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Thread: Need Help with History Homework?

  1. #41
    The Alchemist's Avatar Wimmer
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Would like to know your opinion on this essay:

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Part C: Compare and Contrast



    The Chinese and Japanese reactions to western imperialism were initially similar, yet over time differ radically. Both societies initially opposed to foreign ideas and exchanges, severely restricting merchants ability to conduct trade. European nations intervened, using military force to open up these two societies to their merchants. While China was unable to adapt and thus became a nation carved up by foreign, Japan industrialized and, by the turn of the century, became a fully modern, imperialist state in its own right.
    The two East Asian societies Japan and China were highly similar in the beginning of the 19th century. They were both ruled by an aristocratic elite who were conservative in nature. Both had philosophies based upon Neo-Confucianism and Buddhism. Both also strongly distrusted foreigners and their ideas and practices. This distrust would result in severe trade restrictions. The Chinese, for example, would only allow alien merchants to conduct business in the port of Guangzhou, where only specially licensed Chinese merchants could actually trade with them. The Japanese had a parallel policy, where only Dutch ships could dock at the designated port of Nagasaki, where after the Tokugawa government monitored their movements closely. Foreign merchants greatly disliked these practices and put pressure on their governments to force better trading rights. Britain and China would go to war, for example, because of the illegal importation of opium into China by British traders (thus leading to the conflict being named the Opium Wars). The defeat of China in this struggle would be humiliating and the resulting trade treaty, which would give British merchants unprecedented power in China. Other nations would soon follow and China would be forced by several European nations to sign further trade concession treaties. By the middle of the century, France, Russia, Great Britain, and Germany all had their own respective spheres of influence, where they enjoyed great economic freedom at the expense of the Chinese. The apparent inability of the Government to rid the country of the foreigners would be one of the primary causes for the Qing dynasty's fall at the end of the century.
    Japan was like China in its isolationist policies, yet was far more strict at the same time. The government of Japan at the time, the Tokugawa Shogunate, was highly protectionist and would only allow a small quota of Dutch ships into the port of Nagasaki, where, like in China, a few specially licensed merchants conducted business with them. European nations greatly disliked this policy, who wanted to use Japan as a coaling station for their ships traveling to Chinese ports and as an actual trading destination. Embassies sent by European nations and a newly imperialist United States in the first half of the nineteenth century were continually rebuffed. American patience, however, was running thin and finally in 1843, sent an armed steamboat squadron under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry to force Japanese authorities to accept a trade treaty. Fearing the fire power of the Commodore's fleet and possible American retribution, the Tokugawa government signed the treaty, which was many identical to the one signed by China with Great Britain at the conclusion of the Opium Wars. Also like in China, treaties would be signed with foreign powers, giving them large economic concessions i terms of trade.




    From around 1860 onward, the Japanese and Chinese reactions to imperialism will begin to diverge. China would struggle under the weight of the trade concessions to industrialize and therefore be strong enough to reject them. However, the corruption and highly conservative views of government officials and even the members of imperial family would doom all efforts at modernization. A prime example is the Self Strengthening movement in 1870's. The main goal of this program was to quickly modernize China's infrastructure and, most importantly, its armed forces. The project was shut down by a new conservative ruler named Empress Dowager Cixi, who saw the program as a grand waste of money and an abandonment of central Confucian ideals. Another example is the reallocating of funds by Empress Dowager Cixi meant for the building of a modern navy to instead make a massive marble barge in her personal lake inside the Forbidden City. The failure of the government to modernize China would lead to further economic concessions later on to the Europeans and even the newly industrialized Japan.
    Japan, unlike China, was, due to rapid political change and economic subsidies, to become a fully industrialized society by the end of the century and a power equivalent to those of Europe. The origins of this change lies in the acceptance of the trade concessions by the Tokugawa administration, which the Japanese populace viewed as a sign that the current government could no longer effectively defend Japan. The samurais mounted a revolt and, soon afterward, a new constitutional government, named the Meiji government after the emperor calling the period Meiji or "enlightened rule", arose, with the newly restored emperor at its head and an advisory parliament. The government quickly began to modernize Japan, jump starting industry through direct loans and subsidies. Progress was fast, and, in a mere generation, the Meiji government had made Japan an industrial power. Progress was so rapid that Japan started their own imperial colonies in Korea and Manchuria after decisively defeating China in a brief war. The world recognized them as a great power after they successfully defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War.
    To summarize, China and Japan reacted alike in their response to western imperialism, yet would slowly go down different paths. China's corruption at all levels of governments would lead to China being militarily weak and open to exploitation by the western imperialist nations. Japan's ruling classes would do the opposite, becoming the driving force behind political change and economic industrialization. These developments would be critical to world history. Japan would not have been able to be an active participant of WWII if it had not been for the military modernization during the Meiji government. In China, political and economic weaknesses would lead to the overthrow of the Qing dynasty, the last Chinese empire. The implications would have been great if either had reacted differently to western pressure during the nineteenth century.

