. Unable to secure the passage to Sicily that he coveted, a breakout against the siege was ordered. While they did manage to escape, Spartacus lost a tenth of his army, or nearly 12,000 men. Free from Crassus' siege, Spartacus moved towards Brundisium, in the heel of Italy, where he still hoped to secure escape by sea.

    The Romans were closing in, however, and an escape to Brundisium would never happen. Marcus Licinius Lucullus, fresh from a victory over Mithridates in the east, landed there with a full compliment of legionaries. Spartacus had little choice but to face his pursuers. Facing a full Roman army in open battle, especially one under adequate command, was something Spartacus tried to avoid, but in 71 BC, the slave army and the Romans met near Brundisium.
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    In the battle the inspired Romans dominated the slaves, and they were cut down in huge numbers. By the end, Spartacus himself was wounded and likely killed (his body was never found). Crassus swept survivors and stragglers out of the surrounding countryside by the thousands, and prepared a horrific, if not intimidating punishment. Up to 6,000 rebellious slaves were spaced out along the Appian Way, from Rome to Capua. Here they were crucified and left to rot as a reminder to all future potentials rebellions. Pompey meanwhile had moved into Italy with his legions from Hispania. He swept out any remaining resistance and claimed final victory in the war. Pompey enjoyed a triumph for his 'victory' in Hispania, while Crassus was given the lesser honor of an ovation for his victory over mere slaves. The incident was an additional thorn in the side of a growing rivalry between Crassus and Pompey.

    As the rivals stood on Rome's door step with full armies, both were elected Consul for 70 BC, despite Pompey's youth and lack of previous offices. Despite their rivalry, both men seemingly worked well enough together to repeal many of Sulla's unpopular laws. Pompey would soon be commissioned for further exploits in the east while Crassus would remain in Rome to continue amassing his fortune and influencing the politics of the 60's BC.




    Gaius Julius Caesar

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    Gaius Julius Caesar was born most likely on July (originally Quinctilis, but renamed by Caesar in his own calendar reform) 13, 100 BC. Caesar was a member of the deeply patrician Julii family with roots dating to the foundation of the city itself. He later claimed to be a direct descendent of Aenaes, son of Venus, and therefore related to the gods themselves.

    Still, at his start, the Caesar family was an impoverished line of the noble original clans. No Caesars in recent generations had held the seat of Consul but while still highly respected, they held little political clout. His father, Gaius Julius as well, had served in a respectable capacity within the Senate, but had little notoriety aside from his son's legacy. His mother, Aurelia, of the Aurelii Cotta line, seems to have been both a remarkable woman and a major impact on the life of her son.

    Caesar was raised in the common quarters of Rome, or the Subura among the lower citizen classes. His home was what functioned as an apartment building in the modern world, or what was known as an insula. Even for a patrician family in poor financial straits, this was a definite handicap for future political ambition. However, the young Caesar certainly learned a great deal from his experiences as a child, as he early on realized the power in championing the common man. It wouldn't take a genius to understand that several politicians in this era made a name for themselves using this method, and Caesar certainly caught on to this easily. He had, though, the added advantage of his patrician heritage along with a sort of political genius that would push him to the very limit of Roman power.
    Two major events impacted the life of the young Caesar. The later and seemingly less momentous event of the two was the death of his father at the age of 15 in 85 BC. So few of the details of Gaius Julius Caesar the elder's life are known, that it's difficult to determine the impact this may have had. While he certainly played a role in the life of his young son, he was often away on military and Senatorial obligations, as was often the case with Patrician families. His father had reached the office of Praetor prior to his death, the office just below Consul, and at least helped set the stage for the Caesar line to return to the highest order.

    The more significant event in the life of Caesar was a marriage arrangement that would have enormous impact on Roman culture as a whole. The marriage of his aunt Julia to the novus homo (new man) Gaius Marius had repercussions that affected the entire ancient world. Through this marriage in 110 BC and 10 years prior to the birth of his famous nephew, Marius gained the political and familial connection necessary to advance his own career up the cursus honorum. While it may have been frowned upon by the elite of the day, first off in giving the uncouth Marius such assistance, it was a completely understandable move by the Caesars. Marius was certainly one of the richest men in Rome of the time and while he gained political clout, the Caesar family gained the wealth required to finance election campaigns for Caesar's father and uncles. As previously suggested his father attained the rank of Praetor and his uncle, Lucius Julius Caesar rose to a prominent Consulship during the Social War of 90 to 87 BC.

    Marius' impact on the future dictator must have been immense. Their careers follow notable similarities that certainly show a profound influence by the uncle on the nephew. More importantly, however, Caesar had the great fortune of his patrician background which gave huge advantages over Marius. He also was able to play witness to both the successes and failures and adjust his own plans for the future accordingly. Marius was the pre-eminent Roman just prior to Caesar's birth, serving 6 Consulships, winning the war against Jugurtha, reforming the legions and the social order, and saving Rome from the Germanic Cimbri and Teutone threat. By the time Caesar was a young man, however, Marius had fallen deeply out of favor, though he was still a player of some note. As Caesar began his own career, he would be thrust into the coming conflicts between Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. The advancement of Caesar in light of the turmoil of the day is notable enough, the fact that he even survived may be even more remarkable.

    Three candidates stood for the consulship: Caesar, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, who had been aedile with Caesar several years earlier, and Lucius Lucceius. The election was dirty. Caesar canvassed Cicero for support, and made an alliance with the wealthy Lucceius, but the establishment threw its financial weight behind the conservative Bibulus, and even Cato, with his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in his favour. Caesar and Bibulus were elected as consuls for 59 BC.
    Caesar was already in Crassus's political debt, but he also made overtures to Pompey, who was unsuccessfully fighting the Senate for ratification of his eastern settlements and farmland for his veterans. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds since they were consuls together in 70 BC, and Caesar knew if he allied himself with one he would lose the support of the other, so he endeavoured to reconcile them. Between the three of them, they had enough money and political influence to control public business. This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate (rule of three men), was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar's daughter Julia. Caesar also married again, this time Calpurnia, daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, who was elected to the consulship for the following year.

    Caesar proposed a law for the redistribution of public lands to the poor, a proposal supported by Pompey, by force of arms if need be, and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, and the triumvirate's opponents were intimidated. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but was driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters. His lictors had their fasces broken, two tribunes accompanying him were wounded, and Bibulus himself had a bucket of excrement thrown over him. In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts to obstruct Caesar's legislation proved ineffective. Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar".
    This also gave rise to this lampoon-
    The event occurred, as I recall, when Caesar governed Rome-
    Caesar, not Bibulus, who kept his seat at home.
    When Caesar and Bibulus were first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit Caesar's future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than governorship of a province, as their proconsular duties after their year of office was over. With the help of Piso and Pompey, Caesar later had this overturned, and was instead appointed to govern Cisalpine Gaul(northern Italy) and Illyricum (the western Balkans), with Transalpine Gaul (southern France) later added, giving him command of four legions. The term of his proconsulship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one. When his consulship ended, Caesar narrowly avoided prosecution for the irregularities of his year in office, and quickly left for his province.

    Caesar was still deeply in debt, and there was money to be made as a provincial governor, whether by extortion or by military adventurism. Caesar had four legions under his command, two of his provinces, Illyricum and Gallia Narbonensis, bordered on unconquered territory, and independent Gaul was known to be unstable. Rome's allies the Aedui had been defeated by their Gallic rivals, with the help of a contingent of Germanic Suebi under Ariovistus, who had settled in conquered Aeduan land, and the Helvetii were mobilising for a mass migration, which the Romans feared had warlike intent.

    The Gallic Wars
    The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes, lasting from 58 BC to 51 BC. The Gallic Wars culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul. In 58 BC, Gaius Julius Caesar ended his consulship in Rome, and was heavily indebted. However, being a member of the First Triumvirate, he had secured for himself the governorship of three provinces, Cisalpine Gaul, Transalpine Gaul and Illyricum. Under his direct command Caesar had initially four veteran legions: Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana, and Legio X. Caesar also had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.

    His ambition was clearly to conquer and to plunder some territories but it is likely that Gaul was not his initial target. It is very likely that he was planning a campaign against the kingdom of Dacia.
    The numerous Gaulish tribes, already influenced by the Roman culture, were totally divided at this time. Some of them, e.g. the Aedui, had allied with Rome. In 109 BC, only fifty years before, Italy had been invaded, and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius.
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    Battle of Bibracte

    The Helvetii were forced to abandon their homelands in modern day Switzerland due to the expansion of the Suebi, a Germanic tribe lead by Ariovistus. They planned to settle in Gaul and wanted to cross the Roman province Gallia Narbonensis in order to reach it. Caesar, hoping to incite a conflict, denied their request and build a wall between the Jura Mountains and Lake Geneva. Subsequently, the Helvetii averted aggravating Caesar and avoided Roman territory. Nonetheless, Caesar levied two additional legions and pursued them, eventually leading to the Battle of Bibracte.

    The battle was fought between the Helvetii and six roman legions including auxiliaries, June 58 BC. The Helvetii and their allies (Boii, Tulingi and Rauraci) were lead by Divico who commanded approximately 90,000 warriors. Caeser and his six legions (VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII) numbered around 30,000. On June 20th, the Helvetii turned and attacked Caesar who formed his legions in a defensive position near Montmort, 22km south of Bibracte. Caesar formed his veteran legions (VII, VIII, IX, X) in three rows in order to repel the oncoming attack. Legions XI and XII, as well as the auxiliaries, acted as reserve. First the roman cavalry attacked, but was driven back since the Helvetii had formed a shield wall and now advanced towards the roman lines. Once they closed in at about 10 to 15 yards, the legionaries threw their pila, breaking the enemy shield wall and driving the Helvetii back about 1.5km. Finally the Boii and Tulingi reached the battlefield and flanked the roman army with some 15,000 men. Seeing this, the Helvetii counterattacked the roman main line from which Caesar had to remove the 3rd row in order to form a new defensive position against the Boii and Tulingi. Eventually the Helvetii and their allies broke and had to retreat.
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    Siege of Avaricum

    The year is 52 BC. Caesar had already won many great victories over the Gauls. Now he set his eyes on Avaricum, the biggest and best fortified town of the Biturges. Vercingetorix, son of Celtillus, who started the Great Gallic Revolt, was confident he could protect the town from the romans. Avaricum was easy to defend as it was protected by a river and a sizeable marsh, allowing only a narrow approach towards the town. Caesar ordered the construction of siege towers and ramps.
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    Vercingetorix, who had 50,000 warriors in his camp outside of the town, continuously harassed the romans and tried to sabotage work on their siege equipment. The Romans eventually ran low on supplies due to vercingetorix's raids and also because allied tribes, e.g. the Aeudi, were reluctant to supply them. The Gauls had become much more skilled at defending their towns against Roman siege engines, and many of the inhabitants of Avaricum were experienced iron miners, which gave them the skills needed to counter the Roman mound. When the Romans tried to use grappling hooks to pull stones off the walls the Gauls trapped them and used their own machines to drag the grappling hooks inside the city. When the Romans attempted to dig tunnels under the walls the Gallic miners dug their own countermines.
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    On the next day, under the cover of a storm, the Romans successfully reached the top of the town walls. The fall of the Avaricum was followed by a massacre of the inhabitants, woman and children included. Caesar described this as having been caused by a combination of anger at the massacre of the Romans at Cenabum and frustration after the long difficult siege, but his brief description gives no indication of his attitude to this massacre. Merely 800 Gauls survived the slaughter. The siege lasted for twenty seven days.

    The fall of Avaricum didn't have the effect Caesar had hoped. Vercingetorix managed to restore the morale of his army with a rousing speech, and he was soon able to replace the troops lost during the siege. More importantly the Aedui finally abandoned their long attachment to the Roman cause and joined the revolt. Caesar lost one of his best sources of cavalry, and faced an ever more powerful coalition of Gallic tribes. His next move, an attack on Gergovia, ended with his only major defeat at the hands of the Gauls, but Vercingetorix then attempted to defend Alesia, a move that gave Caesar a chance to defeat the Gallic army in a single location.


    Battle of Gergovia

    The fall of Avaricum came at the end of the winter of 53-52 B.C. and the improving weather convinced Caesar that he could risk a wider campaign. He split his army of ten legions in half. Four, under his most able lieutenant Labienus, were sent north into the lands of the Senones and Parisii, who at that point were the most northerly tribes to have rebelled. Caesar himself led the remaining six legions south to attack Gergovia, in the lands of the Arverni, Vercingetorix's own tribe.

    Gergovia itself was built in a strong position on a steep hill. On his arrival Caesar realised that he wouldn't be able to storm the city, and decided to prepare for a regular siege. Initially all six legions camped together, but after a few days Caesar decided to capture a small hill that he hoped would limit the defender's access to fresh water. Two legions were posted in a small camp on this hill, with the remaining four legions in the main camp on the plains. He ordered a double trench, 12 feet wide, to be constructed between a captured hill and his main camp. Intending to completely encircle Gergovia and starve the Gauls inside, Caesar was interrupted by betrayal from his Gallic allies the Aedui, led by Litaviccus whom he fought and defeated after a desperate struggle.
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    Caesar then went back to Gergovia and realised that his siege would fail. His only chance now of victory was to get Vercingetorix off the high ground. He used a legion as a decoy and moved onto better ground, capturing three Gallic camps in the process. He then ordered a general retreat to fool Vercingetorix and pull him off the high ground. However, the retreat was not heard by most of Caesar's force. Instead, spurred on by the ease with which they captured the camps, they pressed on toward the town and mounted a direct assault on it. The noise of the assault drew Vercingetorix back into the town. 46 centurions and 700 legionaries died in the resulting engagement, and over 6,000 were wounded on the Roman side, compared to the several hundred Gauls killed and wounded. In the wake of the battle, Caesar lifted his siege and advanced instead into Aedui territory.


    Battle of Alesia

    Situated on a hill and surrounded by river valleys, Alesia offered a strong defensive position. Arriving with his army, Caesar declined to launch a frontal assault and instead decided to lay siege to the town. As the entirety of Vercingetorix's army was within the walls along with the town's population, Caesar expected the siege to be brief. To ensure that Alesia was fully cut off from aid, he ordered his men to construct and encircling set of fortifications known as a circumvallation. Featuring an elaborate set of walls, ditches, watchtowers, and traps, the circumvallation ran approximately eleven miles.

    Understanding Caesar's intentions, Vercingetorix launched several cavalry attacks with the goal of preventing completion of the circumvallation. These were largely beaten off though a small force of Gallic cavalry was able to escape. The fortifications were completed in around three weeks. Concerned that the escaped cavalry would return with a relief army, Caesar began construction on a second set of works which faced out. Known as a contravallation, this thirteen-mile fortification was identical in design to the inner ring facing Alesia.

    Occupying the space between the walls, Caesar hoped to end the siege before aid could arrive. Within Alesia, conditions quickly deteriorated as food became scarce. Hoping to alleviate the crisis, the Mandubii sent out their women and children with the hope that Caesar would open his lines and allow them to leave. Such a breach would also allow for an attempt by the army to break out. Caesar refused and the women and children were left in limbo between his walls and those of the town. Lacking food, they began to starve further lowering the morale of the town's defenders.

    In late September, Vercingetorix faced a crisis with supplies nearly exhausted and part of his army debating surrender. His cause was soon bolstered by the arrival of a relief army under the command of Commius. On September 30, Commius launched an assault on Caesar's outer walls while Vercingetorix attacked from the inside. Both efforts were defeated as the Romans held. The next day the Gauls attacked again, this time under the cover of darkness. While Commius was able to breach the Roman lines, the gap was soon closed by cavalry led by Mark Antony and Gaius Trebonius.

    On the inside, Vercingetorix also attacked but the element of surprise was lost due to the need to fill in Roman trenches before moving forward. As a result, the assault was defeated. Beaten in their early efforts, the Gauls planned a third strike for October 2 against a weak point in Caesar's lines where natural obstacles had prevented construction of a continuous wall. Moving forward, 60,000 men led by Vercassivellaunus struck the weak point while Vercingetorix pressured the entire inner line.

    Issuing orders to simply hold the line, Caesar rode through his men to inspire them. Breaking through, Vercassivellaunus' men pressed the Romans. Under extreme pressure on all fronts, Caesar shifted troops to deal with threats as they emerged. Dispatching Labienus' cavalry to help seal the breach, Caesar led a number of counterattacks against Vercingetorix's troops along the inner wall. Though this area was holding, Labienus' men were reaching a breaking point. Rallying thirteen cohorts (approx. 6,000 men), Caesar personally led them out of the Roman lines to attack the Gallic rear.

    Spurred on by their leader's personal bravery, Labienus' men held as Caesar attacked. Caught between two forces, the Gauls soon broke and began fleeing. Pursued by the Romans, they were cut down in large numbers. With the relief army routed and his own men unable to break out, Vercingetorix surrendered the next day and presented his arms to the victorious Caesar.

    As with most battles from this period, precise casualties are not known and many contemporary sources inflate the numbers for political purposes. With that in mind, Romans losses were around 12,800 killed and wounded, while the Gauls may have suffered up to 250,000 killed and wounded as well as 40,000 captured. The victory at Alesia effectively ended organized resistance to Roman rule in Gaul. A great personal success for Caesar, the Roman Senate declared twenty days of thanksgiving for the victory but refused him the a triumphal parade through Rome. As a result, political tensions in Rome continued to build which ultimately led to a civil war.

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    The pre–Civil War politico–military situation

    Caesar’s Civil War resulted from the long political subversion of the Roman Government’s institutions, begun with the career of Tiberius Gracchus, continuing with the Marian reforms of the legions, the bloody dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and completed by the First Triumvirate over Rome.

    The First Triumvirate (so denominated by Cicero), comprising Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey, ascended to power with Caesar’s election as consul, in 59 BC. The First Triumvirate was unofficial, a political alliance the substance of which was Pompey’s military might, Caesar’s political influence, and Crassus’s money. The alliance was further consolidated by Pompey’s marriage to Julia, daughter of Caesar, in 59 BC. At the conclusion of Caesar’s first consulship, the Senate, rather than granting him a provincial governorship -- tasked him with watching over the Roman forests; this job, specially-created by his Senate enemies, was meant to occupy him without giving him command of armies, or garnering him wealth and fame. Caesar, with the help of Pompey and Crassus, evaded the Senate's decrees by legislation passed through the popular assemblies. By these acts, Caesar was promoted to Roman Governor of Illyricum and Cisalpine Gaul. Transalpine Gaul (southern France) was added later. The various governorships gave Caesar command of an army of four legions. The term of his proconsulship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the customary one year.

    In 52 BC, at the First Triumvirate’s end, the Roman Senate supported Pompey as sole consul; meanwhile, Caesar had become a military hero and champion of the people. Knowing he hoped to become consul when his governorship expired, the Senate, politically fearful of him, ordered he resign command of his army. In December of 50 BC, Caesar wrote to the Senate agreeing to resign his military command if Pompey followed suit. Offended, the Senate demanded he immediately disband his army, or be declared an enemy of the people — an illegal political bill, for he was entitled to keep his army until his term expired. A secondary reason for Caesar’s immediate want for another consulship was delaying the inevitable senatorial prosecutions awaiting him upon retirement as governor of Illyricum and Gaul; said potential prosecutions were based upon alleged irregularities occurred in his consulship, and war crimes committed in his Gallic campaigns. Moreover, Caesar loyalists, the tribunes Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) and Quintus Cassius Longinus, vetoed the bill, and were quickly expelled from the Senate. They then joined Caesar, who had assembled his army, whom he asked for military support against the Senate; agreeing, his army called for action.

    In 50 BC, at his Proconsular term’s expiry, the Pompey-led Senate ordered Caesar’s return to Rome and the disbanding of his army, and forbade his standing for election in absentia for a second consulship; because of that, Caesar thought he would be prosecuted and rendered politically marginal if he entered Rome without consular immunity or his army — to wit, Pompey accused him of insubordination and treason.


    The Great Roman Civil War

    Crossing the Rubicon
    On 10 January 49 BC, leading one legion, the Legio XIII Gemina, General Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon River, the boundary between the Cisalpine Gaul province, to the north, and Italy proper, to the south, a legally-proscribed action forbidden to any army-leading general. The proscription protected the Roman Republic from a coup d'état (internal military threat); thus, Caesar's military action began a civil war. This act of war on the Roman Republic by Caesar led to widespread disapproval amongst the Roman civilians, who believed him a traitor. The historical record differs about which decisive comment Caesar made on crossing the Rubicon — one report is Alea iacta est (usually translated as "The die is cast").


    The March on Rome and the early Hispanian campaign
    Caesar’s March on Rome was a triumphal progress; yet, the Senate, ignorant of Caesar’s being armed only with a single legion, feared the worst and supported Pompey, who, on grasping the Republic’s endangerment, said: “Rome cannot be defended”, and escaped to Capua — with his politicians, the aristocratic Optimates and the regnant consuls; Cicero later characterised Pompey’s “outward sign of weakness” as allowing Caesar’s politico-military consolidation to achieve Roman dictatorship.

    Despite having retreated, at his central-Italian bivouac, Pompey was armed with two legions, some 11,500 soldiers (he earlier had ordered Caesar return to Italy from Gaul), and some hastily-levied Italian troops commanded by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (Domitius). As Caesar progressed southwards, so Pompey retreated southwards, to Brundisium, from whence he repeatedly ordered Domitius north to combat and stop Caesar’s Roman march (then south-bound, along the eastern coast); his inaction — repeated refusal of Pompey’s combat orders — gave Caesar the initiative to attack and defeat Domitius’s Pompeian armies in bivouac. In the event, Pompey escaped to Brundisium, there awaiting sea transport for his legions, to Epirus, in the Republic’s eastern Greek provinces — expecting his influence to yield money and armies for a maritime blockade of Italy proper. Meanwhile, the aristocrats (the Optimates) — including Metellus Scipio and Cato the Younger — joined Pompey there, whilst leaving a rear guard at Capua.

    Caesar pursued Pompey to Brundisium, expecting restoration of their alliance of ten years prior; to wit, throughout the Great Roman Civil War’s early stages, Caesar frequently proposed to Pompey that they, both generals, sheathe their swords. Pompey refused, legalistically arguing that Caesar was his subordinate and thus was obligated to cease campaigning and dismiss his armies before any negotiation. As Consul of Rome, Pompey commanded legitimacy, whereas Caesar’s military crossing of the Rubicon River frontier de jure rendered him a de facto enemy of the Senate and People of Rome. Nevertheless, in March of 49 BC, Pompey escaped Caesar at Brundisium, fleeing by sea to Epirus, in Roman Greece.

