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Thread: Research Thread: The Huns

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    Default Research Thread: The Huns

    Charaton was said to be the first of the kings of the Huns from c. 410 - 422.

    In 412, Charaton received the Byzantian ambassador Olimpodors. It is belived that Charaton ruled mostly the eastern part of the Hunnic Empire.

    Charaton was a brother of Octar, Mundzuk and Rua and Uncle of Bleda and Attila the Hun.


    Octar was a Hunnic ruler. His rule dates are unknown. He succeeded Charaton. Octar was said to be the second king of the Huns.
    Octar may be identical with Uptar, a Hunnic ruler who died on the eve of a planned attack on the eastern Burgundians in 430 (according to the historian Socrates of Constantinople).

    Octar was a brother of Charaton, Mundzuk and Rua and Uncle of Bleda and Attila the Hun.


    Mundzuk was a Hunnic prince, and brother of Rugila as Rua, the Hunnic Ruler. Mundzuk was also father of Attila the Hun and Bleda.


    Rugila also referred to as, Ruga and Rua, was a warlord who was a major factor in the Huns' early victories over the Roman Empire. Under his command, the Huns invaded Roman territory and, after threatening the capitol, managed to take tribute from the Roman emperor of the time. He also forced the Roman Empire to give up all the rogue Hunnish soldiers they had acquired over the years. This was a big event, because the Roman Empire had come to rely on all of their Hunnish soldiers. His most important act, though was that he united the Huns under his sole kingship by 432. In 434, he was succeeded by his nephews Attila and Bleda. He served as an important forerunner to Attila the Hun during the fifth century AD.



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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    Bleda (c. 390-445) was a Hun. As nephews to Rugila as Rua, Bleda and his younger brother Attila succeeded him to the throne. His reign lasted for eleven years until his death. While it has been speculated throughout history that Attila murdered him on a hunting trip, no one knows how he died. One of the few things known about Bleda is that, after the great Hun campaign of 441, he acquired a Moorish dwarf named Zerco. Bleda was highly amused by Zerco, and went so far as to make a suit of armor for the dwarf so that Zerco could accompany him on campaign.


    Bleda (Buda) and Attila's rule

    By 432 the Huns were united under Rugila as Rua. His death in 434 left his nephews Bleda and Attila (the sons of his brother Mundzuk) in control over all the united Hun tribes. At the time of their accession, the Huns were bargaining with Byzantine emperor Theodosius II's envoys over the return of several renegade tribes who had taken refuge within the Byzantine Empire. The following year Attila and Bleda met with the imperial legation at Margus (present-day Požarevac) and, all seated on horseback in the Hunnic manner, negotiated a successful treaty: the Romans agreed not only to return the fugitive tribes (who had been a welcome aid against the Vandals), but also to double their previous tribute of 350 Roman pounds (ca. 114.5 kg) of gold, open their markets to Hunnish traders, and pay a ransom of eight solidi for each Roman taken prisoner by the Huns. The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the empire and returned to their home, perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire. Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinople, building the city's first sea wall, and to build up his border defenses along the Danube.

    The Huns remained out of Roman sight for the next five years as they tried to invade the Persian Empire. A defeat in Armenia caused them to abandon this attempt and return their attentions to Europe. In 440 they reappeared on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty. Attila and Bleda threatened further war, claiming that the Romans had failed to fulfill their treaty obligations and that the bishop of Margus had crossed the Danube to ransack and desecrate the royal Hun graves on the Danube's north bank. They crossed the Danube and laid waste to Illyrian cities and forts on the river, among them, according to Priscus, Viminacium, which was a city of the Moesians in Illyria. Their advance began at Margus, for when the Romans discussed handing over the offending bishop, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them.

    Theodosius had stripped the river's defenses in response to the Vandal Gaiseric's capture of Carthage in 440 and the Sassanid Yazdegerd II's invasion of Armenia in 441. This left Attila and Bleda a clear path through Illyria into the Balkans, which they invaded in 441. The Hunnish army, having sacked Margus and Viminacium, took Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Sirmium before halting. A lull followed in 442 and during this time Theodosius recalled his troops from North Africa and ordered a large new issue of coins to finance operations against the Huns. Having made these preparations, he thought it safe to refuse the Hunnish kings' demands.

