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Thread: (ChC)Iberia and its factions

  1. #21
    PedroL's Avatar Citizen
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    Default Re: (ChC)Iberia and its factions

    Quote Originally Posted by Sulphuristical View Post
    WoW PedroL you are an expert in Portuguese information.. I always learn a lot... and I didn't know (well I imagined, but never got it confirmed) that there was WAY more people in rural Portugal. I mean Lisbon had 60,000? And Tras os Montes 100.000? Seriously? That place is deserted now..
    In the middle age The north of Portugal had a huge population. Because of the fortifications (Castles, forts), they secure the population. Another thing was the Black plague (it killed a lot of population in the cities).
    Another thing was the emmigration to others Country's (Discouvery Age). Many people left on ships from Lisbon (Ribeira das Naus). Much of the population belong to Lisbon, which made the actual population (in that time) diminished.

    Brasil, Goa, Diu, Chaul, Cochim, Calcutá, Ceilão, Africa (Angola, Ceuta, Moçambique, Guiné, Cabo Verde, São Tomé, Arguim) etc



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  2. #22
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    Default Re: (ChC)Iberia and its factions

    Portuguese Units in the Batlle of Alcacer quibir (Portugal versus Morocco) 4 of August 1578.

    Date August 4, 1578
    Location Ksar-el-Kebir, Morocco
    Result Decisive Moroccan victory.

    Belligerents
    Portuguese Empire
    versus
    Sultanate of Morocco
    Ottoman Empire

    CommandersSebastian I of Portugal
    Abu Abdallah Mohammed II
    Abd Al-Malik
    Ahmad al-Mansur
    Ramazan Pasha, Ottoman Governor of Algiers

    Strength
    23,000 Portuguese (including: volunteers from Castile and Italy, mercenaries from Flanders and Germany) 3,000-6,000 Moorish allies 40 cannons

    25,000 (Moorish and Turkish volunteers) 15,000 Ottoman Janissaries 34 Turkish great cannons

    Casualties and losses Portugal Forces
    9,000 dead
    16,000 captured

    the Moroccos Force
    Unknown



    Movie of the Battle

    You can see several Portuguese Units (Cavalry "Acobertados - Heavy Cavalry"; "jinetes - Light Cavalry" - Infantry "Aventuros - Heavy Infantry (Elite), "Arquebusiers", "Company of Ordenanças - Similar to the Spanish Tercios", Artillary.).





    Last edited by PedroL; May 12, 2010 at 11:51 AM.
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  3. #23
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    Default Re: (ChC)Iberia and its factions

    Last edited by [Celtíbero]Mencey; May 13, 2010 at 05:01 AM.
    Spanish Medieval II TotalWar Hotseat Site: http://hmtw2.foroactivo.com/

  4. #24
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    Default Re: (ChC)Iberia and its factions


    Spanish Exploration and Early Colonization Activities in North America, 1513-1607

    A brief chronological summary of significant North American European exploration and colonization activities during the 1513-1609 period is included here as a basis for reference:


    D
    ATE / EVENT:

    1513:Discovery and initial documented European coastal exploration of "La Florida" by Juan Ponce de León

    1519-1521:
    Conquest of Aztec empire in México by Hernán Cortéz

    1521:
    Hostile Native Americans frustrate Juan Ponce de León's attempt to establish colony in Florida (probably San Carlos Bay area); León wounded by arrow in thigh and withdraws settlers; León dies shortly thereafter in Cuba from infected wound

    1520s: Much of coastal southeastern North America probed and investigated by Spanish slaving expeditions (slavers may have arrived in Florida as early as the first decade of the 1500s)

    1526:
    Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón establishes first named European settlement in what is now the United States, the short-lived colony of San Miguel de Guadalupe in coastal Georgia (September 29); settlement fails after less than two months

    1528: Pánfilo de Narváez lands near Tampa bay and begins ill-fated exodus from Florida to the Texas coast that will ultimately cost his life and the lives of all but four of the expedition's 300 original members

    1528-1536: Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and three other survivors of ill-fated Narváez expedition dwell among the natives in Texas until 1534 and then walk overland to find their countrymen, ultimately arriving in Mexico City on 24 June 1536

    1533:
    Dispatched by Hernán Cortéz, pilot Fortún Jiménez discovers the Baja peninsula and names the region California

    1539-1543: Hernando de Soto lands south of Tampa Bay and begins expedition that will take his force 3,700 miles through Florida, Georgia, North and South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas; after the loss of half their number and Soto himself, the survivors reach the safety of Río Pánuco in 1543

