Efes, known in English as Ephesus, is Turkey's most important antique city, and one of the best preserved and restored. Dating back 3,000 years, one can still stroll for hours along its streets, past temples, theatres, libraries, houses, and statues.
This was a place for cults. Cybele, the Goddess of Anatolia was replaced by Artemis for whom the most sumptuous temple was built in Efes considered to be one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
The library of Celsus, one of the most famous monument in Ephesus. Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus had been tribune in the Fourth legion Scythica, was consul in 92, and governor of Asia in 106-107, but never saw the building, which was erected by his son Caius Julius Aquila in 110. The library contained 12,000 scrolls.
The theater of Ephesus. Its construction was started in the hellenistic age, but the Ephesians made a beginning with its renewal during the reign of the emperor Claudius (41-54). Under Nero (54-68), the stage was constructed. The decorations can be dated to the reign of Trajan (98-117).It has a seating capacity about 24,000 people.
The commercial agora (market), constructed in the hellenistic period, but rebuilt several times by the Romans. Rebuilding was done during the reigns of Augustus, Nero, Caracalla, and in the fourth century. It proves that the market still had an important function for the hundreds of thousands Ephesians.
The commercial agora. It measured 110 x 110 meters and was surrounded by porticoes.
Gate of Mazaeus and Mithradates, built in 4 or 3 BCE and dedicated to the emperor Augustus. This was the monumental entrance to the commercial agora.
Statues of Heracles in the Street of the curetes, perhaps the site of a famous exorcism by Apollonius of Tyana. The statues were made in the fourth century but seem to replace an older monument.
The temple of Hadrian in the Street of the curetes. It was dedicated in 118, almost immediately after Hadrian's accession.