    Attila and Bleda responded by renewing their campaign in 443. Striking along the Danube, they overran the military centers of Ratiaria and successfully besieged Naissus (modern Niš) with battering rams and rolling towers (military sophistication that was new to the Hun repertory), then pushing along the Nisava they took Serdica (Sofia), Philippopolis (Plovdiv) and Arcadiopolis (Luleburgaz). They encountered and destroyed the Roman force outside Constantinople and were only halted by their lack of siege equipment capable of breaching the city's massive walls. Theodosius admitted defeat and sent the court official Anatolius to negotiate peace terms, which were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (ca. 1,963 kg) of gold as punishment for having disobeyed the terms of the treaty during the invasion; the yearly tribute was tripled, rising to 2,100 Roman pounds (ca. 687 kg) in gold; and the ransom for each Roman prisoner rose to twelve solidi.

    Their demands met for a time, the Hun kings withdrew into the interior of their empire. According to Jordanes (following Priscus), sometime during the peace following the Huns' withdrawal from Byzantium (probably around 445), Bleda died (killed by his younger brother, according to the classical sources), and Attila took the throne for himself.



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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    Attila the Hun


    Attila - The Scourge of God


    Attila (406453), also known as Attila the Hun or the Scourge of God, was leader of the Huns from 434 until his death. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea (see map below). During his rule he was one of the most fearsome of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires' enemies: he invaded the Balkans twice, he marched through Gaul (modern France) as far as Orleans before being defeated at the Battle of Chalons. He refrained from attacking either Constantinople or Rome. His propaganda, that the Sword of Attila had come to his hand by miraculous means, was reported by the Roman Priscus.

    In much of Western Europe, he is remembered as the epitome of cruelty and rapacity. In contrast, some histories and Chronicles lionize him as a great and noble king, and he plays major roles in three Norse sagas.


    Background

    The origin of the Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries; however it can be said with general agreement that they may have been a confederation of Central Asian and European tribes, many of them nomadic horsemen. Many experts think they may have been Turkic people, descended from the Xiongnu tribes that menaced China as early as the 5th century BC. The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huangdi, built part of the Great Wall to keep the Xiongnu out.

    Their united power appeared or began to form in Europe in the 400s. They achieved military superiority over their neighbours by their readiness for battle, unusual mobility, and weapons, including the composite bow.

    An odd fact is that Attila as well as his family seemed to have used Gothic surnames, probably due to Germanic influences in the area.


    Shared kingship

    The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea - albeit not simultaneously, as the Huns first appeared in Southern Russia and later moved to Central Europe



    The death of Rugila (also known as Rua or Ruga) in 434 left his nephews Attila Dragomer and Bleda (also known as Buda), the sons of his brother Mundzuk, in control over all the united Hun tribes. At the time of their accession, the Huns were bargaining with Byzantine emperor Theodosius II's envoys over the return of several renegades (possibly Hunnic nobles not in agreement with the brothers' leadership) who had taken refuge within the Byzantine Empire. The following year Attila and Bleda met with the imperial legation at Margus (present-day Požarevac) and, all seated on horseback in the Hunnic manner, negotiated a successful treaty: the Romans agreed not only to return the fugitives, but also to double their previous tribute of 350 Roman pounds (ca. 114.5 kg) of gold, open their markets to Hunnish traders, and pay a ransom of eight solidi for each Roman taken prisoner by the Huns. The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the empire and returned to their home in the Hungarian Great Plain, perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire. Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinople, building the city's first sea wall, and to build up his border defences along the Danube.

    The Huns remained out of Roman sight for the next few years as a Hunnic force invaded the Persian Empire. A defeat in Armenia by the Sassanid Persians caused them to abandon this attempt and return their attentions to Europe. In 440 they reappeared in force on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty. Crossing the Danube they laid waste to Illyrian cities and forts on the river, among them, according to Priscus, Viminacium, which was a city of the Moesians in Illyria. Their advance began at Margus, for when the Romans discussed handing over the offending bishop, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them.