    1540-1542:
    Francisco Vásquez de Coronado leads army of mixed conquistadores, missionaries, Mexican Indian allies and 1,500 pack horses on fruitless venture to find fabled treasure cities of Cibola; in the process he opens pathways for later Spanish enterprises from New Mexico and Arizona to Kansas

    1542-1543:
    Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo reaches Pacific coast of present-day United States and explores region from southern California to Oregon

    1549:
    Dominican Fray Luis Cáncer de Barbastro and comrades killed during effort to peacefully befriend Indians in Tampa Bay area of Florida 1559-1561: Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano founds colony near present-day Pensacola, Florida; after a hurricane devastates settlement and other misadventures frustrate and ultimately doom effort, Spaniards abandon region in 15611562-1564: Jean Ribault commands French expedition consisting largely of Calvinist Huguenots to Florida; after initial landing at mouth of St. Johns River, settlers sail northward and establish colony and build Charlesfort at Port Royal harbor in present-day South Carolina. Ribault's arrest and detention in England as well as disturbances in France prevent resupply and reinforcement of Port Royal, and disheartened settlers abandon colony by 1564

    1564:
    French under command of René Goulaine de Laudonnière return to Florida and establish Fort Caroline near present-day Jacksonville on St. Johns River, but when supplies run short many colonists mutiny or desert; some of the deserters resort to piracy and are captured by the Spanish, who thus learn of the French intrusion into the heart of their shipping lanes
    1565: Jean Ribault named to replace Laudonnière and leads fleet to reinforce Fort Caroline; meanwhile, acting upon urgent orders from King Philip II of Spain, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés establishes San Agustín (St. Augustine), first permanent European settlement in present-day United States. After failing in attack on new Spanish outpost, Ribault's fleet wrecks along Florida coast in storm and Menéndez's soldiers slaughter both the French garrison at Fort Caroline (renaming it Fort San Mateo thereafter) and many survivors of Ribault's shipwrecked expeditionary force at Matanzas (place of slaughter) Inlet; also capture other members of Ribault's force near the wrecksite of their ship, the Trinité

    1566:
    Menéndez begins process of exploring much of Atlantic seaboard of modern United States and Canada and establishes colony of Santa Elena on present-day Parris Island, South Carolina to serve as capitol of Florida; Captain Juan Pardo dispatched from Santa Elena on first of two exploratory expeditions into North American interior, where he journeys to the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains in North Carolina and establishes small colony at Cuenca and post of Fort San Juan

    1567:
    Juan Pardo sets out on second inland expedition, this time reaching eastern Tennessee; fearing Indian aggression, Pardo reverses course and returns to Santa Elena

    1568:
    French aristocrat and privateer Dominique de Gourgues directs force that destroys Fort San Mateo (formerly Fort Caroline) in revenge for the massacre of Fort Caroline's defenders and members of Ribault's expedition

    1570: After the failure of similar attempts in southern Florida, group of Jesuits led by Father Juan Baptista de Segura establish small mission of Ajacán in Chesapeake Bay (Bahía de Santa Maria) region near later site of English settlement of Jamestown

    1571:
    Chesapeake Jesuits at Ajacán wiped out by Indians led by Luis de Velasco (A.K.A. Opechancanough, Massatamohtnock), Indian captive trained and educated by Spanish who later escaped to rejoin his people and become nemesis of Europeans settling in region until his death in 1644 at purported age of 100

    1576: Santa Elena temporarily abandoned as result of incompetent leadership, after death of Menéndez two years earlier, of Hernando de Miranda and threat of imminent Indian attack 1580s: Franciscan missionaries revisit and establish missions among Native Americans in San Felipe de Nuevo México (New Mexico) among Pueblos in region explored forty years earlier by Coronado

    1585: Sir Walter Raleigh recruits his cousin, Sir Richard Grenville, to lead a group of men to establish English colony on island of Roanoke off coast of North Carolina; colonists quickly antagonize natives in region and run short of supplies 1586: After sacking Santo Domingo and Cartagena, Sir Francis Drake raids, plunders, and razes town of St. Augustine; Drake also removes surviving, beleaguered English colonists from Roanoke

    1587: Santa Elena destroyed and permanently abandoned by colonists who leave to concentrate in St. Augustine after Drake's raid; Raleigh launches second attempt to establish colony at Roanoke, landing 117 additional settlers at site