  2. #42
    Town Watch's Avatar Pili Prior
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Not bad. In fact quite good. Not sure what the exact assignment was, but you seemed to answer it quite well. I would perhaps have named and described the relevant wars a bit more accurately, I dunno.

    Maybe also the specific Japanese territorial gains: Japan claimed the Kurile Islands for themselves (which Russia currently occupies coz of ww2)

    (1894-95, Formosa, Port Arthur to Japan, however western powers forced Japan to give up Port Arthur, and Russians got it)
    (1904-05 Russo-Japanese War, Tshushima Strait etc... peace was made with USA as an intermediary, and Russia gave Port Arthur to Japan and had to pay war reparations)
    (with Russian and Chinese influence diminished in Korea due to Japan's successful wars, Japan annexes Korea in 1910)


    I think empress Cixi had usurped the previous emperor (she had been the emperor's second wife or something) and this rebellion was called Boxer Rebellion, which might be important to name specifically, as you did with the opium wars. I also remember that story about Cixi's naval re-armament story, our teacher told us about it too, nice detail there

    religiously there also began a shift to Shintoism right from the Meiji- restoration, so in that way Japan also started to veer away from chinese religions. So shintoism really was the spiritual basis of the Meiji era, also reinforced by the Emperor, and it eventually replaced buddhism as official state religion. Naturally shintoism was really the only religion by ww2 and pretty much by the Showa era, emperor cult you know...
    Last edited by Town Watch; May 29, 2009 at 06:31 PM.
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  3. #43
    Godless Pickle's Avatar Pili Prior
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Hey- I was looking for a good detailed book on the Enlightenment theory and what was the concept behind it. Any recommendations? I have to write up a script for a debate in a few weeks, and its on the reforms from Renaissance to Victorian age(s). Thanks.
    Last edited by Godless Pickle; May 29, 2009 at 10:10 PM.

  4. #44
    Nikos's Avatar Stronger and wiser
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    http://books.google.com/books?id=u5C...ient=firefox-a

    Looks good to me, it explains all of the philosopher's positions.
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  5. #45
    Godless Pickle's Avatar Pili Prior
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Thanks Nikos, off to check it out at the local library. Hopefully its the trick.

  6. #46
    Nikos's Avatar Stronger and wiser
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Quote Originally Posted by Godless Pickle View Post
    Thanks Nikos, off to check it out at the local library. Hopefully its the trick.
    let me know if it helps!
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  7. #47
    Kolibrii's Avatar Murakawa
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    I have a small group of questions that i need answered before thursday. When the romans invaded Britain for the the first time under (under ceasar right?) was Brittany a part of the Roman Empire or was it indeependent from the empire until the second invasion (under Caligula right?) or the third invasion (by Claudia right?).

    Also what was London founded for in the first place, a supply base, a military base or a regular settlement?

    Did the latin lanuage and culture influence the later english state and when was the first English state created and was London the first Capital?

    When was London renamed from Londinum (sp?) to the more modern name.

    Ohh and a side question not really need but still i am curious was the Isle of Mann ever taken by the Romans?

    Thank you for any help you may provide.

  8. #48
    Wolfcp11's Avatar Princeps Prior
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Brittany was taken by the Romans before the invasion of Britain. London was just a Roman village that grew pretty big and eventually became the capital. It was pretty much forgotten after the Romans pulled out, but then the Anglo-Saxons rebuilt it and ta-da; London.

    I doubt the Romans bothered with the Isle of Man, but I am not sure.
    Last edited by Wolfcp11; June 01, 2009 at 06:02 PM.
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  9. #49
    Nikos's Avatar Stronger and wiser
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Did the latin lanuage and culture influence the later english state and when was the first English state created and was London the first Capital?
    Define "English state". There were many small princedoms in post roman Britain. Sometimes a Germanic warlord would gain enough power to claim the title "Bretwalda" or high king. the Anglo-Saxons formed these states after driving out the Romano British to Wales.