    As Theodosius had conquered the river's defences, the Vandals, under the leadership of Geiseric, captured the Western Roman province of Africa with its capital of Carthage in 440 and the Sassanid Shah Yazdegerd II invaded Armenia in 441. Stripping the Balkan defenses of forces requested by the West Romans, in order to launch an attack on the Vandals in Africa (which was the richest province of the Western empire and a main source of the food supply of Rome) left Attila and Bleda a clear path through Illyria into the Balkans, which they invaded in 441. The Hunnish army, having sacked Margus and Viminacium, took Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Sirmium before halting. A lull followed in 442 and during this time Theodosius recalled his troops from Sicily and ordered a large new issue of coins to finance operations against the Huns. Having made these preparations, he thought it safe to refuse the Hunnish kings' demands.

    Attila responded with a campaign in 443. Striking along the Danube, the Huns overran the military centres of Ratiara and successfully besieged Naissus (modern Niš) with battering rams and rolling towers—military sophistication that was new to the Hun repertoire—then pushing along the Nisava they took Serdica (Sofia), Philippopolis (Plovdiv), and Arcadiopolis. They encountered and destroyed the Roman army outside Constantinople and were stopped by the double walls of the Eastern capital. A second army was defeated near Callipolis (modern Gallipoli) and Theodosius, now without any armed forces to respond, admitting defeat, sent the court official Anatolius to negotiate peace terms, which were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (ca. 1,963 kg) of gold as punishment for having disobeyed the terms of the treaty during the invasion; the yearly tribute was tripled, rising to 2,100 Roman pounds (ca. 687 kg) in gold; and the ransom for each Roman prisoner rose to 12 solidi.

    Their demands met for a time, the Hun kings withdrew into the interior of their empire. According to Jordanes (following Priscus), sometime during the peace following the Huns' withdrawal from Byzantium (probably around 445), Bleda died (killed by his brother, according to the classical sources), and Attila took the throne for himself.


    Sole ruler

    In 447 Attila again rode south into the empire through Moesia. The Roman army under the Gothic magister militum Arnegisclus met him in the Battle of the Utus and was defeated, though not without inflicting heavy losses. The Huns were left unopposed and rampaged through the Balkans as far as Thermopylae. Constantinople itself was saved by the intervention of the prefect Flavius Constantinus who organized the reconstruction of the walls that had been previously damaged by earthquakes, and, in some places, to construct a new line of fortification in front of the old. An account of this invasion survives:

    The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace, became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured and Constantinople almost came into danger and most men fled from it. … And there were so many murders and blood-lettings that the dead could not be numbered. Ay, for they took captive the churches and monasteries and slew the monks and maidens in great numbers.


    Attila in the west

    In 450 Attila had proclaimed his intent to attack the powerful Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse, making an alliance with Emperor Valentinian III in order to do so. He had previously been on good terms with the Western Roman Empire and its de facto ruler Flavius Aëtius. Aëtius had spent a brief exile among the Huns in 433, and the troops Attila provided against the Goths and Bagaudae had helped earn him the largely honorary title of magister militum in the west. The gifts and diplomatic efforts of Geiseric, who opposed and feared the Visigoths, may also have influenced Attila's plans.

    However Valentinian's sister was Honoria, who, in order to escape her forced betrothal to a Roman senator, had sent the Hunnish king a plea for help — and her engagement ring — in the spring of 450. Though Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, Attila chose to interpret her message as such. He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry. When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of his mother Galla Placidia convinced him to exile, rather than kill, Honoria. He also wrote to Attila strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal. Attila, not convinced, sent an emissary to Ravenna to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his.


    Attila also interfered in a succession struggle after the death of a Frankish ruler. Attila supported the elder son, while Aëtius supported the younger.

    Attila gathered his vassals—Gepids, Ostrogoths, Rugians, Scirians, Heruls, Thuringians, Alans, Burgundians, among others and began his march west. In 451 he arrived in Belgica with an army exaggerated by Jordanes to half a million strong. J.B. Bury believes that Attila's intent, by the time he marched west, was to extend his kingdom — already the strongest on the continent — across Gaul to the Atlantic Ocean.

    On April 7, he captured Metz. Other cities attacked can be determined by the hagiographic vitae written to commemorate their bishops: Nicasius was slaughtered before the altar of his church in Rheims; Servatus is alleged to have saved Tongeren with his prayers, as Saint Genevieve is to have saved Paris. Lupus, bishop of Troyes, is also credited with saving his city by meeting Attila in person.