    Advantaging himself of Pompey’s absence from the Italian mainland, Caesar effected an astonishingly fast 27-day, north-bound forced march to destroy, in the Battle of Ilerda, Hispania’s politically leader-less Pompeian army, commanded by the legates, Lucius Afranius (Afranius) and Marcus Petreius (Petreius), afterwards pacifying Hispanic Rome; in campaign, the Caesarian forces — six legions, 3,000 cavalry (Gallic campaign veterans), and Caesar’s 900-horse personal bodyguard — suffered 700 men killed in action, while the Pompeian forces lost 200 men killed and 600 wounded. Returned to Rome in December of 49 BC, Caesar was dictator for eleven days, tenure sufficient to win him Consular election, afterwards, he renewed pursuit of Pompey, then in Roman Greece.


    The Greek and African campaigns
    At Brundisium, Caesar assembled an army of some 15,000 soldiers, and crossed the strait of Otranto to Epirus, in Greece. In that time, Pompey considered three courses of action: (i) alliance with the King of Parthia, an erstwhile ally, far to the east; (ii) invade Italy with his naval superiority; and (iii) confronting Julius Caesar in decisive battle. A Parthian alliance was unfeasible, a Roman general fighting Roman legions with foreign troops was craven; and the military risk of an Italian invasion was politically unsavoury, because, the Italians (who thirty years earlier had rebelled against Rome) might rise against him; thus, on councilor’s advice, Pompey decided to fight Julius Caesar in decisive battle.

    Moreover, Caesar’s pursuing him to Illyrium, across the Adriatic Sea, decided the matter, and, on 10 July 48 BC, Pompey fought him in the Battle of Dyrrhachium, costing Caesar 1,000 veteran legionnaires and a retreat. Disbelieving that his army had bested Caesar’s legions, Pompey misinterpreted the retreat as a feint to a trap, and refused to give chase for the decisive, definitive coup de grâce — thus losing the initiative, and the chance to quickly conclude Caesar’s Civil War; meanwhile, Caesar retreated southwards. Near Pharsalus, Caesar pitched a strategic bivouac, and Pompey attacked, yet, despite his much larger army, was conclusively defeated by Caesar's troops. A major reason for Pompey's defeat was a miscommunication among front cavalry horsemen.


    The Egyptian dynastic struggle
    Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was murdered by an officer of King Ptolemy XIII. In Rome in the meantime, Caesar was appointed dictator, with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse; Caesar resigned this dictatorate after eleven days and was elected to a second term as consul with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus as his colleague. He pursued the Pompeian army to Alexandria, where they camped and became involved with the Alexandrine civil war between Ptolemy and his sister, wife, and co-regnant queen, the Pharaoh Cleopatra VII. Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra; he is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey's head, which was offered to him by Ptolemy's chamberlain Pothinus as a gift. In any event, Caesar defeated the Ptolemaic forces and installed Cleopatra as ruler, with whom he fathered his only known biological son, Ptolemy XV Caesar, better known as "Caesarion". Caesar and Cleopatra never married, due to Roman law that prohibited a marriage with a non-Roman citizen.


    The war against Pharnaces
    After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, he went to Syria, and then to Pontus to deal with Pharnaces II, a client king of Pompey's who had taken advantage of the Romans being distracted by their civil war to oppose the Roman-friendly Deiotarus and make himself the ruler of Colchis and lesser Armenia. At Nicopolis he had defeated what little Roman opposition Caesar's Asian lieutenant Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus could muster. He had also taken the city of Amisus, which was a Roman ally, made all the boys eunuchs and sold the inhabitants to slave traders. After this show of strength against the Romans, Pharnaces drew back to suppress revolt in his new conquests.

    Nevertheless, the extremely rapid approach of Caesar in person forced Pharnaces to turn his attention back to the Romans. At first, recognizing the threat, he made offers of submission, with the sole object of gaining time until Caesar's attention fell elsewhere; Caesar's speed brought war quickly and battle took place near Zela (modern Zile in Turkey), where Pharnaces was routed with just a small detachment of cavalry. Caesar's victory was so swift and complete that, in a letter to a friend in Rome, he famously said of the short war, “Veni, vidi, vici” (“I came, I saw, I conquered”) – indeed, for his Pontic triumph, that may well have been the label displayed above the spoils.

    Pharnaces himself fled quickly back to the Bosporus, where he managed to assemble a small force of Scythian and Sarmatian troops, with which he was able to gain control of a few cities; however, a former governor of his, Asandar, attacked his forces and killed him. The historian Appian states that Pharnaces died in battle; Dio Cassius says Pharnaces was captured and then killed.


    The later campaign in Africa: the war on Cato
    Caesar returned to Rome to deal with several mutinous legions. While Caesar had been in Egypt installing Cleopatra as Queen, four of his veteran legions encamped outside of Rome under the command of Mark Antony. The legions were waiting for their discharges and the bonus pay Caesar had promised them before the battle of Pharsalus. As Caesar lingered in Egypt, the situation quickly deteriorated. Antony lost control of the troops and they began looting estates south of the capital. Several delegations of diplomats were dispatched to try to quell the mutiny. Nothing worked and the mutineers continued to call for their discharges and back pay. After several months, Caesar finally arrived to address the legions in person. Caesar knew he needed these legions to deal with Pompey's supporters in north Africa, who had mustered 14 legions of their own. Caesar also knew that he did not have the funds to give the soldiers their back pay, much less the money needed to induce them to reenlist for the north African campaign.

    When Caesar approached the speaker's dais, a hush fell over the mutinous soldiers. Most were embarrassed by their role in the mutiny in Caesar's presence. Caesar asked the troops what they wanted with his cold voice. Ashamed to demand money, the men began to call out for their discharge. Caesar bluntly addressed them as "citizens" instead of "soldiers," a tacit indication that they had already discharged themselves by virtue of their disloyalty. He went on to tell them that that they would all be discharged immediately. He said he would pay them the money he owed them after he won the north African campaign with other legions. The soldiers were shocked. They had been through 15 years of war with Caesar and they had become fiercely loyal to him in the process. It had never occurred to them that Caesar did not need them. The soldiers' resistance collapsed. They crowded the dais and begged to be taken to north Africa. Caesar feigned indignation and then allowed himself to be won over. When he announced that he would suffer to bring them along, a huge cheer arose from the assembled troops. Through a brilliant combination of personal charisma and reverse psychology, Caesar reenlisted four enthusiastic veteran legions to invade north Africa without spending a single sesterce.
    In the same year he set out for Africa, where the followers of Pompey had fled, to end their opposition led by Cato.

    Caesar quickly gained a significant victory at Thapsus in 46 BC over the forces of Metellus Scipio (who was drowned) and Cato the Younger and Juba (who both committed suicide).


    The second Hispanic campaign: end of the Caesar’s Civil War

    Nevertheless, Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus (Caesar's former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore) and second in command in the Gallic War) escaped to Hispania. Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Munda in March 45 BC. During this time, Caesar was elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC (with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) and 45 BC (without colleague).




    Octavian


    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Early Years
    Gaius Octavius was born on September 23, 63 BC, and though of distant relation to Caesar, his eventual rise to prominence was unexpected. He was the son of a 'new man' bearing the same name from Velitrae in Latium. His father had reached the rank of praetor before dying when Octavian was a boy of only 4 years old, just as Caesar was launching his war in Gaul. His father was married to Atia, the daughter of a somewhat obscure Senator, M. Atius Balbus and Julia, sister of Julius Caesar, making him the great nephew of the dictator. There were other first nephews, but Caesar didn't seem to hold them in as high regard as the young Octavian, though one, Q. Pedius, did serve Caesar as a legate. Despite his relation to Caesar, there was some questionable lineage throughout his family.
    Later opponents, Marc Antony included, attacked his heritage by claiming his ancestors were freedmen and moneychangers, not the sort of lineage that one might expect from a rising star in Roman politics. Suetonius claims that Octavian carried another surname as a youth, Thurinus. This, Suetonius claims, either represented Octavian's historical familial roots, or the place where his father bested remnants of slave armies while he served as governor of Macedonia. Suetonius even reports that he came into a statue of Octavian as a boy bearing the inscription Thurinus, which he promptly gifted to the Emperor Hadrian, who prized it highly. Whatever the case, some evidence suggests that opponents like Antony may have used this surname against Octavian.


    At the age of twelve (51 BC), Octavian's grandmother and sister of Caesar, died, ushering him into his first major public appearance. He delivered her eulogy, and like many other young political hopefuls, this was the first opportunity to make a mark on both the aristocracy and the common masses alike. While young Octavian was certainly noticed by Caesar at some point, evidence of direct involvement is conflicting. Octavian was coming into adulthood just as Caesar was embroiled in Gaul and in the Civil War that followed, and there certainly wouldn't have been much time for camaraderie. With Octavian's age, and reports of sickliness as a child, contact must have been limited. This, however, didn't stop Caesar from having an impact on the young man's career. In 48 BC, Octavius was appointed as a pontiff (priest) at the tender age of 15. It's possible the Caesar planned to take his protégé with him to Africa to face of against the Republicans there, but either sickness, or an over protective mother shot down this idea.


    In 46 BC, Octavian took part in Caesar's triumphal parades in Rome, earning himself some military award, despite taking no part in the effort. Clearly this shows that Caesar at least had some design on his great nephew's future. The following year Octavian followed Caesar to Spain, where the dictator conducted the last battle of his career against the sons of Pompey at Munda. Though Octavian himself took little part in the actual military aspect of this campaign, his journey to join Caesar seems a significant development in the relationship. While en route, Octavian was faced with difficulties in avoiding enemy resistance, including a shipwreck which could've been disastrous. When the two finally crossed paths, Caesar was apparently very pleased with his nephew's daring determination and courage. Other than Caesar's short triumphal visit to Rome, this period in Spain was likely the first time the two were truly able to foster a serious relationship. If at any time, this was the chance for Octavian to impress Caesar, and for Caesar to bring the young man under his wing. While there is little historical documentation, Octavian likely learned a great deal about provincial administration, warfare and political manipulation while a part of his uncle's entourage. Nicolaus of Damascus, though his account is unreliable at best, indicates that Octavian was so firmly entrenched with Caesar that he was able to have considerable influence. In one example, Nicolaus states that Octavian begged a pardon for the brother of his great boyhood friend, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, who had served under Cato in Africa. Despite beginning to retract on the number of pardons issued by this time in the civil war (as many who were pardoned would continue to fight), Caesar relented, and may have helped cement a lifetime friendship with the two future leaders of Rome.
    By the end of the campaign in Spain, Octavian was sent to Apollonia in Illyricum to further his studies, along with his friend Agrippa. Here he was to continue his education, while waiting to accompany Caesar on a campaign against the Dacians and the Parthians. Octavian was still a very minor player in the politics of Rome at this point, but his star was certainly on the rise. Caesar, having selected various political offices years in advance (one of many slights against Republican tradition), had slotted his nephew to serve as his right hand man, or master of horse, in the year 43 or 42 BC. At the age of 20 or 21, Octavian was expected to occupy the second most powerful position in the Roman world, but fate, and the Ides of March would have a different plan.


    Caesar's Heir
    On March 15, 44 BC, the Roman world was shaken to it's foundation with the assassination of Julius Caesar. Though the effect would prove to be staggering, (ie the plunge into yet another devastating civil war), no Roman was as profoundly affected as Gaius Octavius. Nearly 19 years old, Octavian was studying in Apollonia and awaiting the start of Caesar's next campaign against Parthia. Octavian's plan to join this campaign came to a crashing halt with the murder of his great uncle, and two equally possible roads soon opened to the young man.


    When word reached Octavian of Caesar's murder, the naming of Octavian as his uncle's heir and posthumous adoption, reaction was mixed among his family and friends. His friends, likely Agrippa included, urged him to go to Macedonia and take refuge with Caesar's former legions there. His mother and step-father, L. Marcius Philippus on the other hand, pressed him to return to Rome as a private citizen and refuse Caesar's inheritance out of fear for his personal safety. Octavian sided in part with his family and decided to return to Rome, but readily accepted the adoption and the portion of Caesar's estate that was willed to him. He took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, as was his right by virtue of adoption, but Octavianus was dropped from conscious thought. It's been used throughout the study of history to define him from his adoptive father, but he identified himself simply as Caesar. In so doing, he immediately entrenched himself as a favorite both with the masses and the all important veteran legionaries.


    After making the decision to return to Rome to claim his inheritance, Octavian first crossed the Adriatic and landed in Brundisium, where he decided the safest course of action was an appeal to Caesar's troops. A bold and daring move, and seemingly necessary to ensure his safety, it turned out to be the only way to ensure his legitimacy. As Octavian marched to Rome, and gathered support among Caesar's Italian veterans, the de facto leader in Rome, Marcus Antonius, essentially ignored the youth. Not only did he blatantly disregard Caesar's will, but made no effort to discuss the situation with Octavian or learn of his intentions. When Octavian finally arrived in Rome in late April, 44 BC, Antony still ignored him, and still attempted to block passing on Caesar's inheritance. Octavian, however, garnered support from the masses and conflict seemed inevitable.


    Antony was occupied with his own intentions of taking Cisalpine Gaul from then governor Decimus Brutus. Though the use of the Tribunes, Antony forced through legislation that altered his appointed governership of 43 BC from Macedonia to Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus, a former supporter of Caesar, yet a key player in the assassination, had the general support of the Senate, and of course, Caesar's assassins. Antony, however, had no intention of waiting for events to unfold and took matters in his own hands. In November of 44 BC, rather than wait for Decimus Brutus' term to expire, Antony moved on Cisalpine Gaul, where he hoped to gather further strength by pushing his control into all of Gaul. In the meantime Octavian, as he was being set aside by the powers that were as a man with a name but no authority, pushed the envelope of daring. He traveled among the veteran colonies of Campania and, risking the enmity of the state, raised a personal army perhaps as strong as 10,000 men. The weight of the Caesar name, as Octavian was still quite unaccomplished on his own merit, proved to be a powerful factor to reckon with.


    Antony returned to Rome to deal with this new threat, but 2 of his 5 legions on the way from Macedonia to Gaul deserted him to Octavian's growing army. Rather than risk a war in Italy, Antony rushed back to Cisalpine Gaul with the forces he could muster, where he hoped to seize control from Brutus. At this point, there were three seemingly opposed factions vying for power, the 'Liberators' or Caesar's assassins, Antony and Octavian. The Senate, and Cicero in particular all viewed Antony as the greatest threat to Republican liberty, and he began a campaign of disgracing Antony through the use of his vaunted rhetoric. Viewing Octavian as a tool to be manipulated, the Senate accepted him as a counterforce to Antony's strength and legitimized his command, despite its illegal beginnings. By the close of 44 BC, the various factions continued to shore up their military positions, and war was once again on the horizon.

    As Antony marched north to besiege Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul, Octavian, armed with the support of both Cicero and the Senate, readied his forces to follow. Having garnered the support of Cicero, though it was thought to be for the best interest of the Republic, Octavian actually secured his position as a political player of some importance. Despite attempts by the Senate to try and reconcile all the opposing factions, there was little chance now for resolution by peace. In the east, Caesar's assassins continued to spread their control, and in the west the various factions continued to build support for their own causes.


    In April of 43 BC, Octavian marched north to face Antony, and was joined by the current consuls for the year, Pansa and Hirtius. The three men had mutual cause in defeating Antony, but otherwise the two consuls would have little use for Caesar's heir. The three commanders camped their armies separately near Bononia, not far from where Antony had Decimus Brutus besieged at Mutina. Antony broke off the siege with his main army, leaving his brother Lucius in command there. Antony drove down on Pansa first, defeating his Consular army, and inflicting what would become mortal wounds on Pansa himself. Next he sought to defeat Hirtius in turn, but the combined strength of two powerful enemies turned the tide against him. Antony retreated into Transalpine Gaul, where he hoped to build support from the Caesarian forces still in power there, but the armies of his enemies suffered a terrible loss. Not only had Pansa succumbed to his wounds, but Hirtius was killed in the battle as well, leaving the Republic without its Consuls. Decimus Brutus wanted Octavian to join forces with him and pursue Antony, but Octavian refused to join with one of the murderer's of his adoptive father.


    While Antony fled and then joined forces with Lepidus, the pro-Caesarian governor of Spain, the Senate's faction attempted to shun Octavian and bestow prestige among Brutus and other allied parties. Among other slights, the Senate ignored land settlement requests for Octavian's veterans and refused to consider his petition to be named suffect Consul (along with Cicero) for the remainder of the year. While Cicero continued to support who he though was his young protégé, the assassins of Caesar saw the situation much more clearly. While Antony was a threat, to be sure, they feared Octavian, with his massive public popularity, as the continued presence of Caesar's legacy. Denying Octavian at every turn, the young man decided on another bold and daring move. Rather than wait for events to unfold, Octavian marched south, leaving Antony and Lepidus in a stalemate against Decimus Brutus and his allies.


    Word had come to Octavian that the Senate and even Cicero, viewed him as a convenient tool to use against Antony. When the need was gone, the Senate would surely dismiss Octavian, but they underestimated both him, and his popularity with the legions. It's suspected that Antony may have even played a part, probably taunting Octavian with the fact that he was just an unwitting pawn in the Senate's power game.


    As Octavian marched on Rome, the Senate was unable to put up resistance, with their main armies facing off against Antony and Lepidus in Gaul and the other 'Liberators' in the east. It's also interesting to note that while the assassins such as Brutus and Cassius participated in Caesar's murder as a pretense to preserving the Republican tradition, they seemingly has no qualms about illegally taking control of they eastern provinces to build their own strength. Regardless, the Senate initially accepted Octavian's demands, such as naming him Consul and granting land to his veterans, but when word arrived that legions had arrived from Africa to support the Senate, the offers were rescinded. These legions, however, refused to fight Caesar's heir, and switched their loyalty without a single engagement. As the calendar reached mid summer, Octavian, still only 19 years old, was confirmed as Consul along with his cousin Q. Pedius and set about an extraordinary bit of political legislation. He seized the state treasury, paying off his troops, and finally received the distribution of Caesar's will. More importantly, however, he changed the focus of Senatorial politics by authorizing a special law revoking the amnesty of the 'Liberators'.


    In one single day, he tried and convicted Caesar's murderers in abstentia, and set stage for the civil war to finally end the collapsing Republic. Octavian rose to power as the first Roman in history to do so almost completely with the support of the army. Unlike previous political powerhouses, like Marius, Sulla and Caesar, Octavian had little to any real support among the political forces that were. As a young man without an established client base, the maneuverings of men such as Cicero helped set him up on the public stage, but it was the legions, and the use of his adoptive name, Caesar, that secured his position among Rome's elite. By the autumn of 43 BC, Octavian prepared for his next move, to alter the state of the political landscape and reconcile with Antony.



    Second Trumvirate
    After forcing through his own political agenda in Rome, the situation with Antony was still precarious. Antony had reached Gaul and gathered strength from the legions stationed there. Together with Lepidus in Spain, the two were a formidable force. Octavian, despite having considerable strength himself, would be hard pressed to meet that challenge alone.

    By passing a law that found all the members of Caesar's assassination plot to be guilty of a capital crime, he certainly couldn't count on any support from that quarter, not that he wanted it. Decimus Brutus, for so long holding the support of the Senate against Antony, now found himself sandwiched between Antony, Lepidus and Octavian, and decided to flee to the safer eastern territories. He was not so lucky, however, and was captured and executed en route, becoming the first of the major players in Caesar's murder to pay for his 'crime'.


    Octavian decided that the prudent course of action was to reconcile with Antony and stabilize the Caesarean faction. He marched north and met with Antony and Lepidus on a small river island near Bononia. For two days the three political leaders of the western Roman world hammered out the details of an agreement that would set them up as the official government of Rome. In establishing the triumviri rei publicae constituendae, the three men divided the western 'empire' between them.

    Antony would stay entrenched in Gaul, Lepidus, the leading pro-consular patrician member of Roman government still alive, maintained control of Spain and Narbonensis and Octavian received Africa, Sardinia and Sicily. Octavian's status as the junior member of the group relegated his authority to these more minor territories, by comparison. Not that they weren't important, but Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey the Great, had already established himself as a pirate captain in the Mediterranean and made control of Octavian's provinces difficult at best. By the time the Second Triumvirate was cemented, Pompey had already taken control of the islands, and was lurking dangerously off the Italian shore.

    This Second Triumvirate was different than the First arranged by Caesar, Pompey and Crassus some 16 years earlier. While the first was really a secret pact that forced the 3 men to pledge mutual support, leaving the Republican system largely intact, this new triumvirate was a legal arrangement, written into the constitution by the Lex Titia in November, 43 BC. In essence, this new government was a joint dictatorship, where the three members had ultimate authority capable of completely disregarding Republican and Senatorial tradition through the use of military force.


    With their agreement firmly in place, the triumvirate first focused on both gathering enough funds to stabilize their authority and eliminate political opposition. This meant the return of Sulla's dreaded political tool, the proscriptions. There is some dispute whether the proscriptions were intended merely as a means for financial gain, or directly intended as a political affirmation, but regardless, the use of proscription produced both results. Being sure not to make the mistake Caesar had made in pardoning his most dangerous threats, the proscriptions of the second triumvirate were as brutal and all encompassing as those of Sulla.

    In all, some 130 to 300 Senators were proscribed, but most only faced confiscation of property. Worse though, estimates of up to 2,000 equites were said to be on the proscription list. Members of the Triumvirs own families were not exempt either. Lepidus' own brother was proscribed, as well as Antony's cousin and Octavian's distant relative through adoption, Lucius Caesar. Though they survived and their proscription was a matter of financial necessity, it was clear that the Triumvirs would use any means necessary to advance their agenda.


    The most notable victim of the proscriptions was Marcus Tullius Cicero. After having opposed Antony for so long, including vicious attacks through the use of his rhetoric and oration, Antony simply couldn't allow Octavian's mentor to live. Despite Cicero's support of Caesar's heir, Octavian agreed that Cicero had to go. On December 7, 43 BC, Cicero was captured attempting to flee to Greece, and the relative safety of the 'Liberators' provinces. Much like the proscriptions of Marius and Sulla, Cicero's head and hands were cut off and displayed on the Rostra in the forum. Unlike their predecessor's mass displays, however, Cicero was the only victim to be publicly exhibited this time around. To add insult to injury, and as a symbolic gesture against Cicero's vaunted power of speech, Antony's wife, Fulvia pulled out Cicero's tongue and jabbed it repeatedly with a pin.
    Though the proscriptions didn't yield as much financial gain as the triumvirs had hoped, they did provide enough of a boon to turn their attention on their mutual enemies in the east. Despite a certain animosity between them, they were secured by the presence of a common foe, and the triumvirate was stable for the time being. The next year, 42 BC, would be focused on eliminating Caesar's assassins and strengthening their own power.