    1588:
    Catastrophic defeat and destruction of half of Spanish "Invincible Armada" during failed attempt to invade England results in shift in European balance of power and beginning of decline in Spain's influence and prestige 1590: Delayed by events at home that prevent resupply or reinforcement of colony, English relief force returns to Roanoke to find settlement abandoned; members of "lost colony" never seen or heard from again

    1598: Juan de Oñate leads heavily armed force to take possession of New Mexico and to "pacify" the region's native inhabitants; he then proceeds to launch first of three expeditions to locate Pacific Ocean from newly conquered lands

    1607:
    First permanent English colony established at Jamestown, Virginia 1608: First permanent French colony in North America established by Samuel de Champlain at Québec on high bluff overlooking northern bank of St. Lawrence River in present-day Canada

    1609:
    Englishman Henry Hudson explores and names Hudson River while employed by Dutch, establishing basis for later Dutch occupation of New Amsterdam (later New York); Spanish colonists found Santa Fe in New Mexico


    Last edited by PedroL; May 14, 2010 at 02:39 PM.
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  5. #25
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    Default Re: (ChC)Iberia and its factions

    New Portuguese Building

    House of India

    House of India (Casa da India) on the right-- where all secret discovery documents were kept. It was destroyed by the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. The house on the left, with four towers was the Palace of the Corte Reais.

    PORTUGUESE DISCOVERY MARKERS
    Landmarkers:
    First period. High cross type


    During the first period of the discoveries (1415-1460) Portuguese navigators used as a landmarker, a wooden cross — (high type-cross) — characterized by a high stem. By implanting these high stem wooden crosses, the navigators laid claim to new lands for Portugal. This procedure was also of an essentially devout character and in accordance with the first motive of the explorations: The spreading of the Christian faith.


    Second period: Engraving of the cross and other Portuguese symbols on rocks. (Yellala rock near the Congo River.)

    During the second period of the discoveries the navigators marked the new possessions for Portugal by inscribing on rocks along the shores the following four elements:
    • (I) The Portuguese Royal Coat of Arms;
    • (2) The Portuguese Cross of Order of Christ;
    • (3) The Name of the Captain of the Expedition;
    • (4) The Date of the Discovery. Dighton Rock belongs to this period.
    Third period: Stone pillars called Padrões with all the symbols of the discoveries.



    In the third period of the discoveries, the navigators took with them stone pillars called Padrões, about 10-12 feet high, with the following four characteristics:
    • (1) The Portuguese Royal Coat of Arms; surmounted by
    • (2) the Portuguese Cross of Order of Christ (made either of stone or iron) ;
    • (3) The Name of the Captains
    • (4) The Date of Discovery. The navigators left Padrões along the Coast of Africa, South America, and Asia.
    Prince Henry and later the Kings of Portugal gave instructions to the navigators to bring back to them some material evidence that they had found new lands. Thus, different leaves, fruits, specimens of wood, birds, animals, and even natives were brought to Portugal.

    Before we analyze the inscriptions on Dighton Rock (or any other Portuguese land marker) we should review schematically the history of:
    • (1) The Portuguese Royal Coat of Arms;
    • (2) The Cross of Order of Christ;
    • (3) Type of lettering and numerals used during the Portuguese Discoveries.
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  6. #26
    PedroL's Avatar Citizen
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    Default Re: (ChC)Iberia and its factions

    Another Portuguese Unique Building


    TOMAR: HEADQUARTERS OF THE CROSS OF ORDER OF CHRIST

    The Order of Christ, with headquarters in Tomar, a city in the center of Portugal, supplied large sums of money to build the first naus and caravels, and contributed from its ranks the first courageous navigators.


    The exterior of the Charola Tower of the Convent of Tomar.


    The Chapter House window of the Convent of Tomar with the cross of the order of Christ.


    In 1417 Prince Henry the Navigator, at the age of 23, became the Administrator (and exerted the functions of Grand Master) of the Order of Christ. He began immediately to de vote all the resources of this military-religious order to realize his twofold dream of exploring the unknown Atlantic and finding the water route to India.

    ORIGIN OF THE CROSS OF THE ORDER OF CHRIST
    The Order of Christ evolved from the Order of Templars. This order was so called because of its headquarters at Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem. It was founded during the Crusades in 111 8, as a religious-military order to protect the pilgrims on their way to the Holy Land. The Popes granted special indulgences to those who participated in the Eastern Crusades. Because the Arabs were in possession of the Iberian Peninsula, the Pope granted the same indulgences to those who joined the Western Crusades.