    Aëtius moved to oppose Attila, gathering troops from among the Franks, the Burgundians, and the Celts. A mission by Avitus, and Attila's continued westward advance, convinced the Visigoth king Theodoric I (Theodorid) to ally with the Romans. The combined armies reached Orleans ahead of Attila, thus checking and turning back the Hunnish advance. Aëtius gave chase and caught the Huns at a place usually assumed to be near Catalaunum (modern Châlons-en-Champagne). The two armies clashed in the Battle of Chalons, whose outcome is commonly considered to be a Pyrrhic victory for the Visigothic-Roman alliance. Theodoric was killed in the fighting and Aëtius failed to press his advantage, according to Edward Gibbon and Edward Creasy because he feared the consequences of an overwhelming Visogothic triumph as much as he did a defeat. From Aëtius' point of view, the best outcome was what occurred: Theodoric died, Attila was in retreat and disarray, and the Romans had the benefit of appearing victorious.


    Invasion of Italy and death

    Attila returned in 452 to claim his marriage to Honoria anew, invading and ravaging Italy along the way. The city of Venice was founded as a result of these attacks when the residents fled to small islands in the Venetian Lagoon. His army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileia completely, leaving no trace of it behind. Legend has it he built a castle on top of a hill north of Aquileia to watch the city burn, thus founding the town of Udine, where the castle can still be found. Aëtius, who lacked the strength to offer battle, managed to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the River Po. By this point disease may have broken out in Attila's camp, thus helping to stop his invasion.

    At the wish of Emperor Valentinian III, Pope Leo I, accompanied by the Consul Avienus and the Prefect Trigetius, met Attila at Mincio in the vicinity of Mantua, and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the emperor. Prosper of Aquitaine gives a short, reliable description of the historic meeting. The later anonymous account, a pious "fable which has been represented by the pencil of Raphael and the chisel of Algardi" (as Gibbon called it) says that the Pope, aided by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, convinced him to turn away from the city, promising Attila that if he left in peace, one of his successors would receive a holy crown. Priscus reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric—who died shortly after sacking Rome in 410—gave him pause.

    After Attila left Italy and returned to his palace across the Danube, he planned to strike at Constantinople again and reclaim the tribute which Marcian had cut off. (Marcian was the successor of Theodosius and had ceased paying tribute in late 450 while Attila was occupied in the west; multiple invasions by the Huns and others had left the Balkans with little to plunder.) However Attila died in the early months of 453. The conventional account, from Priscus, says that at a feast celebrating his latest marriage to the beautiful and young Ildico (if uncorrupted, the name suggests a Gothic origin) he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked to death in a stupor. An alternative theory is that he succumbed to internal bleeding after heavy drinking or a condition called esophageal varices, where a hemorrhoid in the lower part of the esophagus ruptures leaving the person to choke on his/her own blood.

    Another account of his death, first recorded 80 years after the events by the Roman chronicler Count Marcellinus, reports that "Attila, King of the Huns and ravager of the provinces of Europe, was pierced by the hand and blade of his wife." The Volsunga saga and the Poetic Edda also claim that King Atli (Attila) died at the hands of his wife, Gudrun. Most scholars reject these accounts as no more than hear-say, preferring instead the account given by Attila's contemporary Priscus. Priscus' version, however, has recently come under renewed scrutiny by Michael A. Babcock. Based on detailed philological analysis, Babcock concludes that the account of natural death, given by Priscus, was an ecclesiastical "cover story" and that Emperor Marcian (who ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from 450-457) was the political force behind Attila's death.

    Jordanes says, "the greatest of all warriors should be mourned with no feminine lamentations and with no tears, but with the blood of men." His horsemen galloped in circles around the silken tent where Attila lay in state, singing in his dirge, according to Cassiodorus and Jordanes, "Who can rate this as death, when none believes it calls for vengeance?" then celebrated a strava (lamentation) over his burial place with great feasting. Legend says that he was laid to rest in a triple coffin made of gold, silver, and iron, along with some of the spoils of his conquests. His men diverted a section of the river Tisza, buried the coffin under the riverbed, and then were killed to keep the exact location a secret.