    Philippi
    In 42 BC, Octavian and Antony combined their forces, 28 legions in total, and sailed across the Adriatic and into Greece. The 'Liberators' Brutus and Cassius had 19 of their own legions, which were heavily supplemented by auxilia provided by eastern client kingdoms.

    Brutus and Cassius had been plundering and taking control of the east for nearly two full years since the murder of Caesar. Despite having an army made up largely of Caesar's former troops, they used this plunder and distributed it among the men to secure their loyalty.
    As Octavian's and Antony's armies arrived and assembled near Dyrrhachium, the site of Caesar's near defeat to Pompey 6 years earlier, Octavian battled with his own poor health. Often described as a sickly youth, he was apparently stricken with a terrible illness just as the fate of the Roman world was about to be decided. Antony, however, likely saw a grand opportunity to win a great victory for his own cause without being forced to share any credit with his young fellow triumvir and rival. As Antony marched his army east towards the Macedonian - Thracian and border and confrontation with the enemy, Octavian had no choice but to follow, despite his illness, or risk being left out of the battle to revenge his adoptive father.

    Initially both sides jockeyed for position, and the 'Liberators' hoped to win a battle of attrition by delaying Antony's advance. Antony however, often considered second only to Caesar in military ability during this era, would have none of it and forced the enemy into battle. On October 3, the two armies drew up near the Macedonian town of Philippi. Cassius commanded the left wing of the Republican forces directly across from Antony while Brutus confronted Octavian's army with the right wing. Octavian, however, despite his presence in the area was still terribly ill.

    He was forced to stay behind the lines in his tent, while his officers conducted the battle on his behalf. As the battle opened, Antony had a clear advantage over Cassius, and overran the Republican left. Brutus, though, had nearly equal success against Octavian and pushed his lines back. Octavian was forced to flee his camp, taking refuge in a nearby marsh.

    Cassius' defeat was significant and yet the entire affair could've been stabilized by Brutus's success. Cassius though was certainly unaware of his ally's good fortune and decided to take his own life, rather than submit to Antony. Despite his own loss, Cassius was the stronger military mind of the Republican side and his own death began to sound the end of their ability to resist. Brutus managed to regroup and take command of Cassius' remaining army, but the writing was on the wall. Antony assuredly reveled in his own victory while Octavian was forced to retreat, but Brutus held his ground and delayed Antony's triumph. On October 23, perhaps losing the confidence of his men, or willing to risk a final last ditch effort at victory, Brutus launched an attack.

    At the Battle of 2nd Philippi, Octavian was seemingly recovered from his illness and commanded his own army. He and his men were certainly embarrassed by their defeat just 3 weeks earlier and were prepared to give a better account. This time they proved themselves up to the challenge, and the triumvir's army overran Brutus. Octavian's forces captured Brutus' camp and they were atoned for their previous defeat.

    The battle spelled the end of the Republican cause, and Brutus committed suicide on the following day. A great number of those involved in the plot against Caesar also lost their lives at Philippi and Octavian was brutal in exacting vengeance. Though some escaped to join with Sextus Pompey in his Sicilian stronghold, the battles of Philippi essentially assured the end of Republican government and paved the way for a final conflict between the victorious triumvirs.

    After the battles, Octavian marched his army back to Italy, where he was now faced with the unenviable task of finding a retirement settlement for his veterans. Antony continued east where he began to secure loyalty of client kings and provincial governors alike. He imposed serious penalties on Asia Minor in particular and essentially plundered those provinces for disloyalty, despite already having been looted by Brutus and Cassius.

    In light of the altered state of the Roman world, the triumvirs realigned their positions. Antony received the entire east as his new territory, yet retained Transalpine Gaul. Octavian now moved into the second position among the three received Spain, Italy, Cisalpine Gaul and the Mediterranean islands. Lepidus, clearly relegated to third on the list, was moved to Africa, where he would essentially linger as a bit player in the remaining days of the Republic.

    War between Antony and Octavian
    As the legal arrangement for the triumvirate between Octavian, Antony and Lepidus (even though he was no longer an official part of the arrangement) expired at the end of 33 BC, 32 BC turned into a year of political posturing and strained anticipation. Without legal triumvir powers, Octavian technically reverted to no more than a leading member of the Senate, and the Consuls for 32 BC, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and C. Sosius both Antony supporters, sought to bring Octavian down.
    While Octavian was outside of Rome, Sosius launched an attack on Octavian's legal position to the convened Senate. Though the precise nature of the attack is unknown, it's safe to assume that the Antony supporters definitely wished to limit Octavian's power and position. What they surprisingly failed to count on was Octavian's support among the army and his boldness in using it. When he returned to Rome he called the Senate to meet, backed by an armed escort, and proceeded to turn the tables on the sitting consuls. Launching his own attack on Antony, it was clear that the Roman world was once again heading towards civil war. In Rome, despite Octavian's lack of legal right to rule, it was also quite clear that he was in fact, the unchallenged leader of the west. Not even Antony's supporters attempted to dispute him, and many Senators (up to 300) fled to Antony, rather than attempt to put up a false front that all was well.

    News soon returned to Rome that Antony intended to set up a separate eastern Senate in Alexandria to govern the eastern part of the empire. He also officially divorced Octavian, denouncing her in favor of the foreign Queen, Cleopatra. Octavian knew that war was coming, but now needed to rally support among the masses. By fortunate circumstances, two important supporters of Antony had defected to Octavian's cause and returned to Rome about this time. L. Munatius Plancus and M. Titius brought word to Octavian that Antony's will, now deposited with the Vestal Virgins, contained incriminating evidence of Antony's anti-Roman, and pro-Cleopatra stand. Both men, it seemed, had been witnesses to the document, and Octavian illegally seized the will from the Vestals. In it, Antony recognized Cleopatra's son Caesarion as Caesar's legal heir, propped up his own eastern appointments by leaving large inheritances to his children by Cleopatra, and finally indicated his desire to be buried with Cleopatra in Alexandra. Though the first two matters wouldn't be considered all that unusual, it was the third that set off a firestorm of anti-Antonian sentiment. Already suspecting him of abandoning Rome for Cleopatra, the people clearly saw his rebuttal of Roman cremation tradition and the favoring of eternal burial with Cleopatra as proof of him falling under the Queen's sway.

    Octavian seized the opportunity to gain from the people's sentiment, and encourage the rumors that followed. If the people believed that Antony had every intention of making Cleopatra the Queen of Rome, and by virtue of his new eastern Senate would move the capital to Alexandria, it could do nothing but favor Octavian. He was reserved in his intentions, however, and knew that Antony still had some supporters. Civil War too, simply for the benefit of Octavian would never be popular. He also wished to make it easy for Antony supporters to willingly switch sides without seemingly being disloyal. Rather than announce war with his rival Antony, Octavian declared war on the hated Queen Cleopatra, the perceived cause of all the trouble. As both sides geared up for the conflict that would seem to be the largest and costliest ever for the Roman state, a remarkable show of public support took place. The people of Italy and the western provinces swore on oath of loyalty directly to Octavian, rather than the Roman state. Though this was likely a greatly orchestrated political maneuver by Octavian, a now brilliant politician, it had the desired effect of at least giving him the public support he needed to take the nation to war. While by no means presenting Octavian with any sort of legal power over the Roman world, it did help to clarify for everyone that not only did Octavian maintain power through the legions, but also through the good will of the Roman people.


    Actium
    The civil war between Antony and Octavian seemed assured of dwarfing even the massive conflict between Caesar and his Republican opponents. Both sides had massive armies at their disposal, and Antony added the support Rome's eastern client kings, including Cleopatra of Egypt. By mid-summer of 31 BC, Octavian's war against his rival, though popularly characterized as being against the Egyptian Queen, had worked itself into little more than a stalemate. Antony had marched his army into Greece where he planned to oppose Octavian's advance, and the two considerable forces began to take up position against one another.
    While the armies were of relatively equal strength, Octavian's fleet was vastly superior. Antony's fleet was made up of large vessels, though with inexperienced crews and commanders. On the other hand, Octavian's fleet of smaller, more maneuverable vessels was under the command of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, the proven admiral who excelled in the war against Sextus Pompey. While Octavian crossed the Adriatic to confront Antony near Actium in Epirus, Agrippa menaced Antony's supply lines with the fleet. Octavian wisely refused to give battle with the army, and Antony did likewise at sea. As the summer waned, both armies seemed to settle in for a battle of attrition.

    The stalemate was working decidedly in Octavian's favor. The presence of Cleopatra with the Roman army of Antony was making the loyalty of his men a considerable challenge. For Antony's men, facing the son of Caesar, a god, was bad enough, but facing a Roman army while under the influence of an Egyptian Queen seemed an impossible situation. Defections from all quarters of Antony's support, to Caesar's side, were occurring in massive numbers. Agrippa's blockade against Antony tightened, and disease swept through Antony's camp. Common legionaries, commanders and Senators switched sides as the inevitable victory for Octavian seemed only a matter of time. By the time the calendar approached September of 31 BC, only 3 Consular magistrates remained with Antony.

    On September 2, 31 BC Antony desperately attempted a breakout with his fleet to escape the blockade and regroup in Egypt. With his large ships, he sailed out of the gulf of Actium and engaged Agrippa's prepared navy. Though Antony's under matched forces fought valiantly, they were simply unable to counter Agrippa's vast superiority. Under the watchful eye of both armies on land, and as the tide turned against Antony, Cleopatra seized an opportunity to flee the battle with her own ships that were held in reserve. As a gap opened in Agrippa's blockade, she funneled through, and was soon closely followed by Antony's command ships. The commanders of Antony's land forces, which were supposed to follow him to Asia, promptly surrendered without a fight. Octavian stood as the master of the Roman world, east and west and to commemorate his victory, he founded the city of Nicopolis (City of Victory) on the site.
    All was not over just yet, however. Trouble with Octavian's veterans forced him to abandon pursuit of his eastern rival, and final victory would be delayed for a year. Octavian also wisely decided to put an end to any chance for Antony to regain strength from eastern kings by marching through the eastern provinces rather than sail directly to Egypt. Meanwhile, Antony attempted to secure an army in Cyrene from L. Pinarius Scarpus, but Scarpus refused and offered loyalty to Octavian. Trapped in Egypt with what remained of his former army, Antony and Cleopatra bided their time awaiting Octavian's arrival. As Octavian marched through Asia, Syria and Judaea establishing his authority, Scarpus sailed to Cyrenaica and moved east towards Egypt to pinch Antony between a two-pronged front.

    Augustus
    27 BC - AD 14 (born 63 BC - died AD 14)

    With the final defeat of Antony, and Octavian's emergence as sole political power of the Roman world, the Roman Republic still teetered on the edge of potential disaster. Despite Octavian's victory, and initial attempts to appear as a great advocate for the return of Republican rule, the Republican system had failed irreparably. To reconstitute the administration of Rome's now vast empire was to re-invite a continuance of the social disorder and civil wars that had plagued it for the last century or more. What would be required was a soft and eventual rise of a single man to lead the nation as a whole. Unlike his predecessor and adoptive father, Julius Caesar, Octavian slowly consolidated his position and accepted honors and power gradually, minimizing fear and resentment among the elite classes. Coupled with the fact that most outright resistance to rule through a select few or a single head of state had been eliminated through war and previous proscriptions, the stage was clearly set for Octavian's final transformation.

    Initially, in order to maintain a semblance of legal authority under the Republican constitution, Octavian continued to rule through the domination of the Consulship. From 31 until 23 BC (the eventual date of the final 'Augustan Settlement') Octavian served as Consul. This would prove to be an unsatisfactory solution, however, and steps needed to be taken to procure a more permanent and lasting authority. Though the previous oath of loyalty given to Octavian by citizens in the west now extended throughout the empire, there was still considerable work to be done on a political basis. First, however, there were matters of more pressing importance to be addressed. In his victory over Antony, he had inherited a great number of veterans, which including his own men, numbered nearly half a million. Not only was their happy settlement, thereby securing their loyalty a priority, but a shakeup of the Roman military system was in order as well.

    After annexing Egypt and its vast wealth, the issue of both compensation for veterans and available lands for settlement were no longer the political battlefield they once were. After overwhelming victory celebrations in Rome, including triumphal parades rivaling those of Julius Caesar, as many as 300,000 veterans were removed from active service. With the subjugation of the eastern provinces secured, and veterans settled in excess of those required, Octavian established a permanent military structure that would include 28 regular legions, loyal to the state and not the individual commanders who had recruited them. Though this number would fluctuate some, based on need, throughout the imperial period, it became a permanent part of the established Legionary system.
    Along with the military solution, and in the wake of eastern settlements and grand triumphs in Rome, Octavian was offered several honors and political powers in 29 BC. These he prudently refused, perhaps sensing that despite all his accomplishments, the Senate was not yet quite ready to accept a 'Caesarean' style Monarchy like solution. The refusal of such honors helped prop up support for Octavian as a true supporter of the Republic and Roman tradition, while in reality, he was simply playing it safe for the time being. The continual consulship was a truly inefficient solution to the problem of rule, however, and Octavian's occupation of one seat on a permanent basis would reduce the chances for aspiring Senators to climb the political ladder. While Romans cared about tradition, what likely fueled them more were their dignitas, or societal position. Depriving these men of avenues for success, whether they be positions of true power or simply figurative ones, the longer the issue remained unsettled, Octavian risked alienation from the Senate, and perhaps the fate of Caesar.
    By 27 BC, the matter was brought to a head through a shrewd and brilliant political show, staged by Octavian himself. In January of that year, he assembled the Senate and shocked his audience (at least those not in on the ultimate plan) by giving up all of his powers and expressing a desire to retire to private life. In this, he tactfully secured support from both the populace, which he had maintained all along, but also from the elite who now believed that Octavian truly respected Republican ideals. Reaction from the Senate (inspired undoubtedly by carefully positioned allies) was one of complete rejection of Octavian's proposal. They demanded that he remain in power as it was necessary to secure peace and prevent another slide into civil war that would surely follow. On January 13, 27 BC, the first of two Constitutional Settlements took place, and control of the 'Republic' was split between Octavian and the Senate. Octavian, on the proposal by L Munatius Plancus, three days later on the 16th was to be granted the title Augustus, or exalted one (a title cleverly thought up by Octavian' camp, indicating religious and political overtones above everyone else, while avoiding any direct relation to words that might indicate Kingship). Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus was now forevermore known as Imperator (loosely meaning commander but eventually coming to mean Emperor in modern languages) Caesar Augustus. Other honors were granted, but most important were political and military settlements granting Augustus control of the legions and provinces where they were stationed. While the Senate still had the authority to govern those provinces without military significance, elect magistrates and administer various traditional powers, Augustus held sway without alienating potential rivals. In Egypt, which was kept as the personal possession of Augustus, and eventually his heirs, no Senator was even allowed to step foot there without direct 'Imperial' approval.

    Between this settlement and an additional one 4 years later in 23 BC, Augustus was granted the right to appoint new patricians (something sorely needed after all the civil wars and proscriptions) nominate Senators for magisterial positions (something sparingly used by Augustus, but dominated by later successors) and of course, had complete control of the military. In fact, not only did Legionaries swear an oath of loyalty to Augustus, but Legates were his to appoint with no Senatorial interference and he held the personal right to any and all victories claimed. No longer were individual commanders allowed the right of a triumph without the agreement of the 'Emperor' as he alone was reserved that honor. Additionally, Augustus established his own body guard along the traditional lines of those established for provincial governors. Abandoning the concept of lictors, which had previously been an indication of Republican authority, nine cohorts, nearly a full legion, of men were recruited and assigned to both Augustus' personal protection and the protection of peace throughout Italy. While troops were not allowed a permanent presence in Italy or Rome (at least under time where the constitution was respected) prior to Augustus he now maintained direct control of this intimidating presence. In the Senatorial provinces as well, though he technically did not have authority, the word of Augustus was enough to inspire magistrates to abide by his wishes, clearly indicating his supreme authority over the entire Roman world.

    23 BC also saw the establishment of the title 'Princeps' or first citizen or first among equals (and eventually formed the root of the word Prince). This title, much like that of Augustus, was another way of granting him ultimate authority without calling him Rex or King. This was a hereditary right and by its virtue the early empire became referred to as the Principate (until the time of Diocletion who dropped the title in preference for Dominus). Among many honors, titles and privileges granted, two important titles came later. With the death of Lepidus, the former triumvir, in 13 BC, Augustus was granted the title of Pontifex Maxiumus, making him head of the state religion. Like so many other honors, this became his and his successor's hereditary right, granting the emperor permanent control of the state religion. Years later, in 2 BC, Augustus would be granted what was possibly the ultimate title (aside from his final deification) Pater Patriae of Father of the Country. Though these 'settlements' which granted Augustus so much power technically allowed for a division of rule between the 'Emperor' and the Senate, the Republic was officially dead, and the Empire, for all its advantages and faults, had officially been born.


    The military reforms of Augustus
    The Roman army that existed under Augustus was not something totally new. However, the reforms that were undertaken by Augustus transformed the Roman army from a semi-professional force to a fully professional force. After the battle of Actium, where Augustus managed to win a decisive victory over Cleopatra and Mark Antony, he faced the issue of dealing with a huge army under his command. Taking into account of the 30 legions that defected from Mark Antony to him, Augustus commanded a total of 60 legions and an equal amount of auxiliaries.

    Perhaps due to the huge cost involved in sustaining such a huge army, and the need to assure the public that the era of civil wars was over, Augustus reduced the number of legions to 28 and disbanded the rest. However, this does not mean that the soldiers in the remaining 28 legions were not discharged.

    The veterans of Actium that supported Augustus from the start were rewarded for the length of service with land grants in the 28 veteran colonies founded by Augustus in Italy, while the veterans of Mark Antony that defected to Augustus were allocated land in the provinces. The key change that was made by Augustus was that he did not disband the unit even if he has discharged the veterans. Those legions were simply filled up with new recruits.

    This mass discharge of men means Augustus has to replace them with new recruits. While a fair number of new recruits would be volunteers, a substantial number of recruits were conscripted to fill up the legions. The result of this action was the creation of a permanent standing army, constantly ready for war. Augustus also embarked on the formalization of the legal status of a soldier in the Roman army, and essentially separated the status of a soldier from a civilian in the Roman Empire. He formalized the distinction between the various types of soldiers, and assigned different status between a soldier in the legion and a soldier in an auxiliary unit.

    The Roman army under Augustus can be separated firstly into two category. The first is the provincial armies, which included the legions and the supporting auxiliary units. The second is the garrison army in Rome, which is made up of the Praetorians, Urban cohorts and other bodyguard units tasked to protect the life of the Emperor.

    The legionnaire in the new Roman army was required to serve for a time period of 16 years, which is the maximum time period a Roman can served in the army during Republican times, and a further four years as reservist. In AD 5, he increased the time duration to 20 years, and an additional 5 years as a reservist.

    These soldiers were given a fixed pay of 225 denarii per year, and was given a discharge bonus after they have completed their service in the army. This can come in the form of a land grant or a cash payment. To grant land for his veterans, Augustus spend 860, 000, 000 sesterces to purchase the land and redistribute it to them. An ordinary legionnaire is estimated to be given 14.7 ha of land for his service, enough to feed his family and have a surplus. As it becomes more difficult to give out land grant, cash bonus was given out to a veteran by Augustus , at a fixed amount of 12,000 sesterces.

    This was funded through the military treasury, the aeraium militare, in 6 AD. This treasury is in turn funded by a 1 percent sales tax and a 5 percent inheritance tax. However, these benefits came at a price, which is the prohibition of the legionnaires from marriage in order to improve the speed of the Roman army. All these reforms taken over a period of time resulted in a fully professional and standing army that is able to defend the Roman Empire throughout its existence.
    Last edited by tone; April 19, 2010 at 05:34 PM.


    Under patronage of Spirit of Rob; Patron of Century X, Pacco, Cherryfunk, Leif Erikson.

  2. #2

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    First Roman Jewish War 66-70AD

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    According to Titus Flavius Josephus, the revolt, which began at Caesarea in 66, was provoked by Greeks sacrificing birds in front of a local synagogue. The Roman garrison did not intercede and the long-standing Greek and Jewish religious tensions took a downward spiral. In reaction, the son of Kohen Gadol (High priest) Eliezar ben Hanania ceased prayers and sacrifices for the Roman Emperor at the Temple. Protests over taxation joined the list of grievances and random attacks on Roman citizens and perceived 'traitors' occurred in Jerusalem. Fearing the worst, the pro-Roman king Agrippa II and his sister Berenice fled Jerusalem to Galilee. Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought a legion, the XII Fulminata, and auxiliary troops as reinforcements to restore order. They were defeated in an ambush at the Battle of Beth Horon, even losing the standard of the XII legion in the process. Religious zealots took hold of forts throughout the region, and ethnic purging took place all over.
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    Emperor Nero appointed general Vespasian instead of Gallus to crush the rebellion. Vespasian, along with legions X Fretensis and V Macedonica, landed at Ptolemais in April 67. There he was joined by his son Titus, who arrived from Alexandria at the head of Legio XV Apollinaris, as well as by the armies of various local allies including that of king Agrippa II. Fielding more than 60,000 soldiers, Vespasian began operations by subjugating the Galilee. Many towns gave up without a fight, although others had to be taken by force. Of these, Josephus provides detailed accounts of the sieges of Yodfat and Gamla. By the year 68, Jewish resistance in the North had been crushed, and Vespasian made Caesarea Maritima his headquarters and proceeded to methodically clear the coast.
    The leaders of the collapsed Northern revolt, John of Giscala and Simon Bar Giora, managed to escape to Jerusalem. Brutal civil war erupted, the Zealots and the fanatical Sicarii executed anyone advocating surrender, and by 68 the entire leadership of the southern revolt was dead, killed by Jewish hands in the infighting, some at the Zealot Temple Siege.