    The Templars were the first crusaders to appear in the Iberian Peninsula. Even before the independence of Portugal, the knights had established themselves in Braga, in 1126. They played a decisive role in the independence of Portugal and also in the conquest of a large portion of territory from the Moors.

    It was in 1160 that the Templars began constructing the Castle of Tomar, inspired by the style of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, which was characterized by a round, eight-arch main altar.

    The Portuguese Templars also adopted as their Cross one with extremities terminated by four convex arcs radiating from the center of the circle. This type of Cross is typical in the original construction of the Convent of Tomar.

    After the Crusades, the Order of Templars had become very rich and powerful, posing a political threat to certain European sovereigns, especially the King of France. Philip the Fair, obtained by intrigue, the bull "Regrans in Coelis"(1308) from Clement V abolishing the Order of Templars.

    When news of the Papal decision arrived in Portugal, it was not well received. The Portuguese Templars had been the back bone of the fight for national independence and were exemplary in their morals.

    King Dinis, with shrewd maneuvering, convinced the Pope that a new military order was needed for Castro Marim, in the southeast frontier of Portugal, because the Moors from Granada posed a constant threat to the Christians. Pope John XXII therefore gave the Portuguese king permission to form the new Order of Christ by issuing the bull “Ad ea Exquibus” On March 14, 1319.

    The newly formed Order of Christ actually was comprised of the former members and property of the Order of Templars Further more, this new order paid homage and money tribute to the king rather than to the Pope as the Templars were obliged. To justify their existence, the Order made its headquarters in the Castle of Castro Marim but in 1 357. King Pedro I moved them permanently to Tomar.

    Today, the Order of Christ is the oldest order of knighthood in the world with the president of Portugal as its grand master.

    When the Knights of the Order of Christ built extensions at the Convent of Tomar, they adopted a new Cross derived from the Cross of the Templars. They cut off the convex arcs from the extremities of the Templars Cross.

    By the end of the fourteenth century, the extremities of the Cross of Order of Christ went through another transformation. The branches began to take the angular form, terminating with concave arcs.




    From Templar Cross to the first Cross of the Order of Christ


    Cross Of Portuguese Templars, 1160


    Cross of the order of Christ, 1357 with straight base extremity
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  7. #27
    PedroL's Avatar Citizen
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    Default Re: (ChC)Iberia and its factions

    The final metamorphosis of the Cross of the Order of Christ consisted in the establishment of the 45 degree extremities Also, the concave arcs became straight lines.
    After 1460 this fully developed form could be seen engraved tombs and documents years before the Corte Reais made their voyages to North America, They were simultaneously used on the different Portuguese landmarkers. As we shall demonstrate later, the Dighton Rock has inscribed on it the final trapezoidal form of the Cross.


    Order of Christ with concave base. 1400


    Second cross of the order of Christ (with concave base) 1400




    Both types of the Cross of the Order of Christ


    XV century Portuguese carvel showing 45 degree Cross on its sails
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  8. #28
    PedroL's Avatar Citizen
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    Default Re: (ChC)Iberia and its factions

    Kingdom Of Portugal / Reino de Portugal

    Smal History

    The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula. The count of Portugal, owing allegiance to the king of Leon, is on the Atlantic front in the unending struggle against the Muslims. His Christian duty and his own interests coincide in an urge to extend his frontier southwards.
    A victory over the Muslims at Ourique in 1139 is the occasion when Portugal is transformed from a county into a kingdom. The exultant soldiers proclaim their count, Afonso Henriques, as king. He begins calling himself Afonso I of Portugal.
    By 1143 the independence in the Reign of Afonso Henriques is accepted by his cousin and feudal overlord, the king of Leon. In 1179 the new kingdom is formally acknowledged by the pope.
    The reconquest of Portugal, down to the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, is completed in 1249 with the capture of Faro. In 1256 the capital of the kingdom is transferred from Coimbra to Lisbon. Two centuries later Lisbon's superb natural harbour is the launching point for Europe's new era of maritime exploration. By then the throne belongs to a new dynasty, the house of Avis.
    Europe's exploration of the world begins in the 15th century, pioneered by Portugal. The Portuguese sailors are under the control of Henry, one of the sons of John I. The name by which history knows him - Prince Henry the Navigator.
    An independent kingdom since 1143, Portugal established its continental frontiers in 1297 and is one of the oldest nations in Europe. The former world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake.

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  9. #29
    PedroL's Avatar Citizen
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    Default Re: (ChC)Iberia and its factions

    Portugal in Africa

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