    His sons Ellac (his appointed successor), Dengizich, and Ernakh fought over the division of his legacy, specifically which vassal kings would belong to which brother. As a consequence they were divided, defeated and scattered the following year in the Battle of Nedao by the Ostrogoths and the Gepids under Ardaric. According to Jordanes, Ardaric, who was once Attila's most prized chieftain, turned against the feuding brothers when he felt that they were treating the nations they ruled as slaves.

    Attila's many children and relatives are known by name and some even by deeds, but soon valid genealogical sources all but dry up and there seems to be no verifiable way to trace Attila's descendants. This hasn't stopped many genealogists from attempting to reconstruct a valid line of descent for various medieval rulers. One of the most credible claims has been that of the tsars of Bulgaria (see Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans). A popular, but ultimately unconfirmed attempt tries to relate Attila to Charlemagne (see Attila the Hun to Charlemagne).


    Appearance, character, and name

    There is no surviving first-person account of Attila's appearance. There is, however, a possible second-hand source, provided by Jordanes, who claimed Priscus described Attila as:

    short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and tanned skin, showing evidence of his origin.


    Attila is known in Western history and tradition as the grim flagellum dei (Latin: "Scourge of God"), and his name has become a byword for cruelty and barbarism. Some of this may have arisen from confusion between him and later steppe warlords such as Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. All are considered to be cruel, clever, and blood-thirsty lovers of battle and pillage. The reality of his character is probably more complex. The Huns of Attila's era had been mingling with Roman civilisation for some time, largely through the Germanic foederati of the border, so that by the time of Theodosius's embassy in 448 Priscus could identify two primary languages among the Huns, Gothic and Hunnic, with some people knowing Latin and Greek. Priscus also recounts his meeting with an eastern Roman captive who had so fully assimilated into the Huns' way of life that he had no desire to return to his former country, and the Byzantine historian's description of Attila's humility and simplicity is unambiguous in its admiration.

    The origin of Attila's name is not known with confidence, because very little is known about Hunnic names. In the Hunnic language Danube-Bulgarian, the etymology "oceanic (universal) [ruler]" has been proposed. Also the word possibly originates from Turkic Atyl/Atal/Atil/Itil meaning water, river (also, ancient name of Volga river) with adjective suffix -ly. (Compare also Turkic medieval notable title atalyk - "senior as father"). This is correlating to the fact that the Polish Chronicle is using Attila's name as Aquila bearing the Latin aqua inside. Others believe that the name may have connection to Hungarian Ítélet meaning judgement or Old-Turkic via the loandword in Gothic (or Gepid) ata ("father") and the diminutive suffix -ila. Attila was not a rare name in Central Europe prior to Attila making his mark on history; the historical record shows numerous persons with the name preceding him. 'Attila' has many variants: Atli and Atle in Norse, Ætla, Attle and Atlee in English, Attila/Atilla/Etele in Hungarian (all the three name variants are used in Hungary; Attila is the most popular variant), Etzel in modern German or Attila, Atila or Atilla in modern Turkish.



    Attila has been portrayed in various ways, sometimes as a noble ruler, sometimes as a cruel barbarian.



    Some Pictures of Huns

    Hun Princess




    Hun Horseman







    Attila



    Founder of Asian Huns First Hun
    Tou-Man ( Tumen, Tuman, Teoman )



    Mao-Tun, son of Tou-Man
    Mao-Tun, ( Mete Khan, Oghuz Khan, Modu Shanyu, Modun, Mao-Dun )




    Modu Shanyu ( Mete Khan / Oghuz Khan ) - Huns Army







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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    European Huns / Western Huns ::


    Charaton was said to be the first of the kings of the Huns from c. 410 - 422.

    In 412, Charaton received the Byzantian ambassador Olimpodors. It is belived that Charaton ruled mostly the eastern part of the Hunnic Empire.

    Charaton was a brother of Octar, Mundzuk and Rua and Uncle of Bleda and Attila the Hun.


    Octar was a Hunnic ruler. His rule dates are unknown. He succeeded Charaton. Octar was said to be the second king of the Huns.
    Octar may be identical with Uptar, a Hunnic ruler who died on the eve of a planned attack on the eastern Burgundians in 430 (according to the historian Socrates of Constantinople).

    Octar was a brother of Charaton, Mundzuk and Rua and Uncle of Bleda and Attila the Hun.