    While the war in Judea was being won, great events were occurring in Rome. In the middle of 68 AD, the emperor Nero's increasingly erratic behaviour finally lost him all support for his position. The Roman Senate, the praetorian guard and several prominent army commanders conspired for his removal. When the senate declared Nero an enemy of the people, he fled Rome and committed suicide. The newly installed emperor Galba was murdered after just a few months by a rival, triggering a civil war that came to be known as the Year of the Four Emperors. In 69 AD, though previously uninvolved, the popular Vespasian was also hailed emperor by the legions under his command. He decided, upon gaining further widespread support, to return to Rome to claim the throne from the usurper Vitellius, leaving his son Titus to finish the war in Judea.

    Siege of Jerusalem
    The siege of Jerusalem, the capital city, had begun early in the war, but had turned into a stalemate. Unable to breach the city's defenses, the Roman armies established a permanent camp just outside the city, digging a trench around the circumference of its walls and building a wall as high as the city walls themselves around Jerusalem. Anyone caught in the trench attempting to flee the city would be captured, crucified, and placed in lines on top of the dirt wall facing into Jerusalem. The two Zealot leaders, John of Gischala and Simon Bar Giora, only ceased hostilities and joined forces to defend the city when the Romans began to construct ramparts for the siege. Those attempting to escape the city were crucified, with as many as five hundred crucifixions occurring in a day. Titus Flavius, Vespasian's son, led the final assault and siege of Jerusalem. During the infighting inside the city walls, a stockpiled supply of dry food was intentionally burned by Jewish leaders to induce the defenders to fight against the siege instead of negotiating peace; as a result many city dwellers and soldiers died of starvation during the siege. Zealots under Eleazar ben Simon held the Temple, Sicarii led by Simon Bar Giora held the upper city. Titus eventually wiped out the last remnants of Jewish resistance.
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    By the summer of 70, the Romans had breached the walls of Jerusalem, ransacking and burning nearly the entire city. The Romans began by attacking the weakest spot which was the third wall. It was built shortly before the siege so it did not have as much time invested in its protection. They succeeded towards the end of May and shortly afterwards broke through the more important second wall. The Second Temple (the rennovated Herod's Temple) was destroyed on Tisha B'Av (29 or 30 July 70). Tacitus, a historian of the time, notes that those who were besieged in Jerusalem amounted to no fewer than six hundred thousand, that men and women alike and every age engaged in armed resistance, everyone who could pick up a weapon did, both sexes showed equal determination, preferring death to a life that involved expulsion from their country. All three walls were destroyed and in turn so was the Temple, some of whose overturned stones and their place of impact can still be seen. John of Giscala surrendered at Agrippa II's fortress of Jotaphta and was sentenced to life imprisonment. The famous Arch of Titus still stands in Rome: it depicts Roman legionaries carrying the Temple of Jerusalem's treasuries, including the Menorah, during Titus's triumphal procession in Rome.

    The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem, by David Roberts (1850)
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    Siege of Masada
    The cliffs on the east edge of Masada are about 1,300 feet (400 m) high and the cliffs on the west are about 300 feet (90 m) high; the natural approaches to the cliff top are very difficult. The top of the plateau is flat and rhomboid-shaped, about 1,800 feet (550 m) by 900 feet (275 m). There was a casemate wall around the top of the plateau totaling 4,300 feet (1.3 km) long and 12 feet (3.7 m) thick, with many towers, and the fortress included storehouses, barracks, an armory, the palace, and cisterns that were refilled by rainwater. Three narrow, winding paths led from below up to fortified gates.

    Aerial view of the masada plateau showing the roman siege ramp
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    Overlooking the dead sea east of masada
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    According to Josephus, Herod the Great fortified Masada between 37 and 31 BCE as a refuge for himself in the event of a revolt. In 66 CE, at the beginning of the First Jewish-Roman War against the Roman Empire, a group of Jewish extremists called the Sicarii overcame the Roman garrison of Masada. After the destruction of the Second Temple, the Jewish rebels and their families fled Jerusalem and settled on the mountain top, using it as a base for harassing the Romans. The works of Josephus are the sole record of events that took place during the siege. According to modern interpretations of Josephus, the Sicarii were an extremist splinter group of the Zealots who were equally antagonistic to both Romans and other Jewish groups. The Zealots, in contrast to the Sicarii, carried the main burden of the rebellion, which opposed Roman rule of Judea. The Sicarii on Masada were commanded by Elazar ben Ya'ir, and in 70 CE they were joined by additional Sicarii and their families that were expelled from Jerusalem by the Jewish population with whom the Sicarii were in conflict shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple.

    During the spring of 71, Titus set sail for Rome. A new military governor was then appointed from Rome, Lucilius Bassus, whose assigned task was to undertake the "mopping-up" operations in Judaea. He used X Fretensis to besiege and capture the few remaining fortresses that still resisted. Bassus took Herodium, and then crossed the Jordan to capture the fortress of Machaerus on the shore of the Dead Sea. Because of illness, Bassus did not live to complete his mission. Lucius Flavius Silva replaced him, and moved against the last Jewish stronghold, Masada, in the autumn of 72. He used Legio X Fretensis, auxiliary troops, and thousands of Jewish prisoners, for a total of 10,000 soldiers. After failed attempts to breach the wall, they built a circumvallation wall and then a rampart against the western face of the plateau, using thousands of tons of stones and beaten earth. Josephus does not record any attempts by the Sicarii to counterattack the besiegers during this process. The rampart was complete in the spring of 73, after approximately two to three months of siege, allowing the Romans to finally breach the wall of the fortress with a battering ram on April 16. When they entered the fortress, however, the Romans discovered that its 960 inhabitants had set all the buildings but the food storerooms ablaze and committed mass suicide rather than face certain capture, defeat, slavery or execution by their enemies.


    Year of the four emperors

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    The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, AD 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. These four emperors were Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.
    The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68, was followed by a brief period of civil war, the first Roman civil war since Mark Antony's death in 30 BC. Between June of 68 and December of 69, Rome witnessed the successive rise and fall of Galba, Otho and Vitellius until the final accession of Vespasian, first ruler of the Flavian Dynasty. This period of civil war has become emblematic of the cyclic political disturbances in the history of the Roman Empire. The military and political anarchy created by this civil war had serious repercussions, such as the outbreak of the Batavian rebellion.

    Nero to Galba
    In 65, the Pisonian conspiracy attempted to restore the Republic, but failed. A number of executions followed leaving Nero with few political allies left in the Senate. In late 67 or early 68, Caius Julius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis rebelled against Nero's tax policy, with the purpose of substituting Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, for Nero.

    Vindex's revolt in Gaul was unsuccessful. The legions stationed at the border to Germania marched to meet Vindex and confront him as a traitor. Led by Lucius Verginius Rufus, the Rhine army defeated Vindex in battle and Vindex killed himself. Galba was at first declared a public enemy by the Senate.

    By June of 68, the Senate took the initiative to rid itself of Nero, declaring him a public enemy and Galba emperor. Nymphidius Sabinus, desiring to become emperor himself, bribed the Praetorian Guard to betray Nero. Nero committed suicide. Galba was recognized as emperor and welcomed into the city at the head of his legions, which were: VI Victrix, I Macriana liberatrix, I Adiutrix, III Augusta and VII Gemina.

    Galba to Otho
    This turn of events gave the German legions not the reward for loyalty that they had expected, but rather accusations of having obstructed Galba's path to the throne. Their commander, Rufus, was immediately replaced by the new emperor. Aulus Vitellius was appointed governor of the province of Germania Inferior. The loss of political confidence in Germania's loyalty also resulted in the dismissal of the Imperial Batavian Bodyguards and rebellion.

    Galba did not remain popular for long. On his march to Rome, he either destroyed or took enormous fines from towns that did not accept him immediately. In Rome, Galba cancelled all the reforms of Nero, including benefits for many important persons. Like his predecessor, Galba had a fear of conspirators and executed many senators and equites without trial. The army was not happy either. After his safe arrival to Rome, Galba refused to pay the rewards he had promised to soldiers who had supported him. Moreover, in the start of the civil year of 69 in January 1, the legions of Germania Inferior refused to swear allegiance and obedience to the new emperor. On the following day, the legions acclaimed Vitellius, their governor, as emperor.

    Hearing the news of the loss of the Rhine legions, Galba panicked. He adopted a young senator, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus, as his successor. By doing this he offended many people, and above all Marcus Salvius Otho, an influential and ambitious man who desired the honour for himself. Otho bribed the Praetorian Guard, already very unhappy with the emperor, to his side. When Galba heard about the coup d'état he went to the streets in an attempt to normalize the situation. It proved a mistake, because he could attract no supporters. Shortly afterwards, the Praetorian Guard killed him in the Forum.
    Otho's legions: XIII Gemina and I Adiutrix

    Otho to Vitellius

    Otho was recognised as emperor by the Senate that same day. The new emperor was saluted with relief. Although ambitious and greedy, Otho did not have a record for tyranny or cruelty and was expected to be a fair emperor. However, trouble in the form of Vitellius was marching down on Italy from Germany.

    Vitellius had behind him the finest elite legions of the empire, composed of veterans of the Germanic Wars, such as I Germanica and XXI Rapax. These would prove to be his best arguments to gain power. Otho was not keen to begin another civil war and sent emissaries to propose a peace and inviting Vitellius to be his son-in-law. It was too late to reason; Vitellius' generals had half of his army heading to Italy. After a series of minor victories, Otho was defeated in the Battle of Bedriacum. Rather than flee and attempt a counter-attack, Otho decided to put an end to the anarchy and committed suicide. He had been emperor for a little more than three months.
    Vitellius' legions: I Germanica, V Alaudae, I Italica, XV Primigenia, I Macriana liberatrix, III Augusta, and XXI Rapax
    Otho's legions: I Adiutrix

    Vitellius to Vespasian
    On the news of Otho's suicide, Vitellius was recognised as emperor by the Senate. Granted this recognition, Vitellius set out for Rome. However, he faced problems from the start of his reign. The city was left very skeptical when Vitellius chose the anniversary of the Battle of the Allia (in 390 BC), a day of bad auspices according to Roman superstition, to accede to the office of Pontifex Maximus.

    Events would seemingly prove them right. With the throne tightly secured, Vitellius engaged in a series of feasts, banquets (Suetonius refers to three a day: morning, afternoon and night) and triumphal parades that drove the imperial treasury close to bankruptcy. Debts were quickly accrued and money-lenders started to demand repayment. Vitellius showed his violent nature by ordering the torture and execution of those who dared to make such demands. With financial affairs in a state of calamity, Vitellius took the initiative of killing citizens who named him as their heir, often together with any co-heirs. Moreover, he engaged in a pursuit of every possible rival, inviting them to the palace with promises of power only to have them assassinated.

    Meanwhile, the legions stationed in the African province of Ægyptus (Egypt) and the Middle East provinces of Iudaea (Judea/Palestine) and Syria had acclaimed Vespasian as emperor. Vespasian had been given a special command in Judaea by Nero in 67 with the task of putting down the Great Jewish Revolt. He gained the support of the governor of Syria, Gaius Licinius Mucianus. A strong force drawn from the Judaean and Syrian legions marched on Rome under the command of Mucianus. Vespasian himself travelled to Alexandria where he had been acclaimed Emperor on July 1, thereby gaining control of the vital grain supplies from Egypt. Vespasian's son Titus remained in Judaea to deal with the Jewish rebellion. Before the eastern legions could reach Rome, the Danubian legions of the provinces of Raetia and Moesia also acclaimed Vespasian as Emperor in August, and led by Marcus Antonius Primus invaded Italy. In October, the forces led by Primus won a crushing victory over Vitellius' army at the Second Battle of Bedriacum.

    Surrounded by enemies, Vitellius made a last attempt to win the city to his side, distributing bribes and promises of power where needed. He tried to levy by force several allied tribes, such as the Batavians, only to be refused. The Danube army was now very near Rome. Realising the immediate threat, Vitellius made a last attempt to gain time and sent emissaries, accompanied by Vestal Virgins, to negotiate a truce and start peace talks. The following day, messengers arrived with news that the enemy was at the gates of the city. Vitellius went into hiding and prepared to flee, but decided on a last visit to the palace. There he was caught by Vespasian's men and killed. In seizing the capital, they burned down the temple of Jupiter.
    The Senate acknowledged Vespasian as emperor on the following day. It was December 21, 69, the year that had begun with Galba on the throne.
    Vitellius legions: XV Primigenia
    Vespasian legions: III Augusta, I Macriana liberatrix



    The Dacian Wars
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    Before Trajan returned to Rome in AD 99 to assume his place as 'emperor', he assured the loyalty of his legions in the north and prepared for an other invasion into Dacia. Earlier campaigns against the Dacians as well as against Germanic tribes across the Danube by Domitian had met with some success, but the Dacian King Decebalus, who had remained in power as a thorn in the proverbial Roman side, had spent the better part of the last decade securing his position and preparing armies in the Roman style. Thanks in large part to engineers provided by Domitian, Decebalus had fortified the approaches into his kingdom and created a formidable obstacle to Roman dominance of the region. As Decebalus raised his status to one that was among the most capable enemies in Roman history, Trajan had little choice but to plan a campaign to eliminate the threat.

    Though the new emperor was a soldier at heart, he also understood the necessity of making political arrangements in Rome before entirely focusing his energy elsewhere. The year AD 100 was spent in Rome both honoring Nerva, ultimately with deification, and building a sense of governing authority within the Senate. The imperial court was minimal in comparison and Trajan preferred a low key approach to government. Throughout his reign he would rely upon provincial governors to make decisions on their own merits and defer to the emperor only it matters of extreme importance. Thanks to Pliny the Younger, the provincial governor whose correspondence with Trajan is largely extant, a vivid portrait of Trajan's style can be seen. In effect, his rule was much like that of a general using subordinate officers in a military sense. Like Nerva, Trajan continued the popular measures that punished the delators (informers) for their part in creating administrative disorder and he reduced the power of the Praetorians and reformed the court system. For his deeds in continuing and perfecting the social welfare system known as the alimenta, he earned the name Optimus, or best, from the people. In the short time that he stayed in Rome, Trajan prepared the Roman world for 60 years of steady and effective leadership.

    The First Dacian War
    All the while he stayed in Rome however the emperor's sights were set across the Danube. The great historian Tacitus, a contemporary of Trajan, had published his work 'Germania' in this time period, initiating public propaganda that would support military expeditions to the north. Though Trajan's target never quite fell in line with Tacitus' expectations, there was likely wide public and aristocratic approval, thanks in part to the historians' efforts. Trajan raised two legions prior to launching an attack, II Traiana and XXX Ulpia (so numbered as it was the 30th active legion at the time) and shifted existing legionary placement to support a large scale campaign. By the spring of AD 101 plans were settled and the emperor marched north with an army that would eventually involve as many as 11 legions.

    Unfortunately the details of Trajan's campaign are largely lost to history. Dio Cassius' account is partially fragmented and lacking the military attentions of past writers, such as Caesar. The other notable historians of the era, Suetonius, Tacitus, etc. did not focus much attention on the reigns of contemporary emperors but instead wrote largely about events prior to their own lifetimes. Despite this, we do know that the Dacian War was a combination of difficult fighting mixed with marvels of engineering. The defenses of Decebalus were impressive and Trajan was required to use the vaunted discipline and perseverance of the Roman army to succeed. With the service of the engineer Apollodorus of Damascus, the Romans completed immense road works along the Danube, begun a century earlier under Tiberius, and defeated the difficulty of logistics and hazardous terrain.

    In a great feat of engineering and architecture, Apollodorus designed a road straight up to and through the Iron Gates of the Danubian gorges by cantilevering it from the sheer rock face. This marvel of technology essentially allowed the legions to walk on top of the river as they made their way into the Carpathian Mountains.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 




    A significant battle was fought at Tapae in AD 101 (the sight of a previous battle under Domitian in AD 89) on the approach to the Dacian capital of Sarmizegethusa. According to Dio Cassius keeping with the tradition of Trajan as a compassionate commander, "(Trajan) engaged the foe, and saw many wounded on his own side and killed many of the enemy. And when the bandages gave out, he is said not to have spared even his own clothing, but to have cut it up into strips. In honor of the soldiers who had died in the battle he ordered an altar to be erected and funeral rites to be performed annually." Soon after the Romans advanced upon the Dacian capital and Decebalus was forced to capitulate. Surprisingly, the powerful leader was left in power as a client king to Rome, but he agreed to raze his fortresses, surrender weapons and prisoners and likely paid a sizeable tribute (though Dio doesn't provide any detail.)
    Temporarily victorious and having been rewarded the title Dacicus, Trajan returned to Rome to celebrate a triumph. He entertained the people with gladiatorial games and rewarded his officers for their service in the campaign. The celebration was short-lived though as Decebalus may have mistakenly compared the conviction of Trajan to that of Domitian. After his 'defeat' to Domitian (in which the Romans actually paid a tribute to Decebalus in order to keep the peace) he was allowed to rebuild his army and defense systems virtually unopposed. After this more recent defeat however, similar actions that effectively broke the peace arrangements were met with swift and decisive imperial response.


    The Second Dacian War

    In preparation for another Danube crossing, Trajan again turned to his engineer Apollodarus for project of unprecedented military grandeur. A massive stone bridge spanning over 3,500 feet (1,100 meters) in length and 60 feet (19 meters) in width was built using enormous wooden arches set upon 20 stone and cement pillars. Built over the course of 2 years, this bridge became the primary source of traffic to and from Dacia. Despite finally being purposely destroyed a century and a half later by Aurelian as the Romans pulled out of Dacia, it was to remain for more than a thousand years the longest bridge that had ever been built.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Unlike the first conflict, the second war involved several skirmishes that proved costly to the Roman military, who, facing large numbers of allied tribes, struggled to attain a decisive victory. Eventually, however, Rome prevailed and took Dacia. An assault against the capital Sarmisegetusa took place at the beginning of the summer of 106 with the participation of the legions II Adiutrix and IV Flavia Felix and a detachment (vexillatio) from Legio VI Ferrata. The Dacians repelled the first attack, but the Romans destroyed the water pipes to the Dacian capital. The city was burned to the ground. Decebalus fled, but committed suicide rather than face capture. Nevertheless, the war went on. Thanks to the treason of a confidant of the Dacian king, Bicilis, the Romans found Decebalus's treasure in the River Sargesia.
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 



    Dacia was immediately annexed as an imperial province, and many new colonies were founded laying a foundation for Roman influence that lasts into the present day. In fact, Romania, the modern equivalent to a portion of Dacian territory speaks a language that claims to be the most closely related modern tongue to that of ancient Latin. Additionally, again thanks to Apollodorus, Trajan left two impressive monuments commemorating his victory. The Tropaeum Traiani (restored in the late 20th century after 2 millennia of slow decay) in modern Adamclisi stands atop a hill and its visibility from great distances was a constant reminder of Rome's power. In Rome, Apollodorus built one of the great lasting treasures of imperial architecture. Trajan's Column is a sculpted pillar, standing 100 Roman feet tall, with 23 rings depicting a vast assortment of images relaying the history of the Dacian Wars. While it served as an unparalleled piece of propaganda glorifying the emperor and his achievements, it also stands today as an invaluable primary source of information into the Roman legions and ancient warfare.

    Trajan's Column
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    When Trajan returned to Rome in AD 106, he did so with a vast treasure. According to Trajan's ancient contemporary Cryton 'the sum of five million gold and twice as much silver' was taken. Though this number is difficult to translate into modern equivalents one scholar, Jerome Carcopino, roughly translated this immense sum to 180 tons (165,000 kg) of gold and 360 tons (331,000 kg) of silver. With this enormous haul Trajan was able to secure the health of the imperial treasury, finance projects such as the draining of the Pontine Marshes and provide a triumph that was unrivaled in the long history of Rome. 123 straight days of gladiatorial games were held, including fights between as many as 10,000 pairs of gladiators and the death of 11,000 animals. With his popularity among the people and the aristocracy at an unrivaled peak, even embassies from as far away as India came to Rome to pay respects to the man who was commonly becoming regarded as the greatest Emperor since Augustus, if not the greatest of all.


    Under patronage of Spirit of Rob; Patron of Century X, Pacco, Cherryfunk, Leif Erikson.

  3. #3

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Legio I Germanica:



    History:

    Legio I Germanica


    Legio I Germanica, the German legion, was a Roman legion, possibly levied in 48 BC by Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey. After the Batavian rebellion (70), the remaining men of the Germanica were added to Galba's seventh legion, which became VII Gemina. The emblem of Legio I is unknown, but it was probably Taurus, like all the other legions levied by Caesar.

    There are two theories about I Germanica recruitment. The most favored is that it was raised by Julius Caesar in 48 BC to fight in the civil war against Pompey. In that case it would have fought in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. A second theory attributes its recruitment to Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, a partisan of Caesar, who died in the Battle of Forum Gallorum against Marc Antony in 43 BC. Legio I would have been recruited in that year for that campaign. However recruited, Legio I was inherited by Augustus and therefore ought to have been entitled to the cognomen 'Augusta' after distinguished service under his eyes; however, there was no Legio I Augusta. One explanation is that an event happened to prevent or take away that name.

    The career of Legio I subsequent to the civil wars remains unknown for sure. It is believed to be identical to the Legio I that took part in the Spanish campaign against the Cantabrians conducted for Augustus by Marcus Agrippa and was disgraced there. Inscriptions on Spanish coins indicate that between 30 and 16 BC, some Legio I was stationed in Hispania Taraconensis, where they would have fought in the war against the Cantabrians. Dio Cassius (54.11.5) says that one legion was stripped of its title, Augusta, after suffering reverses in that campaign. The two references are believed to be to the same legion, accounting for its early missing title and emblem.

    Around the turn of the century, Legio I appears on the Rhine frontier. The Annales of Tacitus state that they received standards from Tiberius, but when that was is not clear. This statement is problematic because only new or reconstituted legions received standards. The legion could have been reconstituted after Spain, but more likely it kept its aquila (which was only taken away on disbandment) and received new vexillae, or manipular standards, which would indicate a reorganization with perhaps replacements. The legion soon redeemed itself by winning the title 'Germanica', for its distinguished service in Germania. Exactly when they won it is not known. They were initially stationed at Oppidum Ubiorum (Cologne) in the jurisdiction that was to become Germania Inferior. For the time being, the province contained five legions and was under Publius Quinctilius Varus.

    In AD 9, Varus and three legions were lured away to the north to suffer extinction in the Battle of Teutoburg forest. Fortunately for Legio I, he had not taken his entire command but left two legions in camp under legati or junior officers, Legio I being commanded by a nephew of Varus, Lucius Asprenas. Most likely, the title Germanica was granted for service in Drusus' subsequent punitive and exploratory campaigns against the Germanic tribes. Drusus was extremely popular. It was an honour to be in his service and he made sure that his men were honoured properly.