    After the tumult caused by the viking raids and the Danelaw, the English were finally united by King Athelstan the glorious in 927 AD. Athelstan's forefathers had begun a conquest of the various English kingdoms which was concluded during his reign.
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  10. #50
    Dust be in Thy Mouth, Infidel!'s Avatar Chugen
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Caesar invaded in late 54BC, and again sometime later.
    "The desire for safety stands against every great and noble enterprise." Tacitus on Health & Safety
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  11. #51
    Genius of the Restoration's Avatar You beaut and magical
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    London arose due to its location. I believe it is located at a ford of the Thames so a lot of traffic passed through it. It would have been significant militarily as well as the centre for trade going north and up the river

  12. #52
    Julius Barca the Great's Avatar Sōkō no yari
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Hey all. I'm currently writing a paper on Pytheas (The Greek explorer or the 4th century B.C.). I am having trouble finding very detailed information on his fleet and or crew. I found information on his journey, what he discovered, etc. But I need information on how many ships he took, what technological advantages he used, and any special crewmen he may have taken along. Any help you can offer would be great!
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  13. #53
    frontier-auxilia's Avatar Pili
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Hey guys im doing a course on Alexander the Great, can anyone here provide me with a few books that give an insightful introduction into him? It be helpful if these books provide analysis for the historical personalities that written about him for it is difficult to study history without knowing about the ppls who gave us the puzzles.

  14. #54
    Nikos's Avatar Stronger and wiser
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Quote Originally Posted by frontier-auxilia View Post
    Hey guys im doing a course on Alexander the Great, can anyone here provide me with a few books that give an insightful introduction into him? It be helpful if these books provide analysis for the historical personalities that written about him for it is difficult to study history without knowing about the ppls who gave us the puzzles.
    Here is Arrian's The campaigns of Alexander . The translator has a preface on Arrian which deals with his life. A very good read with lots of info.
    http://books.google.com/books?id=o2N...nder+the+great

    This is a good one too with excerpts from many ancient historians.
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  15. #55
    frontier-auxilia's Avatar Pili
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    AHH NIKOS YOU DA MAN!!!! However i hearded that Arrian is more interested in writing alexander up as a mightier then thou General much as Plutarch wanted a good story with a moral lecture and Ammianus wanted his to be sold :O.

    Anyway i give the thing a read before passing too much judgement.

  16. #56
    Nikos's Avatar Stronger and wiser
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Quote Originally Posted by frontier-auxilia View Post
    AHH NIKOS YOU DA MAN!!!! However i hearded that Arrian is more interested in writing alexander up as a mightier then thou General much as Plutarch wanted a good story with a moral lecture and Ammianus wanted his to be sold :O.

    Anyway i give the thing a read before passing too much judgement.
    No problem, with all Ancient historians, you need to be able to seperate the exaggerated from fact. For some reason my second link didn't post in the thread, here it is again!
    http://books.google.com/books?id=Mi9...ient=firefox-a

    This book contains material from many Ancient Authors, not just Arrian.
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  17. #57
    ShADoW's Avatar Equites
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    delete
    Last edited by ShADoW; July 15, 2009 at 09:25 PM.


  18. #58
    jjdabuckeye's Avatar Yoshihara
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Alright i've got a question for my AP Us history class. Over the summer we had to read certain chapters from the book The Radicalism of the American Revolution by Gordon S. Wood, and then answer some questions our teacher gave us. One of the questions regarding to Chapter 1- Hierarchy is:

    How would you describe the graded society in the first half of the eighteenth century in colonial America?

    I've read the book already and I've read that chapter 2 times but I've got no idea on the answer.

  19. #59
    Dorkhan's Avatar Ikko-Ikki
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Not exactly homework, but had a debate with my friends on this:
    Why did Hitler think aryans are the master race, even though he was not one of them?
    Why did he hate Jews instead of, for example, Buddhists? [Answered]
    Last edited by Dorkhan; July 25, 2009 at 05:12 AM.

  20. #60
    Carl von Döbeln's Avatar Crossing the Rubicon
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    Default Re: Need Help with History Homework?

    Why did he hate Jews instead of, for example, Buddhists?
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antisemitism

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