    Mundzuk was a Hunnic prince, and brother of Rugila as Rua, the Hunnic Ruler. Mundzuk was also father of Attila the Hun and Bleda.


    Rugila also referred to as, Ruga and Rua



    two little other Brothers ::

    Aibars and Ogedai












    the HUNS



    1766 BC-336 AD

    DATELINE
    Time Events
    1766 BC Eventually recorded Chinese traditions tell of Kia, 17th member of old Chinese Hia dynasty, dethroned due to evil ways. His son Sunni(Sünni) went with 500 members of his Hia nationality to his Hun relatives. Hia still has many common words with Altaic languages
    1766 BC Oldest Turkic words are in Chinese annual chronicles noting cultural and political events. Hun (Hsiung-nu) words tanry, kut, byoryu, ordu, tug, kylych etc are oldest monuments of Turkish language. State rulers’ endoethnonym is Hun, Turkic "man, male, people"
    1390 BC First elements of Hun state in highlands of Ordos
    1200 BC First Hun state in highlands of Ordos
    800 BC Sword myths traditions are all early Anatolian, are also found in Hun and Magyar traditions and mentioned by Herodotus amongst early Scythians
    685 BC 685 - 643 BC Rule in Tsi of Huan - hun
    679 BC 679 BC Huan - hun organizes a congress of rulers (i.e. kurultai) in Tsi, taking that right from Chjou
    659 BC 659 - 621 Rule of Mu-hun in Tsin
    500 BC
    Persepolis inscription text is "Darius Hystapes (522-486) rex popularum bonorum posui. Hi adorationem igni mihi attulere: Choana, Media, Babilon, Asyria, Guthrata, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sapardia [Sabir], Hunae [European, Caucasian ?]."
    450 BC Herodotus World Map (ca. 450 B.C.) shows Agathirsi (Agach-ir=Türk. forest+people), Scythians and Massagets, Malanchleni, Neuri, Budini and Geloni, Thissagets and Jurcae
    450 BC Herodotus (IV, 105) reports about wolf cult at Neuri (Nevrs) along Hypanis (Danube) and W. of Borisphen (Buri-Chay = Dnieper) to Tyras (Dniester) together with Budins (Tr. "people, tribe, subjects"). Later wolf was on gold buckle fr Niconia by Dniester
    318 BC First historical document connected with Huns is Chinese-Hun treaty signed in 318 BC
    300 BC In Chinese sources Alans are one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favored by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century B.C. (ToOD 146). ( Turk. alan ‘field’, akin to 'fieldman', 'polyane', 'polovets')
    300 BC Earliest occurrence of Parthian name in form of Aparnoi or Parnoi in Turan. According to Armenian historians who served Armenian dynasty of Parthian origin, Parthian Arsac who founded dynasty was of white Hun (Abdaly/Ephtalite) origin
    246 BC Cheng (246-?) of T'sin dynasty, in twenty-sixth year of his reign assumed title of Shi Hwang-ti (first universal emperor), from then on, Chaina sovereign called Wang. Cheng consolidated 4 feudal states into China, and divided empire into thirty-six kiun
    246 BC Cheng (246-?) of T'sin dynasty built great wall of China (Wan-li-ch'ang-ch'eng, or wall ten thousand lis long), which extends from Chi-li to Kan-su, to stop incursions of Huns (Hiung-nu)
    290 BC Hun state consists of 24 clans, some of them: Kuyan (Jack rabbit) Lan (Orchard) Suybu (West Tribe) Suylyanti Tsulin Taychi Uyti Tsetszuy…
    290 BC Hun state leader is titled Great Shanyuy - "Chenli gydu shanyuy" - "Son of endless sky" Succession is from father to eldest son
    230 BC Touman (Tumen, 240 - 210 BC), of clan Suylyanti with a bull totem establishes Hunnic Empire
    214 BC Chinese ruler Si Huang Ti (259-210 BC) builds Great Chinese Wall against attacks of Huns
    209 BC Touman died (Tumen, 240 - 209 BC), accession to throne of Maotun (Batur, 210 - 174 BC), founder of Hun Empire. Expansion of Hun Empire
    204 BC HUN EMPIRE
    204 B.C - 216 A.D
    Area - At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea; (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
    Founder - Mete (Bagatir, Maotun, Batur)