    When Nero died in the year 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, arrived. The Senatus Populusque Romanus could not decide on a suitable replacement for Nero. The various candidates fought for the distinction, introducing confusion on the Rhine frontier. The result was a general breakaway of the Celtic and Germanic tribes along the Rhine. They were categorically known as the Belgae at that time. Historians styled it the 'Batavian rebellion' of 70. In essence the tribes along the Rhine believed that the Roman Empire was finished and decided to set up a rump state in Gaul ruled from Triers by Gaius Julius Civilis. They managed to convince four legions and most of Gaul to swear allegiance to it. I Germanica was one of them, a fatal move for them. Units that tried to hold out against changing allegiance were attacked.

    The victor of that infamous year of contention was Emperor Vespasian. He sent eight legions under Quintus Petillius Cerialis to the Rhine to clarify matters. On his approach, the four renegade legions repented and sought refuge in the future Alsace-Lorraine region on the left bank of the Rhine. Gaul repudiated the government at Triers, which begged finally for terms. Cerealis was lenient and forgave everyone. However, Legio I did not return to station. After the pacification was complete, Vespasian himself came to the Rhine and disbanded two legions, one of which was I Germanica. Enthusiasts of the Roman army would like to think that the men of the disbanded legions went into two new legions formed by Vespasian at that time. Disbandment, however, was a severe punishment, which would not have much point if the discharged men went right back into the army in some other legion. Perhaps some men were allowed to re-enlist on the basis of individual merit. There is no evidence of any reconstitution of legions involving extensive elements of the disbanded ones. Vespasian simply replaced the discarded legions with newly recruited ones.


    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.
    Coolus Type C

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    Screenshots:
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    Legio II Augusta:



    History:

    Legio II Avgvsta

    Legio II Augusta was levied by Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus in 43 BC, and still operative in Britannia in the 4th century. Its emblems were the Capricornus, Pegasus and Mars. II Augusta was originally raised by Octavian and consul Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus in 43 BC, to fight against Mark Anthony; II Augusta fought in the battle of Philippi and in the battle of Perugia. At the beginning of Augustus rule, in 25 BC, this legion was relocated in Hispania, to fight in the Cantabrian Wars, which definitively established Roman power in Hispania, and later camped in Hispania Tarraconensis. With the annihilation of Legio XVII, XVIII and XIX in the battle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9), II Augusta moved to Germania, possibly in the area of Mainz. After 17, it was at Argentorate (modern Strasbourg).

    The legion participated in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43. The future Emperor Vespasian was the legion's commander at the time and led the campaign against the Durotriges tribe. Although it was recorded as suffering a defeat at the hands of the Silures in 52, the II Augusta proved to be one of the best legions, even after its disgrace during the uprising of queen Boudica, when its praefectus castrorum, who was then its acting commander (its Legatus and Tribunes probably being absent with the governor Suetonius Paulinus), contravened Suetonius' orders to join him and so later committed suicide. After the defeat of Boudica, the legion was dispersed over several bases; from 66 to around 74 it was stationed at Glevum (modern Gloucester), and then moved to Isca Silurum (modern Caerleon), building a stone fortress that the soldiers occupied until the end of the 3rd century. The legion also had connections with the camp at Alchester in Oxfordshire; stamped tiles record it in the second century at Abonae (Sea Mills, Bristol) on the tidal shore of the Avon (Princeton Encyclopedia).

    In 122, II Augusta helped to build Hadrian's Wall.

    In 196, II Augusta supported the claim for the purple of the governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was defeated by Septimius Severus. In occasion of the Scottish campaign of Severus, the Second moved to Carpow, to return to Caerleon under Alexander Severus.

    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.

    Coolus Type C

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    Screenshots:
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    Legio III Augusta:




    History:

    Legio III Augusta Iterum Pia Iterum Vindex

    Legio III Augusta Pia Vindex (Faithful Avenger) was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 43 BC. Activity of this legion in the African Roman provinces, its principal theatre of operations, is still mentioned in late 4th century, early 5th century. Among the emblems of the legion were the winged horse Pegasus and the Capricornus.

    III Augusta was probably present in the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, where Augustus and Mark Antony defeated the army of the senators that conspired to murder Julius Caesar. After this victory, III Augusta stayed under the command of Augustus, probably in Sicily, where Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey had started a rebellion.

    From 30 BC onwards, III Augusta was stationed in the province of Africa. The legion was involved mainly in construction activities. Although Africa was a traditionally peaceful part of the Empire, between 17 and 24, they were involved in the war against the mutinous Numidian and Mauritanian tribes. In 18, a subunit was destroyed in a guerrilla attack. This disaster was probably due to cowardly behaviour, because afterwards, the entire legion was punished by decimation, that is, the killing of every tenth legionary. This procedure was the most serious action a commander could impose on his soldiers and rarely used. After that, IX Hispana was sent to reinforce Africa and by 24 the rebellion was over.

    In the 1st century, Africa was the only province controlled by a senator, the proconsul governor. Thus, it was important for the Emperor that this man, also commander of III Augusta, would be loyal. Sulpicius Galba, emperor in the Year of the Four Emperors occupied the position between 45 and 46.

    In the last years of the reign of Nero, Lucius Clodius Macer, proconsul of Africa, revolted and levied another legion, I Macriana Liberatrix to join forces with III Augusta. In the confusing Year of the four emperors (69), both legions supported first Galba, then Vitellius and finally Vespasian, although they took no part in the battles in Italy.

    In 75, Vespasian moved the camp of III Augusta from Ammaedara, near Theveste, to Lambaesis. In the reign of Hadrian (117-138), the legion was stationed at Lambaesis in Numidia. The legion was to stay there for the next two centuries, guarding the province from the Berber tribes. Men from III Augusta were occasionally used in several campaigns against Parthia. It is also know that legionaries from this African legion were present in the Marcomannic campaign of Marcus Aurelius against the Hungarians.

    In 193, Emperor Septimius Severus, an African man, awarded the legion with the cognomen 'Pia Vindex' (Faithful Avenger), for their action in the civil war that followed the murder of Emperor Pertinax.

    The 3rd century was a time of crisis for III Augusta. First, it suffered heavy losses in a war against a desert tribe, having to receive reinforcements from the recently disbanded III Gallica. In 238, the Year of the Six Emperors, the legion suppressed the revolt of Gordian I and Gordian II, but was disbanded by their successor Gordian III. In 252, Valerian reconstituted III Augusta with troops coming from Raetia and Noricum, and gave it cognomen Iterum Pia Iterum Vindex (Again faithful, again avenger). The purpose of this reconstitution was to wage a war against a federation of Berber tribes that threatened the empire. This war was over in 260, but between 289-297, the situation was once more out of hand and Emperor Maximian went to Africa to command the Numidian legions personally.

    III Augusta was in Africa until late 4th century, early 5th century. According to Notitia Dignitatum, the Tertio Augustani, a comitatensis unit, was under the command of the Comes Africae, possibly within the army of the Dux et praeses provinciae Mauritaniae et Caesariensis. It is not known what happened to III Augusta after this.


    Equipment:

    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Fulham gladius - Fulham or Mainz-Fulham: The sword that gave the name to the type was dredged from the Thames near Fulham and must therefore date to a time after the Roman occupation of Britain began. That would have been after the invasion of Aulus Plautius in 43 CE. It was used until the end of the same century. It is considered the conjunction point between Mainz and Pompei. Some consider it an evolution or the same as the Mainz type. Blade length 70 cm blade width: 6 cm at the base, 4 cm in the middle, 7 cm in the end.
    Imperial Gallic Type A - frequently tinned iron

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    Replica:






    Screenshots:

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    Legio III Gallica:



    History:

    Legio III Gallica

    Legio III Gallica was levied by Julius Caesar around 49 BC, for his civil war against the conservative republicans led by Pompey. The cognomen Gallica suggests that recruits were originally from the Gallic Roman provinces. The legion was still active in Egypt in the early 4th century. The legion's symbol was a bull.

    The legion took part in all Julius Caesar's campaigns against his enemies, including the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Following Caesar's death, III Gallica was integrated into the army of Mark Antony, a member of the second triumvirate, for his campaigns against the Parthians. They were included in the army levied by Fulvia and Lucius Antonius (Antony's wife and brother) to oppose Octavian, but ended by surrendering in Perugia, in the winter of 41 BC. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, III Gallica was sent again to the East, where they garrisoned the province of Syria.

    III Gallica was used in Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo's campaign against the Parthians over the control of Armenia (AD 63). Corbulo's successes triggered emperor Nero's paranoia of persecution and eventually the general was forced to commit suicide. After this, III Gallica is transferred to Moesia province, in the Danube border. In the year of the four emperors 69, the legion, and the rest of the Danubian army, aligned first with Otho, then with Vespasian. They were instrumental in the final defeat of Vitellius in the second Battle of Bedriacum and in the accession of the Flavians to the throne of Rome. This legion during its service in Syria had developed the custom of saluting the rising sun, and when dawn broke at Bedriacum they turned east to do so. The Vitellian forces thought that they were saluting reinforcements from the east and lost heart. In these years, one of the military tribunes of III is Pliny the Younger.

    After this civil war, the legion was again sent to Syria, where they fought against the Judeans in the 2nd century. They also took part in Lucius Verus' (161-166) and Septimius Severus' (197-198) campaigns against the Parthian empire, none with noteworthy success.

    III Gallica played a central role in the early reign of Elagabalus. In 218, during Macrinus reign, Julia Maesa went to Raphana, Syria, where the legion was based under the command of P. Valerius Comazon Eutychianus. She largely donated to the legion, which, in turn, proclaimed emperor Julia Maesa's grandson, the fourteen years old Elagabalus, on the dawn of 16 May. On June 8, 218 near Antioch, Gannys, Elagabalus' tutor, defeated Macrinus and his son, with the help of the III Gallica and the other legions of the East. Valerius Comazon entered in Elagabalus court, becoming prefect of the Praetorian Guard and consul in 220.

    In 219, the legion, exhausted by Elagabalus excesses, supported its commander, Senator Verus, who proclaimed himself emperor. Elagabalus had Verus executed, and dispersed the legion. The legionaries were transferred mainly to III Augusta, stationed in the Africa provinces. However, the following emperor, Alexander Severus, reconstituted the legion and redeployed them back in Syria. III Gallica records then become obscure. Little is known about the legion's whereabouts, but, in 323, they were still in Syria. One noteworthy member of III Gallica was centurion Lucius Artorius Castus.


    Equipment:

    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Fulham gladius - Fulham or Mainz-Fulham: The sword that gave the name to the type was dredged from the Thames near Fulham and must therefore date to a time after the Roman occupation of Britain began. That would have been after the invasion of Aulus Plautius in 43 CE. It was used until the end of the same century. It is considered the conjunction point between Mainz and Pompei. Some consider it an evolution or the same as the Mainz type. Blade length 70 cm blade width: 6 cm at the base, 4 cm in the middle, 7 cm in the end.
    Imperial Gallic Type A - frequently tinned iron

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Original:





    Replica:







    Screenshots:
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    Legio V Alaudae:





    History:
    Legio V Alavdae

    Legio V Alaudae ('The Larks') sometimes known as Gallica, was levied by Julius Caesar in 52 BC from native Gauls in Gallia Transalpina. Their emblem was an elephant, and their cognomen Alaudae (Suetonius tells us) came from the Gallic word for a lark (the French word 'Alouette' is a direct descendant of 'Alauda'). The name has often been taken to have been derived from the fact that the helmet crest worn by these men resembled the head plumage of the crested lark (Galerida cristata), based on a passage in Pliny the Elder's Historia Naturalis where, describing various types of crests in bird plumage, he refers to the naming of the legion after this particular bird.

    Examination of Pliny’s text reveals, however, that this description is normally taken out of context, for he actually says that the
    alauda in question has ‘horns’ (cornicula) like those of a pheasant – in other words, small tufts on either side of the bird's head. The crested lark, on the other hand, has only a central erect crest and so cannot be identified with the alauda. It seems likely that the bird intended is in fact most likely to be the male shore (or horned) lark (Eremophila alpestris; see below), a species of lark that possesses these characteristic tufts on the head. Whilst no weight should be placed upon it, the present-day distribution of these species is interesting: the crested lark is now wide-spread in Europe, the Near East and North Africa, but the shore lark winters in a small area around the northern coasts of Europe, is a summer visitor in northern Scandinavia, and is resident in the Balkans and the Near East. Even if the relative distributions were only approximately similar in Caesar's time, then we might reasonably expect the crested lark to be familiar to the Romans from Italy, and thus not particularly ‘Gallic’ in its associations. However, the rarer shore lark might only have been encountered by Caesar’s men in Gaul for the first time; characteristically a lark by its song, but very different in appearance from their native crested lark.

    By 52 B.C., Caesar had been to Britain and had campaigned in northern Gaul and may, therefore, have had the opportunity to see this bird. This point would only be of passing interest, if it were not for the fact that it has something to tell us about the use of helmet-crests in the Roman army. The helmet-crest was an important element of Roman military attire, signifying status and also playing a psychological role. There were a variety of ways of attaching crests or plumes to helmets in the army of the late Republic and early Imperial period. One method was to have a central mounting point at the top of the bowl of the helmet, often with fixing rings at the front and back to secure a crest box (see below). Crest boxes could be attached to crest-knobs which were actually part of the helmet (see below) or to forked crest-holders. Many helmets also display so-called plume-tubes, designed to hold side plumes. Such side plumes can be seen being worn, together with a central crest, on the tombstones of C. Castricius (of legio II Adiutrix) from Aquincum and Flavinus the signifer (see below) of the ala Petriana (now in Hexham Abbey).

    Robinson has pointed out that side feathers were fashionable in Italy as early as the 4th century B.C., but they are not normally found on Montefortino helmets and may not have been widely used by the late Republican army. In a famous passage, Caesar talks of his men not having enough time to affix their insignia before battle, and this has sometimes been taken to mean crests. A reasonable suggestion might be that legio V earned its cognomen from the fact that its men wore only side-plumes, thus resembling the shore lark, which we have now identified with Suetonius and the Elder Pliny’s alauda.

    V Gallica was the first Roman legion composed of provincial soldiers, as opposed to Roman citizens. Caesar paid the soldiers with his own resources, but the legion was later recognized by the Roman Senate. V Alaudae fought in the Gallic wars until 49 BC, as one of the most brave legions of Caesar, then they were moved to Spain. They served with Mark Antony between 41 and 31 BC and probably fought in Actium. After Antony committed suicide, they were merged into Augustus' army in 30 BC. Their emblem depicted an elephant and was awarded in 46 BC for bravery against a charge of elephants in the Battle of Thapsus.

    The legion was stationed at Castra Vetera (modern Xanten, in north-west Germany) on the Rhine frontier from about 10 BC along with Legio XXI Rapax, and may have participated in campaigns beyond the Rhine. After the loss of Germania Magna following the Clades Variana, the legion again crossed the Rhine under the command of Germanicus Caesar. However, after his final campaign in AD 16, the legion remained at Castra Vetera. It was joined by the Legio XV Primigenia in 43 AD, as the troop requirements of the emperor Claudius' invasion of Britannia necessitated a reorganisation of the Rhine frontier. In 47 AD, both legions were involved in a war against the Frisians just across the Rhine, and built a canal between the Rhine and Meuse Rivers whilst Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was governor of Germania Inferior.

    During 69 AD, or the Year of the Four Emperors, Legio V Alaudae, as with all the legions on the Rhine, supported Vitellius in his claim for the throne, but trouble was brewing closer to home. The Batavians, a tribe of Germans who lived west of the Rhine, who were ostensibly loyal allies of Rome and provided crack auxiliary infantry and cavalry to the Roman army, had risen in revolt against Rome under their prince, Julius Civilis. The two legions at Xanten were ordered to attack, at once. Their auxiliaries (which included a Batavian cavalry wing) defected, however, and the two legions were beaten back to Castra Vetera, and besieged.

    No orders arrived from the Rhine frontier's commanders. Civilis' rebels were in fact pinning down two legions that belonged to Vespasian's opponent Vitellius, and it was beginning to tell. Vespasian seemed to be winning the war, and so the generals on the Rhine opted not to relieve Castra Vetera for fear of incurring the wrath of the Emperor-to-be.

    However, news of Vitellius' defeat after the Second Battle of Bedriacum arrived, but Civilis continued his siege. The camp was very well fortified, with a double ditch and a wall of brick and wood which included towers equipped with artillery. It was also well provisioned. However, the Rhine command decided to mount an offensive from Moguntiacum (modern Mainz) to relieve the fort. Civilis beat them to the punch, and sent eight of his best cavalry regiments to attack the legions as they marshalled at Krefeld. The cavalry were destroyed, but the Roman casualties had been very heavy. Then the rebels left Xanten to attack Moguntiacum. As the Romans rushed to defend the fortress, many of the Rhine garrison's troops heard of Vespasian's victory for the first time when Marcus Hordeonius Flaccus, who was in charge, offered them their customary donative. The enraged soldiers butchered their general, and his second in command was forced to flee for his life, leaving the remaining Rhine legions without any effective leadership. Civilis then used this opportunity to besiege Castra Vetera once again. This time, he had more success. The legions inside had not had a chance to restock the fortress with supplies, and were soon reduced to eating their pack animals to survive. Early in 70 AD with the remaining Rhine garrisons either routed, in chaos, or gone over to the rebels (two legions, XVI Gallica and I Germanica, had defected at some point near the turn of the year), Castra Vetera surrendered. The terms of surrender stipulated that all arms, artillery and valuables were to be left behind as plunder. The legions marched out of their camp under their standards, but after a few miles they were ambushed and annihilated by the Germanic troops.

    This was not the end of Legio V Alaudae, however. It is known that the legion was still in service following the end of the revolt. It is possible that not all of the legion was present at Castra Vetera and so escaped annihilation, or that it was simply re-constituted. In any case, it was later employed by Domitian in his ill-fated campaigns against the Dacians in 86/87 AD. Crossing the Danube, the large Roman army of six legions and supporting auxiliaries was ambushed at Tapae, en-route to the Dacian capital, Sarmisegethusa. The commander of the army, Cornelius Fuscus, was killed, and Legio V Alaudae was completely annihilated, its standards and artillery falling into the hands of the Dacians. The legion was never reconstituted afterwards.

    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.
    Montefortino Type E helmet

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    Screenshots:
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    Legio VI Ferrata:




    History:

    Legio VI Ferrata Fidelis Constans

    One of the original 28 Augustan Legions

    Legio VI Ferrata (Ironclad) was probably levied by Julius Caesar in 52 BC in Gallia Cisalpina, and it existed at least until middle-3rd century, under Emperor Philip the Arab. VI Ferrata briefly served in Africa under the emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161), where it built a road. Later, when a new war broke out between Rome and Parthia, the emperor Lucius Verus employed the Sixth in Mesopotamia (162-165) and it was probably involved in the capture of Ctesiphon, the capital of the Parthian empire.

    During the civil war of 193 after the assassination of the emperor Publius Helvius Pertinax, the sixth legion sided with Lucius Septimius Severus and took up arms against Pescennius Niger, who was very close by. This brave act was rewarded with the title Fidelis Constans, 'loyal and constant'. What happened exactly is not known, but it is likely that behind the conflict between Jews and Samarians in 195 is in fact a civil war. The surname itself suggests that the legion withstood a siege under difficult circumstances, and perhaps its opponent was X Fretensis, but we can not be certain about this interpretation of the events.

    The legion was still in Palestine in 215. It is possible that Severus Alexander (222-235) transferred it from Galilee to Phoenicia; however this may be, it is certain that the Sixth ironclad legion was still in existence during the reign of Philippus Arabs (244-249), who minted coins with the name of this unit. Its later history is not known but it seems likely that it disappeared during Valerian's defeat against the Sassanid Persians (260). Captive Roman soldiers were ordered to build a bridge at modern Shushtar and the city of Bishapur.

    The emblem of this legion was the wolf-with-twins.


    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.
    Montefortino Type E helmet

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    Screenshots:
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    Legio VII CPF:



    History:

    Legio VII Clavdia Pia VII Fidelis VII Paterna

    Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis (Faithful and Loyal Claudian legion) dates back to the four legions used by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars in 58 BC, and it existed at least until the end of the 4th century, guarding middle Danube. The emblem of this legion, as well as of all Caesar's legions, was the bull, together with the lion. The Seventh was among the oldest units in the Imperial Roman army. They were with Julius Caesar when he invaded Gaul in 58 BC. The Roman commander mentions the Seventh in his account of the battle against the Nervians (57), and it seems that it was employed during the expedition through western Gaul led by Caesar's deputy Crassus. In 56, the Seventh was present during the Venetic campaign, and it later took part in the two expeditions to Britain (55 and 54). During the crisis caused by Vercingetorix, it fought in the neighbourhood of Paris (52); it must have been active at Alesia and it was certainly involved in the mopping-up operations among the Bellovaci (51).

    It was in Dalmatia when in 42 the governor of this province, Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, revolted against Claudius, who had recently come to power. The soldiers of the seventh and eleventh legions, however, quickly put an end to the rebellion. The Seventh, which had been called Paterna (which means, 'the old ones', received the honorary title Claudia Pia Fidelis, "the seventh Claudian legion, loyal and faithful". The same title was given to the Eleventh.

    During the reign of Trajan, the war against the Dacians was renewed (101) and the seventh legion was one of the most important units. Its base Viminacium was used to build up the Roman army that was to invade Dacia in the second campaign season (102). In the neighbourhood, at Drobeta, the Romans erected a famous bridge across the Danube, designed by Apollodorus of Damascus. It is very likely that soldiers of the seventh legion were employed to do the actual building. Victory was finally achieved in 106.

    In the third century, the Roman empire was threatened from several sides. The territories north of the Danube had to be evacuated. Several defeats are recorded, and the seventh legion must have suffered. On the other hand, it must have been among the troops that defeated the Visigoths in 269.

    During the conflict between the emperor Gallienus and his rival Postumus, the seventh legion supported the first-mentioned, for which it was rewarded with surnames like Pia VI Fidelis VI ('six times faithful and loyal') and Pia VII Fidelis VII. It is not know when it received the ones in between.

    The Seventh was still guarding the Middle Danube at the end of the fourth century.

    Like almost all Caesarian legions, the emblem of this legion was a bull. The lion is also attested.


    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.
    Montefortino Type E helmet
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    Screenshots:

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    Legio VIII Augusta:




    History:

    Legio VIII Avgvsta

    One of the original 28 Augustan Legions

    Legio VIII Augusta was inherited by Julius Caesar and continued in service to Rome for at least 400 years thereafter.

    It was levied by Caesar in 59 BC, or possibly earlier. Between 58 and 49 BC they fought in the Gallic wars under Caesar. In 49, the Eighth legion accompanied Caesar across the Rubicon into Italy, at the very beginning of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, and at the Battle of Pharsalus. The legion was also present in Egypt, when Caesar captured Egypt for Cleopatra. In 46 BC the legion took part in the Battle of Thapsus (modern Tunisia), shortly before their disbandment.

    In 44 BC, Augustus reconstituted the legion which had helped him gain control of the Empire. This loyalty gave the legion the cognomen Augusta. VIII Augusta took part in the Roman invasion of Britain.

    In 69 AD, the Year of the Four Emperors, following the suicide of Nero, the legion took the part of Vitellius, one of the defeated emperors. After that they were moved to the Rhine frontier, where they stayed for almost the entire remainder of their history. The legion also fought in Parthia with Septimius Severus (who ruled from 193 until 211) and with his successors.

    Records indicate that they were still active during the first years of the 4th century on the Rhine frontier. This means that the history of the legion covers more than 400 years of almost continuous service. In 371 it was stationed in Argetoratum (Strasbourg), in Germania Superior, according to an inscription. Later, the Roman general Stilicho, was compelled to move the German legions back to Italy to defend it against the Visigoth's invasion. According to Notitia Dignitatum, around 420 an Octaviani unit was under the Magister Peditum of Italia; it is possible that this unit was the old VIII Augusta, which was originally a Comitatensis unit that had been promoted to Palatina status.


    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.
    Montefortino Type E helmet
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    Screenshots:
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    Legio IX Hispana:




    History:

    Legio IX Hispana


    Legio IX Hispana was probably levied by Julius Caesar before 58 BC, for his Gallic wars. The legion disappeared during the reign of Marcus Aurelius in the 2nd century, probably destroyed. The legion's symbol is unknown, likely a bull, as other legions created by Caesar.

    The Ninth Legion was present during the whole campaign of the Gallic wars. Later, they remained faithful to Caesar in the civil war against the conservative faction of the Senate led by Pompey. They fought in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus (48 BC) and in the African campaign of 46 BC. After his final victory, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled the veterans in the area of Picenum.

    Following Caesar's assassination, Octavian recalled the veterans of the Ninth to fight against the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. After his defeat, they were sent to the province of Macedonia. The Ninth remained with Octavian in his war of 31 BC against Mark Antony and fought by his side in the battle of Actium. With Octavian as sole ruler of the Roman world, the legion was sent to Hispania to take part in the large scale campaign against the Cantabrians (25-13 BC). Their surname Hispana likely dates from this event and was probably earned for distinction in fighting. After this, the legion was probably a member of the Imperial army in the Rhine border that was campaigning against the Germanic tribes. Following the abandonment of the Eastern Rhine area (after the disaster of the battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9), the Ninth was relocated in Pannonia. In 43 they participated in the Roman invasion of Britain led by Emperor Claudius and General Aulus Plautius. Under the command of Caesius Nasica they put down the first revolt of Venutius between 52 and 57. The Ninth suffered important losses under Quintus Petillius Cerialis in the rebellion of Boudica (61) and was later reinforced with legionaries from the Germanic provinces. Their last record in Britain dates from the early 2nd century, when the legion built a fortress near York. Then, apparently they were moved to Germania Inferior by the emperor Hadrian in about 120.

    For a time it was believed, at least by some British historians, that the legion disappeared during its stay in Britain, presumably on an expedition into Caledonia (present-day Scotland). However this view is not now accepted, as there are records of it being based on the continent after its time in Britain, and the legion was most likely destroyed in the Second Jewish War (also called the Bar Kochba Revolt) of 132-135 AD.


    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Fulham gladius - Fulham or Mainz-Fulham: The sword that gave the name to the type was dredged from the Thames near Fulham and must therefore date to a time after the Roman occupation of Britain began. That would have been after the invasion of Aulus Plautius in 43 CE. It was used until the end of the same century. It is considered the conjunction point between Mainz and Pompei. Some consider it an evolution or the same as the Mainz type. Blade length 70 cm blade width: 6 cm at the base, 4 cm in the middle, 7 cm in the end.
    Coolus Type C

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    Screenshots:

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    Legio X Gemina Pia:




    History:

    Legio X Gemina

    Legio X Gemina, the twin legion, was one of the four legions used by Julius Caesar in 58 BC, for his invasion of Gaul. There are still records of the X Gemina in Vienna in the beginning of the 5th century. The legion symbol was a bull. Early on in its history, the legion was called X Equestris (mounted), because Caesar once used the legionaries as cavalry.

    In the Gallic wars, X Equestris played an important role in Caesar's military success and for this reason is sometimes said to be his favorite. In Caesar's campaigns they were present at the battle against the Nervians, the invasions of Britain, and the siege of Gergovia. They remained faithful to Caesar in the civil war against Pompey, being present in the battles of Pharsalus (49 BC) and Munda (45 BC). In 45 BC Caesar disbanded the legion, giving the veterans farmlands near Narbonne.

    The legion was reconstituted in 42 BC and fought for Augustus (then Octavian) against the murderers of Caesar. After this, they followed Mark Antony in his campaign against Parthia and were defeated with him at Actium. Augustus then took control of the legion and settled the veterans in Patras. The legion rebelled and lost its cognomen Equestris as punishment. Reinforcements were added from other legions, and the Tenth was renamed Gemina.

    The newly formed X Gemina was relocated to Hispania Tarraconensis, where Augustus was preparing a campaign against the Cantabrians. They stayed in Hispania for many years and their veterans were among the first inhabitants of modern Zaragoza.

    Later, as part of the army of Germania Inferior, X Gemina fought against the rebellion of the governor, L. Antonius Saturninus, against Emperor Domitian. For this reason, the Tenth received the title Pia Fidelis Domitiana, "faithful and loyal to Domitian", with the reference to the Emperor dropped at his death. In 103, it was moved to Aquincum and later to Vindobona (modern Vienna), in Pannonia Superior, which would be the legion's camp until the 5th century.

    During the 3rd century, the legion fought for several emperors, who awarded the legion with titles showing the fidelity of the legion and the favour gained by the Emperor himself. For its support of Emperor Gallienus against Postumus, the Gemina was awarded the title Pia VI Fidelis VI, "six times faithful, six times loyal".

    At the time in which Notitia Dignitatum was written (4th century), a 'first detachment' of Decima Gemina was under the command of the Magister Militum per Orientem, and was a comitatensis unit. Another detachment was still in Vindobona, under the command of the Dux Pannoniae primae et Norici ripensis.


    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Fulham gladius - Fulham or Mainz-Fulham: The sword that gave the name to the type was dredged from the Thames near Fulham and must therefore date to a time after the Roman occupation of Britain began. That would have been after the invasion of Aulus Plautius in 43 CE. It was used until the end of the same century. It is considered the conjunction point between Mainz and Pompei. Some consider it an evolution or the same as the Mainz type. Blade length 70 cm blade width: 6 cm at the base, 4 cm in the middle, 7 cm in the end.
    Coolus Type C

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    Screenshots:

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    Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis:




    History:

    Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis

    Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis (faithful and loyal Claudian legion) dates back to the two legions (the other was the XIIth) recruited by Julius Caesar to invade Gallia in 58 BC, and it existed at least until early 5th century, guarding lower Danube in Durostorum (modern Silistra, Bulgaria).

    The emblem of this legion is not recorded; it could have been, as were all Caesar's legions, the bull, possibly the she-wolf lactating the twins.

    The XIth and XIIth legions were levied by Caesar for his Helvetii campaign in 58 BC. The legion fought in the Battle against the Nervians, and probably fought at the Siege of Alesia too. During the civil war, the Eleventh legion fought for Caesar at the Battle of Dyrrhachium and at Pharsalus. The legion was disbanded in 45 BC, and its veterans were offered lands at Bojano, which received the name of Bovianum Undecumanorum, "Bovianum of the members of the eleventh". Following Augustus' rise to power the XIth was reconstituted in 42 BC by him (at the time known as Octavian), to fight in the civil war against the assassins of Caesar. The XIth fought in the Battle of Philippi, and then was sent back to Italy to quell a revolt at Perugia. It was probably involved with the fight against Sextus Pompeius, who had seized Sicilia.

    In 32 BC, the XIth fought for Octavian against Mark Antony, in the civil war which ended with the Battle of Actium and Octavian's victory. The Eleventh was sent to the Balkans, but after a major defeat at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest (AD 9), Augustus redistributed the legions on the Northern frontier, sending the XIth to Burnum, Dalmatia (modern Kistanje), together with the VIIth.

    In 42, the governor of Dalmatia, Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, revolted against Emperor Claudius. The Eleventh and the Seventh sided with the Emperor, and put down Scribonianus' rebellion. Claudius awarded each of the two loyal legions with the title Claudia Pia Fidelis. In the Year of the Four Emperors (69), the XI, the VII (which had moved from Burnum in 58) and XIV Gemina sided with Otho. A subunit of the Eleventh moved to participate in the Battle of Cremona between Otho and his opponent Vitellius, but arrived late on the battlefield, and was sent back to Dalmatia by the victorious Vitellius. When the commander of the Eastern army, Vespasian, claimed the purple, the XIth sided with him, fighting in the Second Battle of Bedriacum, which marked the beginning of the rule of Emperor Vespasian. The following year, 70, Claudia was led by Cerialis to quell the Batavian rebellion; after the rebellion was put down, the Claudia was moved to Vindonissa, in the province of Germania Superior, to replace XXI Rapax, while IV Flavia Felix moved to Burnum.

    Towards the end of the 1st century, Claudia fought on the eastern bank of the Rhine (73/74); it also took part in Domitian's campaign against the Chatti in 83.

    During the clash between Emperor Gallienus and the Emperor of the Gallic Empire Postumus, XI Claudia fought for the former, receiving the titles Pia V Fidelis V and Pia VI Fidelis VI ("Five/Six times faithful and loyal"). While still camped in Durostorum, some vexillationes of the Eleventh fought around the Empire: in 295, a mobile subunit is in Egypt, while in 298 another is in Mauretania.


    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Fulham gladius - Fulham or Mainz-Fulham: The sword that gave the name to the type was dredged from the Thames near Fulham and must therefore date to a time after the Roman occupation of Britain began. That would have been after the invasion of Aulus Plautius in 43 CE. It was used until the end of the same century. It is considered the conjunction point between Mainz and Pompei. Some consider it an evolution or the same as the Mainz type. Blade length 70 cm blade width: 6 cm at the base, 4 cm in the middle, 7 cm in the end.
    Imperial Italic Type C helmet
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    Screenshots:

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    Legio XIII Gemina:




    History:

    Legio XIII Gemina

    Legio XIII, the 13th Legion (after 31 BC known as Legio XIII Gemina, the twin legion), is one of the more historically noteworthy Roman legions, as it was one of Julius Caesar's armies used in Gaul, and also for his civil war. It’s icon was a lion. It was the legion he famously crossed the Rubicon with on January 10, 49 BC. After Caesar's victory, the legion was retired and its veterans settled, in 45 BC. In 41 BC Legio XIII was reactivated by Augustus to deal with the rebellion of sextus Pompey.

    In 16 BC, the legion was transferred to Emona (now Ljubljana) in Pannonia, where they dealt with local rebellions. After the disaster of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD, the legion was sent as reinforcements to Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg), and then to Vindonissa, Raetia, to prevent further attacks from the Germanic tribes.

    Emperor Claudius sent them back to Pannonia around 45; the legion camped at Poetovio (modern Ptuj, Slovenia). In the year of the four emperors (69), XIII Gemina supported first Otho and then Vespasian against Vitellius, fighting in the two Battles of Bedriacum.

    Under Trajan the Legion took part in both Dacian wars (101-102, 105-106), and it was transferred by Trajan in 106 to the newly conquered province of Dacia (in Apulum, modern Alba Iulia, Romania) to garrison it. Vexillationes of the XIII Gemina fought under Emperor Gallienus in northern Italy. Another vexillatio was present in the army of the emperor of the Gallic Empire Victorinus: this emperor, in fact, issued a gold coin celebrating the legion and its emblem.
    In 271, the legion was relocated when the province of Dacia was evacuated under Aurelian, and restationed in Dacia Aureliana, which was, in reality, a piece of Moesia that had been re-named.The Notitia Dignitatum, written at the beginning of the 5th century AD, has the legion stationed in Babylon in Egypt, a strategic fortress on the Nile at the traditional border between Lower Egypt and Middle Egypt.

    The legion was probably integrated into the army of the Eastern Roman Empire after the Western half of the Empire collapsed in 476 AD

    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Fulham gladius - Fulham or Mainz-Fulham: The sword that gave the name to the type was dredged from the Thames near Fulham and must therefore date to a time after the Roman occupation of Britain began. That would have been after the invasion of Aulus Plautius in 43 CE. It was used until the end of the same century. It is considered the conjunction point between Mainz and Pompei. Some consider it an evolution or the same as the Mainz type. Blade length 70 cm blade width: 6 cm at the base, 4 cm in the middle, 7 cm in the end.
    Imperial Italic Type C helmet
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 






    Screenshots:
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    Last edited by tone; April 19, 2010 at 07:39 PM.


    Under patronage of Spirit of Rob; Patron of Century X, Pacco, Cherryfunk, Leif Erikson.

  4. #4

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Legio I Minerva Pia Fidelis:




    History:

    Legio I Minervia

    Legio I Minervia was levied by emperor Domitian in 82, for the campaign against the Germanic tribe of the Chatti. Its cognomen is related to the goddess Minerva, the legion's protector. There are still records of the I Minervia in the Rhine border in the middle of the 4th century. The legion's emblem is an image of goddess Minerva.

    Legio I Minervia's camp was in the city of Bonna (modern Bonn), in the province of Germania Inferior. In 89, they suppressed a revolt of the governor of Germania Superior. Due to this, Domitian gave them the cognomen Pia Fidelis Domitiana (loyal and faithful to Domitian) to acknowledge their support.

    Between 101 and 106, the legion fought in the Dacian Wars of emperor Trajan, commanded by Hadrian, the future emperor. The legion's emblem Minerva figure appears on the column of Trajan in Rome, along with symbols of other legions. After this war, I Minervia returned to its home city of Bonna. Together with XXX Ulpia Victrix, stationed close by in Castra Vetera II (modern Xanten), they worked in numerous military and building activities, even extracting stone from quarries.

    During the civil wars of the late 2nd and 3rd century, I Minervia supported Septimius Severus, then Elagabalus, then Alexander Severus of the Gallic Empire, that existed between 260 and 274.

    Around 353, Bonna was destroyed by the Franks, and I Minervia disappears from history. However, there is no reference to its destruction.


    Equipment:
    Lorica Segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Manica
    Pompeii Gladius: Pompei (or Pompeianus or Pompeii): Named by moderns after the Roman town of Pompeii, which was destroyed by volcanic eruption, 79 AD, with great loss of life, despite efforts of the Roman navy to get them out. Four instances of the sword type were found there, with others turning up elsewhere. The sword has parallel cutting edges and a triangular tip. Original blade length of 60 cm, blade length from circa 75 A.D. of 68 cm - 71 cm. From circa 100 A.D. of 83 cm (semi-spatha). From now on the Roman Gladius will be of middle-length.
    Imperial Italic Type G:
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    Screenshots:
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    Legio I Adiutrix:




    History:

    Legio I Adiutrix

    Legio I Adiutrix ("assistant"), was a Roman legion formed in 68, possibly by Galba under orders of Nero. The last record mentioning the Adiutrix is in 444, when it was stationed at Brigetio, in the Roman province of Pannonia. The emblem of the legion was a capricorn, used along with the winged horse Pegasus.

    The legion probably originated from the I Classis, a legion levied by Nero among the mariners of the Classis Misenensis, but was later completed by Galba. The legion was stationed near Rome. In the confusing Year of the four emperors, the legion fought in Otho's army in the Battle of Bedriacum, where this emperor was defeated by Vitellius. The victorious Vitellius ordered the legion transferred to Spain, but by the year 70 it was fighting in the Batavian rebellion.

    The city of Moguntiacum (Mainz) is the legion's first known base camp, shared with Legio XIV Gemina, where they attended mainly building activities. In 83, they fought the Germanic wars against the Chatti, a German tribe living across the Rhine, under the command of Emperor Domitian. After that they were transferred to the Danubian army stationed in the Roman province of Pannonia, to fight the Dacians.

    Following the murder of Domitian in 96, the Adiutrix, along with the Danubian army, played an important role in Roman politics, forcing Nerva to adopt Trajan as his successor. When Trajan became emperor, he gave the legion the cognomen Pia Fidelis ("loyal and faithful") to acknowledge their support. Between 101 and 106, under the new emperor's command, I Adiutrix, along with IV Flavia Felix and XIII Gemina, conquered Dacia and occupied the newly formed province. Trajan also used his Pia Fidelis in the campaign against Parthia (115-117), but they were sent back to Pannonia by his successor emperor Hadrian, with base in Brigetio.

    During the next decades, I Adiutrix remained in the Danube frontier. Under Marcus Aurelius, I Adiutrix fought the war against Marcomanni. Between 171 and 175, the commander was Pertinax, emperor for a brief period in 193. When Septimius Severus became emperor, I Adiutrix was among his supporters, following him in the march for Rome.

    In the next decades, the main base was again Pannonia, but they played a part in several Parthian wars, namely the campaigns of 195 and 197-198 of Septimius Severus, 215-217 led by Caracalla and 244 by Gordian III.

    The legion received the cognomen Pia Fidelis Bis ("twice loyal and faithful") and Constans ("reliable"), sometime in the 3rd century.


    Equipment:
    Lorica Segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Manica
    Pompeii Gladius: Pompei (or Pompeianus or Pompeii): Named by moderns after the Roman town of Pompeii, which was destroyed by volcanic eruption, 79 AD, with great loss of life, despite efforts of the Roman navy to get them out. Four instances of the sword type were found there, with others turning up elsewhere. The sword has parallel cutting edges and a triangular tip. Original blade length of 60 cm, blade length from circa 75 A.D. of 68 cm - 71 cm. From circa 100 A.D. of 83 cm (semi-spatha). From now on the Roman Gladius will be of middle-length.
    Imperial Italic Type G:
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    Screenshots:
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    Legio III Cyrenaica:




    History:

    Legio III Cyrenaica

    Legio III Cyrenaica, (from Cyrenaica, a Roman province), was probably levied by Mark Antony around 36 BC when he was governor of Cyrenaica.

    There are still records of the legion in Syria in the beginning of the 5th century. The legion symbol is unknown.

    The first historical appearance of the legion is during the campaign of Emperor Caesar Augustus to conquer Egypt in 30 BC. III Cyrenaica would remain in Egypt and, in AD 35 was in Alexandria, sharing camp with XXII Deiotariana. The main task of both legions was keep the province safe and to maintain peace and order between the different ethnic and religious groups present in Alexandria.

    In the internal turmoil of the Roman Empire, III Cyrenaica tended to follow defeated candidates for the throne like Avidius Cassius (vs. Marcus Aurelius in 175) and Pescennius Niger (vs. Septimius Severus in 192).

    The legion, or subunits of it, probably participated in the following campaigns:

    25 BC against Arabia Felix, modern Yemen, and 23 BC against Nubia

    63 AD against the Parthian Empire for the control over Armenia

    66-70 and 132-136 retaliations for Jewish rebellions

    162-166 against the Parthian Empire, commanded by Lucius Verus

    215-217 against the Parthian Empire, commanded by Caracalla

    After the rebellion of Zenobia in 267-272, III Cyrenaica was transferred to an unclear location, although the legion was in Bostra (Syria) at the beginning of the 5th century. It is likely this legion was absorbed into the Eastern Empire.

    Equipment:
    Lorica Segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Pompeii Gladius: Pompei (or Pompeianus or Pompeii): Named by moderns after the Roman town of Pompeii, which was destroyed by volcanic eruption, 79 AD, with great loss of life, despite efforts of the Roman navy to get them out. Four instances of the sword type were found there, with others turning up elsewhere. The sword has parallel cutting edges and a triangular tip. Original blade length of 60 cm, blade length from circa 75 A.D. of 68 cm - 71 cm. From circa 100 A.D. of 83 cm (semi-spatha). From now on the Roman Gladius will be of middle-length.
    Imperial Gallic Type F
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    Screenshots:
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    Legio IIII Scythica:




    History:

    Legio IIII Scythica


    Legio IIII Scythica was levied by Mark Antony around 42 BC, for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence her other cognomen, Parthica. The legion was still active in Syria in the early 5th century. The legion's symbol was a capricorn.

    In its first years, the whereabouts of IIII Scythica are uncertain, although it is probable that they took part on Antony's campaign against the Parthians. The name suggests that they fought against the Scythians. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, Octavian transferred IIII Scythica to the Danube province of Moesia. The legion is reported to take part in civilian tasks, such as the building and keeping of roads. In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion.

    Campaigns in the East:

    In the East, the king Vologeses I had invaded Armenia (58), a client kingdom of Rome. Nero ordered Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, the new legatus of Cappadocia, to manage the matter, and Corbulo brought the IIII Scythica from Moesia, and with III Gallica and VI Ferrata defeated the Parthians, restoring Tigranes on Armenia's throne. In 62, IIII Scythica and XII Fulminata, commanded by the new legatus of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, were defeated by the Parthians at the battle of Rhandeia and forced to surrender. The legions were covered with shame and removed from the war theatre to Zeugma. This city would be the base camp of IV Scythica for the next century.

    In the Year of the Four Emperors (69), the legion, like the rest of the Eastern army, sided with Vespasian from day one. Despite the demonstrated loyalty, the IIII Scythica was not involved in actual fighting because they were not considered a high quality legion. This has to do with another defeat suffered years earlier in the Jewish rebellion. In the 2nd century they participated in the control of another Jewish rebellion, this time with more success. IIII Scythica participated in all campaigns of the 2nd century against the Parthian Empire. Between 181 and 183, the commander of the Eastern legions was Septimius Severus, who became emperor relying on his legion's power. The legion disappears from all sources after 219, when their commander, Gellius Maximus, rebelled against Elagabalus and proclaimed himself emperor, only to be defeated by Elagabalus. However, in the early 5th century, IIII Scythica was reported still in Syria.

    Equipment:
    Lorica Segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Manica
    Pompeii Gladius: Pompei (or Pompeianus or Pompeii): Named by moderns after the Roman town of Pompeii, which was destroyed by volcanic eruption, 79 AD, with great loss of life, despite efforts of the Roman navy to get them out. Four instances of the sword type were found there, with others turning up elsewhere. The sword has parallel cutting edges and a triangular tip. Original blade length of 60 cm, blade length from circa 75 A.D. of 68 cm - 71 cm. From circa 100 A.D. of 83 cm (semi-spatha). From now on the Roman Gladius will be of middle-length.
    Imperial Italic Type G:
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    Screenshots:

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    Legio IIII Flavia Felix:




    History:

    Legio IIII Flavia Felix

    Legio IIII Flavia Felix (serene Flavian legion), was levied by Vespasian in 70, from the ashes of the Legio IIII Macedonica. The legion was active in Moesia Superior well into the first half of the 4th century. The legion symbol was a lion.

    During the Batavian rebellion, the IIII Macedonica fought for Vespasian, but the emperor distrusted his men, probably because they had supported Vitellius two years before. Therefore the IIII Macedonica was disbanded, and a new Fourth legion, called Flavian Felix was levied by the emperor, who gave the legio his nomen, Flavia. Since the symbol of the legion is a lion, it was probably levied in July/August 70.

    IIII Flavia Felix was camped in Burnum, Dalmatia (modern Kistanje), where it replaced XI Claudia. After the Dacian attacks of 86, Domitian moved the legion to Moesia Superior, in Singidunum, although there is some evidence of the presence of one of its vexillationes in Viminacium, base of VII Claudia. In 88 the Fourth participated in the retaliatory attacks on Dacia; it also participated in the more successful Dacian Wars of Trajan, ending with the capture of the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa. It was later transferred east in 163, under Marcus Aurelius' co-emperor Lucius Verus in his campaign against the Parthian Empire, which culminated in the sacking of the Parthian capital, Ctesiphon, in 166 AD.

    After the death of Pertinax, the IIII Flavia Felix supported Septimius Severus against usurpers Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus.

    Even if the legion fought in one of the several wars against the Sassanids, it stayed in Moesia Superior until the first half of the 4th century.


    Equipment:
    Lorica Segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Pompeii Gladius: Pompei (or Pompeianus or Pompeii): Named by moderns after the Roman town of Pompeii, which was destroyed by volcanic eruption, 79 AD, with great loss of life, despite efforts of the Roman navy to get them out. Four instances of the sword type were found there, with others turning up elsewhere. The sword has parallel cutting edges and a triangular tip. Original blade length of 60 cm, blade length from circa 75 A.D. of 68 cm - 71 cm. From circa 100 A.D. of 83 cm (semi-spatha). From now on the Roman Gladius will be of middle-length.
    Imperial Italic Type D
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    Screenshots:

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    Legio V Macedonica:




    History:

    Legio V Macedonica

    Legio V was one of the original twenty-eight legions raised by Octavian. There are two fifth legions recorded: the V Gallica and the V Urbana. It is possible that these both were early names for the V Macedonica. The legion probably participated in the Battle of Actium (31 BC). It later moved to Macedonia, where it stayed from 30 BC to AD 6, gaining its cognomen, before moving to Oescus (Moesia).
    In 62, some vexillationes of the Fifth fought under Lucius Caesennius Paetus in Armenia against the Parthian Empire. After the defeat of the Battle of Rhandeia, the whole V Macedonica, together with III Gallica, VI Ferrata, and X Fretensis under the command of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, was sent to the east to fight in the victorious war against the Parthians.

    The Fifth was probably still in the East when the Great Jewish Revolt in Iudaea Province began in 66. Nero gave the V Macedonica, the X Fretensis and the XV Apollinaris to Titus Flavius Vespasianus to counter the revolt. In 67, in Galilee, the city of Sepphoris surrendered peacefully to the Roman army, and later the V Macedonica conquered Mount Gerizim, the chief sanctuary of the Samaritans. In the Year of the Four Emperors, 68, the legion stayed inactive in Emmaus, where several tombstones of soldiers of the V Macedonica remain. After the proclamation of Vespasian as Emperor and the end of the war under his son Titus, the V Macedonica left Iudaea and returned to Oescus (71 AD). In 96, the later emperor Hadrian served the legion as tribunus militum.

    In 101, the legion moved to Moesia, to fight in Emperor Trajan's wars against the Dacian king Decebalus. The legate of the V Macedonica was future emperor Hadrian. After the second of Trajan’s Dacian Wars ended in 106, the legion remained in Troesmis (modern Iglita), near the Danube Delta from 107.

    When Emperor Lucius Verus started his campaign against the Parthians (161–166), the legion moved to the east, but was returned to Dacia Porolissensis and was based in Potaissa by 166. This was indeed fortunate for Emperor Marcus Aurelius; the Danuvian frontier was a hot border of the Empire, and when Marcus Aurelius repelled the invading Marcomanni, Sarmatians, and Quadi, the V Macedonica was in the thick of it.

    At the beginning of the reign of Commodus, the V Macedonica and the XIII Gemina once again defeated the Sarmatians, under the future usurpers Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus. The Fifth later supported Septimius Severus, in his fight for the purple. Then in 185 or 187, the legion was awarded of the title Pia Constans ("Faithful and reliable") or Pia Fidelis ("Faithful and loyal"), after defeating a mercenary army in Dacia.

    While based at Potaissa for most of the 3rd century, V Macedonica fought several times, earning battle honours in doing so. Valerian gave the Fifth the name III Pia III Fidelis; his son, Gallienus gave the legion the title VII Pia VII Fidelis, with the 4th, 5th and 6th titles awarded probably when the legion was used as a mobile cavalry unit against usurpers Ingenuus and Regalianus (260, Moesia). A vexillatio fought against Victorinus (Gaul, 269–271).

    The legion returned to Oescus in 274, after Aurelian had retired from Dacia. It guarded the province in later centuries, becoming a comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Orientis. It probably became part of the Byzantine army.

    The cavalry unit created by Gallienus was definitively detached by Diocletian, and become part of his comitatus. This unit was sent to Mesopotamia, where it successfully fought against the Sassanid Empire in 296, and then to Memphis, where it was to stay until its entering into the Byzantine army.

    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Weighted Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.
    Imperial Gallic Type C:
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    Screenshots:

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    Legio VI Victrix Pia Fidelis:




    History:

    Legio VI Victrix Pia Fidelis Constans Hispaniensis Britannica

    The sixth legion was founded by Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) in 41 BC, as a copy of the Caesarian sixth legion, which was in the army of his rival Marc Antony. The new legion saw its first action during the siege of Perugia in the same year. In 31, the Sixth was present during the battle of Actium against Marc Antony. After 30, it was stationed in Hispania Tarraconensis, where it took part in Augustus' campaigns against the Cantabrians, which lasted from 25-13 BC. This was a very large war: among the other troops involved were I Germanica, II Augusta, IV Macedonica, V Alaudae, IX Hispana, X Gemina (which seems to have shared its base, perhaps near Braga, with our unit), XX Valeria Victrix, and another legion, perhaps VIII Augusta.

    VI Victrix was to stay in Hispania for almost a century and received the surname Hispaniensis. Soldiers of this unit and X Gemina were among the first settlers of Zaragoza.

    When in 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, revolted against the emperor Domitian, the army of Germania Inferior (I Minervia, VI Victrix, X Gemina, XXII Primigenia) hurried to the south, to Mainz, and defeated the rebel. Every legion was awarded the title Pia Fidelis Domitiana ('faithful and loyal to Domitian'). When this emperor was killed in 96, the last element of this honorific title was dropped.

    In 121, the emperor Hadrian visited Germania Inferior, where he ordered the construction of the Lower Rhine limes, which is better known as Hadrian's wall. The legion's new base was York, close to Hadrian's wall. In the years between 155 and 158, a widespread revolt occurred in northern Britain, requiring heavy fighting by the British legions. They suffered heavily, and reinforcements had to be brought in from the two Germanic provinces. At first, the Romans remained master of the area between Hadrian's wall and the Antonine wall, but at the beginning of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, it was abandoned. Hadrian's wall once again marked the northern frontier of the Roman Empire. During this time, it received the honorific title Britannica. From now on, the full name of the legion was VI Victrix Pia Fidelis Britannica.

    During this century, VI Victrix remained at York, and shared the fate of Britain. When this province was part of the Gallic Empire, it supported the Gallic emperors (260-274); when Britain became independent, it supported usurpers like Carausius and Allectus (286-297). After 297, the province was again incorporated into the Roman empire, and the soldiers served crown-prince (later emperor) Constantius I Chlorus. When he died in 306 in York, soldiers of the Sixth proclaimed his son emperor: Constantine the Great (306-337). For this reason VI Victrix was indeed a notable Legion!!

    In the last third of the fourth century, Roman rule in Britain was increasingly threatened, and order had to be restored several times. VI Victrix must have suffered defeats. Yet, the legion still existed in the late fourth century. It may have been withdrawn to the continent in 402 by Stilicho, the supreme commander of the Roman forces in western Europe during the reign of Honorius.

    Its legionary symbol probably was a bull.


    Equipment:

    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Fulham gladius - Fulham or Mainz-Fulham: The sword that gave the name to the type was dredged from the Thames near Fulham and must therefore date to a time after the Roman occupation of Britain began. That would have been after the invasion of Aulus Plautius in 43 CE. It was used until the end of the same century. It is considered the conjunction point between Mainz and Pompei. Some consider it an evolution or the same as the Mainz type. Blade length 70 cm blade width: 6 cm at the base, 4 cm in the middle, 7 cm in the end.
    Imperial Gallic Type A - frequently tinned iron

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Original:





    Replica:







    Screenshots:

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    Legio X Fretensis:




    History:
    Legio X Fretensis


    One of the original 28 Augustan Legions (Legion of the sea straights)

    Founded in 41 BC by Octavian to be used in Sicily against Sextus Pompey.

    Legio X Fretensis (Of the sea straits) was levied by Augustus in 41/40 BC to fight during the period of civil war that started the dissolution of the Roman Republic. X Fretensis is recorded to exist at least until 410AD. X Fretensis symbols were the bull, the holy animal of the goddess Venus (mythical ancestor of the gens Julia), a ship (probably a reference to the battles of Naulochus and-or Actium), the god Neptune, and a boar. The symbol of Taurus may also mean that it was organized between 20 April and 20 May.

    X Fretensis was centrally involved in the first Jewish War (66-73), under the supreme command of Vespasian.

    In 66, the X Fretensis and V Macedonica went to Alexandria for an invasion of Ethiopia planned by Nero. However, the two legions were needed in Iudaea to suppress a revolt. After spending the winter in Ptolemais Ace (modern Acre, Israel), X Fretensis and V Macedonica relocated in the coastal city of Caesarea Maritima (67-68). This was due to the large number of legions being mobilized in Ptolemais, under Marcus Ulpius Traianus, future governor of Syria and father of the emperor Trajan. During that same winter, the Caesarea camp of Xth and Vth hosted Vespasian, who was forced the following year, to go to Rome to seize power. Vespasian's son, Titus ended the revolt. When Tarichacae and Gamala were conquered, the X Fretensis moved to Scythopolis (modern Bet She'an), just west of Jordan River. In the summer of 68, X Fretensis destroyed the monastery of Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls are believed to have originated. Its winter camp was at Jericho.

    Herodium was one of the fortresses of the Jewish revolt conquered by X Fretensis.

    By 70, the rebellion in all of Iudaea had been crushed, except for Jerusalem and a few fortresses, including Masada. In that year X Fretensis, in conjunction with V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, and XV Apollinaris, began the siege of Jerusalem, stronghold of the rebellion. The Xth camped on the Mount of Olives. During the siege, Legio X gained fame in the effective use of their various war machines. It was noted that they were able to hurl stones that weighted a talent (about 25 kg) a distance of two furlongs (400 m) or further. The projectiles of their ballistae caused heavy damage to the ramparts. The siege of Jerusalem lasted five months and the besieged population experienced all the terrible rigors of starvation. Finally, the combined assaults of the legions succeeded in taking the city, which was then subjected to destruction.

    During the spring of 71, Titus set sail for Rome. A new military governor was then appointed from Rome, Lucilius Bassus, whose assigned task was to undertake the "mopping-up" operations in Iudaea. Naturally, he used X Fretensis to oppose the few remaining fortresses that still resisted. As part of this, X Fretensis took Herodium, and then crossed the Jordan to capture the fortress of Machaerus on the shore of the Dead Sea. Due to illness, Bassus did not live to complete his mission. Lucius Flavius Silva replaced him, and moved against the last Jewish stronghold, Masada, in the autumn of 72. He used Legio X, auxiliary troops, and thousands of Jewish prisoners. After his orders for surrender were rejected, Silva established several base camps and a wall of circumvolution completely around the fortress. When the Romans finally broke through the walls of this citadel, they discovered that the Jewish defenders had chosen death with a mass suicide.

    After the conclusion of the Jewish revolt, Legio X was garrisoned at Jerusalem. Their main camp was positioned on the Western Hill, located in the southern half of the old city, now levelled of all former buildings. At the time, Legio X was the sole legion assigned to maintain the peace in Iudaea, and was directly under the command of the governor of the province, who was also legatus of the legion.

    Later, the legion moved to Aila (close to modern Aqaba),probably during Diocletian's reforms, and is recorded as still camping there at the time of the redaction of Notitia Dignitatum, in 410AD.

    Probably became an Eastern Empire Legion after 475, and therefore joins V Macedonica as one of the longest lasting military units in history.

    Equipment:
    Lorica Segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Manica
    Pompeii Gladius: Pompei (or Pompeianus or Pompeii): Named by moderns after the Roman town of Pompeii, which was destroyed by volcanic eruption, 79 AD, with great loss of life, despite efforts of the Roman navy to get them out. Four instances of the sword type were found there, with others turning up elsewhere. The sword has parallel cutting edges and a triangular tip. Original blade length of 60 cm, blade length from circa 75 A.D. of 68 cm - 71 cm. From circa 100 A.D. of 83 cm (semi-spatha). From now on the Roman Gladius will be of middle-length.
    Imperial Italic Type G:

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 









    Screenshots:
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    Legio XII Fulminata:




    History:

    Legio XII Fvlminata

    One of the original 28 Augustan Legions (The Lightning Legion)

    Legio XII Fulminata (wielder of the thunderbolt), also known as Paterna, Victrix, Antiqua, Certa Constans, and Galliena, was levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and accompanied him during the Gallic wars until 49 BC. The unit was still guarding the Euphrates River crossing near Melitene at the beginning of the 5th century. The legion's emblem was a thunderbolt (fulmen).

    The Twelfth Legion, as it is perhaps better known, fought in the battle against the Nervians, and probably also in the siege of Alesia. The Twelfth fought at the battle of Pharsalus (48 BC), when Caesar defeated Pompey. After Caesar won the civil war, the legion was named Victrix, and enlisted in 43 BC by Lepidus and Mark Anthony. Mark Anthony led the Twelfth, renamed XII Antiqua (of consolidated quality) during his campaign against the Parthian Empire. During the latest part of Augustus' principality, XII Fulminata served in Syria, camping at Raphana.

    In 66, after a Zealot revolt had destroyed the Roman garrison in Jerusalem, the XII Fulminata, with vexillationes of IV Scythica and VI Ferrata, was sent to retaliate, but it was sent back by Gaius Cestius Gallus, legatus of Syria, when he saw that the legion was weak. On its way back, XII Fulminata was ambushed and defeated by Eleazar ben Simon at Beit-Horon, and lost its aquila (Eagle). However, XII Fulminata fought well in the last part of the war, and supported its commander T. Flavius Vespasian in his successful bid for the imperial throne. At the end of the war, XII Fulminata and XVI Flavia Firma were sent to guard the Euphrates border, camping at Melitene.

    After these episodes, the records of the Fulminata are scarce. The Palmyrene Empire was reconquered by Aurelian; Emperor Diocletian defeated the Sassanids and moved the frontier to Northern Mesopotamia. The Twelfth, which probably took part in these campaigns, is recorded guarding the frontier of the Euphrates in Melitene, at the beginning of the 5th century (Notitia Dignitatum). It may have become an Eastern Empire legion.


    Equipment:
    Lorica segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.
    Imperial Gallic Type I (Aquincum)
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    Screenshots:
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    Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix:



    History:

    Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix Pia VI Fidelis VI

    Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin, in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the XIVth that fought in the Battle of Alesia. Martia Victrix (martial victory) were cognomens added by Nero following the victory over Queen Boudicca. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn and the Black Eagle.

    Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior, since, 9, XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and took part in the defeat of Queen Boudicca in 60 or 61. In 68 it was stationed in Gallia Narbonensis.

    In 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, rebelled against Domitian, with the support of the XIVth and of the XXI Rapax, but the revolt was suppressed.

    When the XXIst was lost, in 92, XIV Gemina was sent to Pannonia to replace it, camping in Vindobona. After a war with the Sarmatians and Trajan's Dacian Wars (101-106), the legion was moved to Carnuntum, where it stayed for three centuries. Some subunits of the XIVth fought in the wars against the Mauri, under Antoninus Pius, and the legion participated in the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus. During his war against the Marcomanni, Emperor Marcus Aurelius based his headquarters in Carnuntum.

    In 193, after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the XIVth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, and above all by his own. The XIV Gemina fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus (193), contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger (194), and probably fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the empire, Ctesiphon (198).

    In the turmoil following the defeat of Valerian, XIV Gemina supported usurper Regalianus against Emperor Gallienus (260), then Gallienus against Postumus of the Gallic empire (earning the title VI Pia VI Fidelis ("six times faithful, six times loyal"), and, after Gallienus death, Gallic Emperor Victorinus (269-271).

    At the beginning of the 5th century, XIV Gemina still stayed at Carnuntum. It probably dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in the 430s, although the Notitia Dignitatum lists a 'Quartodecimani Comitatensis' unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias; it is possible that this unit was XIV Gemina, and that it moved east to the surviving Empire after the fall of the West.

    Equipment:

    Lorica hamata
    Early Pilum
    Fulham gladius - Fulham or Mainz-Fulham: The sword that gave the name to the type was dredged from the Thames near Fulham and must therefore date to a time after the Roman occupation of Britain began. That would have been after the invasion of Aulus Plautius in 43 CE. It was used until the end of the same century. It is considered the conjunction point between Mainz and Pompei. Some consider it an evolution or the same as the Mainz type. Blade length 70 cm blade width: 6 cm at the base, 4 cm in the middle, 7 cm in the end.
    Imperial Gallic Type A - frequently tinned iron

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Original:





    Replica:







    Screenshots:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 




















    Legio XV Apollinaris:




    History:

    Legio XV Apollinaris

    One of the original 28 Augustan Legions

    Legio XV Apollinaris (Apollinaris means devoted to Apollo) was recruited by Octavian in 41/40 BC. The emblem of this legion was probably a picture of Apollo, or of one of his holy animals.

    The XV Apollinaris is sometimes confused with two other legions named the XVth: An earlier unit which was commanded by Julius Caesar and met its end in North Africa in 49 BC, and a later XVth that was present at the Battle of Philippi on the side of the Second Triumvirate and then sent east. The genuine XV Apollinaris was raised in order to end the occupation of Sicily by Sextus Pompeius, who was threatening Rome's grain supply. After the Battle of Actium, the legion was sent to garrison Illyricum, where it probably remained until 6 BC, though it might have seen action in the Cantabrian Wars. In 6 BC, the Apollinaris legion was part of the huge campaign by Emperor Tiberius against the Marcomanni that was obstructed by a revolt in Pannonia. The XVth saw a good deal of fighting in the suppression of the revolt. By AD 9 the legion was headquartered in Pannonia, in the town of Carnuntum. There the unit stayed until sent to Syria and possibly Armenia by Nero in 61 or 62, these territories newly conquered from the Parthians. After the conclusion of the war with Parthia, the legion was sent to Alexandria but soon found itself engaged in the fierce fighting of the First Jewish Revolt, capturing the towns of Jotapata and Gamla.

    Notably, it was the XVth that captured the Jewish general later to become famous as the historian Josephus. During this period the legion was commanded by Titus, who would later become Emperor.

    After the suppression of the revolt, the legion returned to Carnuntum and rebuilt its fortress. Elements of the XVth fought in the Dacian Wars although the main body of the legion remained in Pannonia.

    In 115, war with Parthia broke out again and the legion was sent to the front, reinforced with elements of the XXX Ulpia Victrix. The legion fought in Mesopotamia, which was conquered by the Romans. After the conflict was over the unit stayed in the east with a new headquarters at Satala in northeastern Cappadocia, with elements stationed at Trapezus on the Black Sea and at Ancyra, modern-day Ankara. From this base the XVth helped repulse an invasion of Alans in 134.

    By 162, Rome and Parthia were at war once more; the campaign, led by Emperor Lucius Verus was successful, and the legion occupied the Armenian capital Artaxata. In 175, the general Avidius Cassius rebelled against Emperor Marcus Aurelius, but the Fifteenth remained loyal and earned the additional title Pia Fidelis.

    The history of the legion after this point involves more conjecture. As a unit stationed in the Middle East, it is almost certain to have taken part in later campaigns against Parthia, including the sack of its capital Ctesiphon by the Romans in 197, and in wars against the new Sassanid power that arose in Persia thereafter, though there is no direct record of this. At the beginning of the 5th century, the legion reappears in history: it is still quartered at Satala and Ancyra, though having lost its post at Trapezus somewhere along the way, and is under the command of the Dux Armeniae.

    An inscription possibly relating to this legion was found in a cave in eastern Uzbekistan, perhaps carved by soldiers captured by the Parthians and dispatched to their eastern frontier as border guards.


    Equipment:
    Lorica hamata
    Weighted Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.
    Imperial Gallic Type C:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 





    Screenshots:

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    Legio XVI Flavia Firma:



    History:

    Legio XVI Flavia Firma

    One of the original 28 Augustan Legions

    Its name means 'Flavian's Firm Legion". The symbol of the sixteenth Flavian legion was the lion. The former legion XVI Gallica, which had been disgraced by its conduct during the Batavian revolt (69-70), was reconstituted by the Emperor Vespasian under the name XVI Flavia Firma and transferred to the eastern provinces. This transfer was some sort of punishment, because the soldiers of XVI Gallica were from Gaul in the west. Yet the men must have been happy that they were not dishonourably discharged. The Sixteenth took part in the emperor Trajan's war against the Parthian empire (114-117), and was redeployed at Samosata by Trajan's successor Hadrian (117-138). It was a quiet period and it comes as no surprise to find only evidence for civil activities, like the building of a tunnel near Seleucia in Syria. The Greek author Lucian, who was born in Samosata, describes the defeat of a Roman army in eastern Cappadocia in 161 at the hands of the Parthians. Perhaps IX Hispana was destroyed there. We know that XVI Flavia Firma was among the troops used by the Emperor Lucius Verus when he retaliated and conquered Mesopotamia (the northern part of modern Iraq).

    The Sixteenth must also have taken part in the two campaigns of Lucius Septimius Severus (194 and 197-198), which culminated in the capture of the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and the creation of a province Mesopotamia. Later, XVI Flavia Firma must have joined the eastern campaign of Severus' son Caracalla, who died in 217 in nearby Harran.

    One of the consequence of the creation of Mesopotamia was another reorganization of the Upper Euphrates area, which was no longer a threatened frontier zone. After all, two legions, I Parthica and III Parthica, were stationed farther to the east in the area between Euphrates and Tigris. During the reorganization of the old frontier zone, soldiers of the Sixteenth, from now on a strategic reserve, built a bridge across the river Chabinas, the modern Cendere Suya. This bridge is still in use and leads to the splendid mountain sanctuary at Nemrud dagi.

    The sixteenth legion was still in this area during the reign of Severus Alexander and must have taken part in his campaign against the new Sassanid Empire. The Sassanids had invaded the Roman empire in 230 and had installed an Emperor in Emessa, but Severus Alexander was able to restore order and invade Mesopotamia. In 244, the Romans again invaded Iraq, but their Emperor Gordian III died and was succeeded by Philippus Arabs, who owed his throne to the Sassanid king Shapur I. Even worse was to come. In 256 Shapur captured Satala (the fortress of XV Apollinaris), and two years later he sacked Trapezus. When the Roman Emperor Valerian tried to restore order and invaded Mesopotamia, he was defeated and captured. Captive Roman soldiers were ordered to build a bridge at modern Shushtar. These Roman defeats are commemorated on several Sassanid monuments. However, under the emperors Odaenathus of Palmyra (261-267) and Diocletian (284-305), the Romans restored their control, and in 298, a peace treaty was concluded in which the Persians had to give up territories in northern Mesopotamia. The sixteenth legion must have played a role during these campaigns, but we have almost no information about them.

    In the fourth century, the Sixteenth was still guarding the Euphrates, but had been transferred to Sura, which was downstream from Samosata. It is possible (but unknown) that XVI Flavia became an Eastern Empire legion after the fall of the west, as many did.


    Equipment:
    Lorica Segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Manica
    Pompeii Gladius: Pompei (or Pompeianus or Pompeii): Named by moderns after the Roman town of Pompeii, which was destroyed by volcanic eruption, 79 AD, with great loss of life, despite efforts of the Roman navy to get them out. Four instances of the sword type were found there, with others turning up elsewhere. The sword has parallel cutting edges and a triangular tip. Original blade length of 60 cm, blade length from circa 75 A.D. of 68 cm - 71 cm. From circa 100 A.D. of 83 cm (semi-spatha). From now on the Roman Gladius will be of middle-length.
    Imperial Italic Type D (Krefeld) helmet

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 







    Screenshots:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 













    Legio XX Valeria Victrix:



    Valiant and Victorious

    Legio XX Valeria Victrix was probably raised by Augustus some time after 31 BC. It served in Hispania, Illyricum, and Germania before participating in the invasion of Britannia in 43, where it remained and was active until at least the beginning of the 4th century. The emblem of the legion was a boar.

    The Valeria part of Legio XX cognomen is difficult to understand: it might be related to the concept of military value; other's suggest a relationship with the Valeria gens, or with the black eagle.

    XX Valeria Victrix was part of the great army that campaigned against the Cantabrians in Hispania Tarraconensis from 25 to 13 BC. The legion then moved to Illyricum, and is recorded in the army of Tiberius operating against the Marcomanni in AD 6. In one battle the legion cut through the enemy lines, was surrounded, and cut its way out again. After the disaster of Varus in AD 9, XX Valeria Victrix moved to Germania Inferior and was based at Oppidum Ubiorum (Cologne), then moved to Novaesium (Neuss) some time during Tiberius' reign.

    This legion was one of the four with which Claudius invaded Britain in 43, after which it encamped at Camulodunum (Colchester), with some units at Kingsholm in Gloucester. In 60 or 61 it helped put down the revolt of queen Boudica; it is possible that the Twentieth legion was awarded its Valeria Victrix (Valiant and Victorious) cognomen as a consequence of its contribution in this war. In the year of the four emperors, the legion sided with Vitellius, some units going with him to Rome. In 78-84, it was part of Gnaeus Julius Agricola's campaigns in northern Britain and Scotland, and built the base at Inchtuthil that they occupied until returning south in 88 and occupying Castra Devana (Chester), where it remained for at least two centuries.

    It is evident that Valeria Victrix was one of the legions involved with the construction of Hadrian's Wall, and the discovery of stone altars commemorating their work in Caledonia suggests that they had some role in the building of the Antonine Wall. During the reign of the usurper emperors Carausius and Allectus (286-293 and 293-296) XX Valeria Victrix was still active; no records, however, are present in the 4th century. This legion has been much studied; at least 250 members of the legion have been identified in surviving inscriptions.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 































    Legio XXI Rapax:




    History:

    Legio XXI Rapax (Predator)

    This legion was probably founded after 31BC by Emperor Augustus, who may have integrated older units into this new legion and added new recruits from northern Italy. Its first assignment may have been in Hispania Taraconensis, where it took part in Augustus' campaigns against the Cantabrians, which lasted from 25-13 BC. However, the legion's stay in Hispania is nothing but a hypothesis. We have more certainty about its stay in Raetia, which was annexed in 15 by Augustus' son-in-law Tiberius (the future emperor). Its base was probably at Regina Castra, modern Regensburg.

    In 6AD, Tiberius was to lead at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Czechia. At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX were to move against Maroboduus along the Elbe. It was to be the most grandiose operation that was ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Pannonia obstructed its execution. XXI Rapax was involved in its suppression. After the disaster of Varus in the Teutoburg Forest (September 9AD), where Legions XVII, XVIII and XIX were destroyed, the legion was redeployed in the province of Germania Inferior. It shared its base at Xanten with V Alaudae, keeping an eye on the nearby tribes of the Cugerni and Batavians, and guarding the confluence of the Rhine and Lippe. Both units took part in the Germanic campaigns of Germanicus in the first years of the reign of Tiberius.

    In 21, a mixed subunit of XXI Rapax and XX Valeria Victrix, commanded by an officer from I Germanica, was sent out to suppress the rebellion of the Turoni in Gaul, who had revolted against the heavy Roman taxation under a nobleman named Julius Sacrovir and Julius Florus. Almost twenty years later, the Twenty-first was employed during the Germanic war of Caligula. The details, however, are not fully understood. After Claudius' invasion of Britain in 43, XXI Rapax was redeployed in Germania Superior, which was now undergarrisoned. After a possible (but not proved) brief stay at Strasbourg, our unit was transferred to Vindonissa (modern Windisch in Switzerland), where it succeeded XIII Gemina. Here, it defended the passes across the Alps against a possible Germanic invasion of Italy.

    In 47, the soldiers rebuilt the fortress, which had been constructed out of wood, from natural stone and bricks. At Ruperswyl, they built kilns, where tiles and pottery were produced - not only for Windisch, but also for other military settlements in this area.

    In the civil war after the suicide of the Emperor Nero (June, 68), the Twenty-first sided with Vitellius, the commander of the army of Germania Inferior. In fact, the twenty-first legion was the most important element in the army of Vitellius' General Caecina. It crossed the Alps during the winter, defeated the army of Otho at Cremona, marched on Rome and was victorious (69). However, before the year was out, Vitellius' army had been defeated by the troops of another pretender, Vespasian, who was to reign until 79. It took several months before the new emperor could send a strong army to recover the Rhineland, which had been overrun by rebellious Batavians. The expeditionary force was commanded by Vespasian's relative Quintus Petillius Cerialis, and XXI Rapax was one of its units. It fought at Trier and must have been present during the battle of Xanten. After the reconquest, the Twenty-first was replaced at Windisch by XI Claudia and initially garrisoned at Bonn in Germania Inferior, but sent back to Superior in 83 when Vespasian's son, the emperor Domitian, launched a war against the Chatti in Baden-Württemberg. Bonn was occupied by the recently founded I Minervia.

    From now on, Mainz was the legionary base of XXI Rapax and XIV Gemina. When in 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, revolted against the lawful Emperor Domitian, the two legions supported him. However, the insurrection was suppressed by the legions of Germania Inferior and the two rebellious units were immediately separated - the Twenty-first being sent to Pannonia, where war against the tribes of the Middle Danube -the Suebians and Iazyges - was imminent. Here, the Twenty-first was destroyed in 92 by the Sarmatians.

    The legionary symbol of XXI Rapax was the Capricorn, which was often used by units that had been founded by the Emperor Augustus.


    Equipment:
    Lorica Segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Manica
    Pompeii Gladius: Pompei (or Pompeianus or Pompeii): Named by moderns after the Roman town of Pompeii, which was destroyed by volcanic eruption, 79 AD, with great loss of life, despite efforts of the Roman navy to get them out. Four instances of the sword type were found there, with others turning up elsewhere. The sword has parallel cutting edges and a triangular tip. Original blade length of 60 cm, blade length from circa 75 A.D. of 68 cm - 71 cm. From circa 100 A.D. of 83 cm (semi-spatha). From now on the Roman Gladius will be of middle-length.
    Imperial Gallic Type F
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 






    Screenshots:
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    Legio XXII Deiotariana:




    History:
    Legio XXII Deiotariana

    One of the original 28 Augustan Legions

    The legion was levied by Deiotarus, king of the Celtic tribe of the Tolistobogii, who lived in Galatia, modern Turkey. Deiotarus became an ally of the Roman Republic general Pompey in 63 BC, who named him king of all the Celtic tribes of Turkey, which were collectively known as Galatians (hence the name Galatia for the region). Deiotarus levied an army and trained it with Roman help; the army, in 48 BC, was composed of 12,000 infantrymen and 2,000 horsemen. Cicero writes that the army was divided into to thirty cohortes, which were roughly equivalent to three Roman legions of the time. This army supported the Romans in their wars against king Mithridates VI of Pontus, and contributed to Roman victory in the Third Mithridatic War.

    After a heavy defeat against king Pharnaces II of Pontus near Nicopolis, the survivor soldiers of Deiotarius' army formed a single legion, which marched besides Julius Caesar during his victorious campaign against Pontus, and fought with him in the battle of Zela (47 BC).

    When the Roman Empire integrated the Galatian kingdom, this legion, which had been trained by the Romans and had fought under Roman commanders, became part of the Roman army; since Caesar Augustus had already 21 legions, the legion received the number XXII. Augustus sent the Twenty-second to camp in Nicopolis (next Alexandria, in Aegyptus) together with III Cyrenaica. These two legions had the role of garrisoning the Egyptian province from threats both within and without, given the multi-ethnical nature of Alexandria.

    Under Trajan, XXII was officially known as 'Deiotariana', even if this was its unofficial name since Claudian times. The last record of XXII Deiotariana is from 119. In 145, when a list of all existing legions was made, XXII Deiotariana was not listed. It is likely that XXII Deiotariana was destroyed during the Jewish rebellion of Simon bar Kochba (132-136).


    Equipment:
    Lorica segmentata
    Weighted Pilum
    Mainz gladius: Mainz was founded as the Roman permanent camp of Moguntiacum probably in 13 BC. This large camp provided a population base for the growing city around it. Sword manufacture probably began in the camp and was continued in the city; for example, Gaius Gentilius Victor, a veteran of Legio XXII, used his discharge bonus on retirement to set up a business as a negotiator gladiarius, a manufacturer and dealer of arms. Swords made at Mainz were sold extensively to the north. They are characterized by a slight waist running the length of the blade and a long point. Blade width 7-8 cm. Blade length 66 cm - 70 cm.
    Imperial Gallic Type I (Aquincum)
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 






    Screenshots:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


















    Legio XXII Primigenia:



    History:

    Legio XXII

    Legio XXII Primigenia was levied by emperor Caligula in 39, for his campaigns in Germania. There are still records of XXII Primigenia in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz) at the end of the 3rd century. The legion's symbols were a Capricorn and the demigod Hercules. XXII Primigenia was first stationed in Moguntiacum in the Roman province of Germania Superior, guarding the Rhine border as part of the limes. Along with the rest of the Germanic army, the legion supported Vitellius in the Year of the four emperors (69). During the Batavian rebellion, XXII Primigenia, commanded by Gaius Dillius Vocula, was the only Germanic legion that survived attacks of the rebels and stayed in its camp, defending Moguntiacum. They remained in Moguntiacum until at least the 3rd century. Later emperor Hadrian was tribunus militum of the XXIIth in 97-98. The Rhine settlement was their main camp, but subunits of the legion participated in the building of the Antonine wall in Scotland (2nd century) and in the campaigns against the Sassanid Empire (around 235). They were still in Moguntiacum during the attack of the tribe of the Alamanni in 235, and were responsible for the lynching of Emperor Alexander Severus, when he tried to negotiate with the enemy, and the subsequent election of Maximinus Thrax as new emperor. In 268, the Primigenia probably fought under Gallienus at the Battle of Naissus, winning a victory over the Goths. The following year, Laelianus, the commander of the 22nd, became emperor of the Gallic empire.

    Equipment:

    Imperial Gallic Type G helmet
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 





    Screenshots:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 























    Last edited by tone; April 19, 2010 at 07:51 PM.


    Under patronage of Spirit of Rob; Patron of Century X, Pacco, Cherryfunk, Leif Erikson.

  5. #5

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Late Centurions:







    Early Praetorians:




    Early Praetorian Legion I


    The Praetorians were 'elite Legionaries', recruited mainly from within Italy's central regions, but sometimes from the provinces, and mostly the bravest and best of the other legions.

    Equipment and armour were basically the same as other legions, except for specially decorated breastplates, excellent for parades and state functions. Insignia of the "Moon and Stars" and the "Scorpion" were particularly associated with the Praetorians. Thus, each guardsman possessed two suits of armour, one for Roman duty and one for the field (lorica).

    Originally, praetorians were chosen to guard the 'praetorium' - the tent of the legate of the legion while in the field. These men came to act as bodyguards for all important generals, before being made into specific formations that were considered useful in politics as well as war. It was Augustus who established the Praetorian Guard as both a bodyguard and for useful intimidation in Rome. Although its name has become synonymous with intrigue, conspiracy, disloyalty and assassination, it could be argued that for the first two centuries of its existence the Praetorian Guard was, on the whole, a positive force in the Roman state. During this time it mostly removed (or allowed to be removed) cruel, weak and unpopular emperors while generally supporting just, strong and popular ones. By protecting these monarchs, thus extending their reigns, and also by keeping the disorders of the mobs of Rome and the intrigues of the Senate in line, the Guard helped give the empire much needed stability that led to the period known as the 'Pax Romana'.

    Only after the reign of Marcus Aurelius, when this period is generally considered to have ended, the guard began to deteriorate into the ruthless, mercenary and meddling force for which it has become infamous. However, during the Severan dynasty and afterwards during the crises of the 3rd century, the legions, the Senate and the emperors, along with the rest of Roman government were falling into decadence as well.


    Screenshots:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 












    Late Praetorians:






    Late Praetorian Legion


    The Praetorians were 'elite Legionaries', recruited mainly from within Italy's central regions, but sometimes from the provinces, and mostly the bravest and best of the other legions.

    Equipment and armour were basically the same as other legions, except for specially decorated breastplates, excellent for parades and state functions. Insignia of the "Moon and Stars" and the "Scorpion" were particularly associated with the Praetorians. Thus, each guardsman possessed two suits of armour, one for Roman duty and one for the field (lorica).

    Originally, praetorians were chosen to guard the 'praetorium' - the tent of the legate of the legion while in the field. These men came to act as bodyguards for all important generals, before being made into specific formations that were considered useful in politics as well as war. It was Augustus who established the Praetorian Guard as both a bodyguard and for useful intimidation in Rome. Although its name has become synonymous with intrigue, conspiracy, disloyalty and assassination, it could be argued that for the first two centuries of its existence the Praetorian Guard was, on the whole, a positive force in the Roman state. During this time it mostly removed (or allowed to be removed) cruel, weak and unpopular emperors while generally supporting just, strong and popular ones. By protecting these monarchs, thus extending their reigns, and also by keeping the disorders of the mobs of Rome and the intrigues of the Senate in line, the Guard helped give the empire much needed stability that led to the period known as the 'Pax Romana'.

    Only after the reign of Marcus Aurelius, when this period is generally considered to have ended, the guard began to deteriorate into the ruthless, mercenary and meddling force for which it has become infamous. However, during the Severan dynasty and afterwards during the crises of the 3rd century, the legions, the Senate and the emperors, along with the rest of Roman government were falling into decadence as well.

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
























    "Rebel" Praetorians:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 












    Praetorian cavalry:




    History:

    Praetorian cavalry are an elite within the elite: dedicated bodyguards who serve as heavy cavalry. Praetorian training is, as might be expected, demanding and thorough. These men are some of the best, toughest, most unflinching soldiers in Rome - and good cavalrymen to boot! As heavy cavalry, it is their task to smash enemy formations and drive them from the field, fighting with their cavalry-pattern swords (longer than the original legionary gladius) once close combat is joined. Historically, the original praetorians were men chosen to guard the tent (the praetorium) of the legion's legate. These men came to act as bodyguards for all important generals, and then became an elite quite separate from the originating legions. These men serve as the Praetorian Prefect's Guard, and also as the Praetorian Legion's Cavalry support.

    Screenshots:
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

















    Credits:

    Historical research: Rory O'Kane, algorath, pseudocaesar, torzsoktamas, DVK901, Tone
    Models and skins: Tone
    Shield models and skins: Pacco
    Shield skins: Leif Erikson
    Gladius models: Burninator
    Screenshots: Tone, Medieval American, Brusilov, Bob Bobinson
    V-Ray renders and legion banners: Pacco


    Since the screenshots and renders were done I've made a number of changes:
    1) All legionaries' belts are now modelled in 3D rather than just texture
    2) Shoulder segments now modelled with more vertices to give better curve - you can see this in some of the screenshots
    3) Many faces have been improved
    4) More variety in pugio (dagger) scabbards
    5) Better textures for the cingulum (belt apron)
    Last edited by tone; April 21, 2010 at 12:22 AM.


    Under patronage of Spirit of Rob; Patron of Century X, Pacco, Cherryfunk, Leif Erikson.

  6. #6
    Banfred's Avatar Miles
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
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    Buffalo, NY
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    306

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    I just did a little dance.



    Last edited by Banfred; April 19, 2010 at 07:08 PM.
    Do you play Morrowind? Do you like old castles, ferocious hairy beasts, expansive wintry forests, and killing dark elves?

    Then check out Skyrim: Home of the Nords! A mod for TES III: Morrowind.

  7. #7
    GreatOne's Avatar Ordinarius
    Join Date
    Nov 2007
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    Serbia
    Posts
    797

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Yum! :p


  8. #8

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Wohoo! I knew it was worth to stay up this late

  9. #9
    legio_XX's Avatar Ordinarius
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    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    -My buddy and I watching the updates..
    "ANY person,country or race who use's religion as a pretext to kill or conquer deserves neither Religion nore Name"

  10. #10
    Emperor Caesar's Avatar Ordinarius
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    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    WOOHOO I HAVE WAITED FINALLY IT IS SO CLOSE TO REALEASE I LOVE THIS MOD

    GO ROME GO ROME GO ROME
    Avatar courtesy of Joar.

  11. #11

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Very Great job!!! Where can I find the pdf file? My internet isn't fast enough to show me all the screenshots.

  12. #12
    SimpleCourage47's Avatar Ducenarius
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    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    All i can say is absolutley mega , well done guys great work as always
    Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there, wondering, fearing, doubting, dreaming.

  13. #13

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Stellar work Guys.
    After reading and looking at it'll be a pity that the first time i see them in a campaign they will be crushed by my Armenian's.
    LIVE WITH HONOUR DIE IN PAIN -Retired freelancer pilot and clan leader [HFU]Fianna
    FavouriteFactions/1. Armenia/2.Carthage/3.Dacia/4.Pergamum


  14. #14

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Amazing!!


  15. #15
    Tesla's Avatar Senator
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    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    awesome, gonna take my time to read it all


  16. #16
    Emperor Caesar's Avatar Ordinarius
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    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Quote Originally Posted by Hannibulluis Cullis View Post
    Stellar work Guys.
    After reading and looking at it'll be a pity that the first time i see them in a campaign they will be crushed by my Armenian's.

    And when I meet the Armenians I will crush them with Rome and with Sparta.
    Avatar courtesy of Joar.

  17. #17

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Simply incredible, well done!

  18. #18

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    I'm speechless !!! What a briliand, stunning review!!! Really really loved all the history background you put in Tone! I don't have what to say! A very very BIG BIG THANKS to you and all the team for your wonderfull job!!
    "What you leave behind is not what is engraved in stone monuments,
    but what is woven into lives of others"
    Pericles 495-429 BC

  19. #19

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Its beautiful !!! The best mod on Roman Area !!! Congratulations !
    Rome II Total War by CA - all informations for French Fans here ==> http://www.pcinfos.fr/forum/viewtopi...&t=5035&p=6238
    RTW 1 fan - betrayed, disillusioned, disgusted with Rome 2. For me, a Real Rome 2 (and finish) is Rome 1 + graphics/IA/Diplomacy of Rome 2, or the actually Rome 2 which we add all the functions mentioned here :
    - Campaign ==> http://tinyurl.com/nuxbr9k
    - Graphics / animations ==> http://tinyurl.com/pcv73nj
    - Audio ==> http://tinyurl.com/omnklxa
    - GAMEPLAY ==> http://tinyurl.com/n9bhqmc
    - Battles ==> http://tinyurl.com/ov9422g

  20. #20

    Default Re: Roma Surrectum II Presents: The Roman Legions

    Awesome. I'm still amazed at all the historical info you've managed to procure. I apologize for sticking my nose in too early.

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