    200 BC Emergence of Huns on western borders of China
    177 BC Mete Khan (Maotun) letter to Chinese government describes that 26 nations are in Turkish sate and all of them became "nations stretching bow-string", or Huns
    174 BC Kok-khan (174-161 BC), Huns attack Ku Süns, i.e. White Huns (Kushans, Tocharians, Yüeh-chih), driving them from Gansu
    174 BC Nomadic Ku Süns (Kushans, Yu-chi), a powerful force west of China in Gansu (Tr. Khan-Su = Khan's River) attacked and defeated by Huns and driven west, into Kangar (Sogdia, Kangüy, K'ang-chu), from where they invade Bactria (Ta-hsia). Strabo 11.8.2 names them Asii, Pasiani, Tochari, and Sacarauli
    150 BC Rise of Hun Empire's puts pressure on territory of Iran dislodging many Scythian nations who were pushed west, including Saka-Uraka whose kings' title was Makar
    141 BC 141-128 BC Tochars (Yüeh-chih), fleeing from Huns, overrun Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan
    121 BC Chinese, under General Ho Chu-ping, defeat Huns
    60 BC Hou Han Shu 96A.10b: Huns defeated Great Yüeh-chih, who went west, became rulers of Baktria, and Sai king (wang) went southwards and became ruler(s) of Chi-pin, forming several kingdoms (Asses dynasties?) NW of Kashgar (Su-le): Hsiu-hsiin and Yilan-tu
    56 BC First split of Hun Empire into Western and Eastern branches Qoghoshar (Khukheniy I) (56 - 36 BC)
    50 BC Dionisios Periegetos: Already in 1-st century BC, (European, Caucasian ?) Huns dominate over all Caspian lands
    48 BC WESTERN HUN EMPIRE
    48 BC - 216 A.D
    Founder – Panu
    Area - area over present Central Asia
    60 After Jazyges left Pontic steppes, Rhoxolans' possessions began to border Lower Danube and Roman Moesia. During Nero time (69 AD.) they invaded Moesia
    91 Western (Nothern) Huns suffer a major defeat from Chinese forces and disperse
    100 Roxolans (Türk. Uraksy Alans, i.e. ‘Alans-farmers’) pushed Romans on the Lower Danube in 2-nd and in 3-rd c. In the 2-nd c. AD. Rhoxolan nomads expanded their domination over local nomadic and settled tribes to the west, down to Lower Danube and Carpathians
    124 Dionysius Periegetes (the guide) Orbis terrae descriptio map showing (European, Caucasian ?) Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets (on opposite bank of Itil from Huns), Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii
    124 Dionisus Periegetes (end of 1st - beginning of 2nd c.) maps and talks that on Northwestern side of Caspian sea live Scythians, Uns, Caspians, Albanians, and Kaduses, of Huns living next to Caspian Sea Sak (Gr. Sacae)=Turkco-Persian saka=water carrier
    128 Ticitus: Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD) pays Roxolans annual tribute and allows their transit by Roman roads through Dacia with Iazyges, who lived along Tissa
    139 (European) Huns living next to Dnieper in Eastern Europe. Ptolemaus Claudius geographer, B.3 Ch.5 calls them Khuni (Chuni) and Suni. (Khuni is clan/national designation while Suni is probably from Senyu, their ruler)
    139 Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Türk. agach ers ‘forest people’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae and Rhoxolani live (European) Huns
    139 Ptolemy lists Roxolans east from Alans-Scythians, i.e. between Lower Dniepr and Don, in steppes beyond Don,
    150 Burial rite of Scythians and Huns is strikingly uniform: same barrows, burial frames of logs and thick timbers, burial blocks, sacrificial horses etc. Relics of Hun burials are well known in whole space of former Scythian territory: on coast of Black Sea, along Danube (so called Scythia Minor), in Northern Caucasus and other areas
    155 Between 155 and 166 Hsien-pi/Hsien-pei/Xienbi/Syanbinians (Tungus-future Mongols) confederates under Tian-Shih-huai (in Ch. rendition) conduct a series of campaigns against Western (Nothern) Hun dominance, leading Huns to major defeat and start westward migration (93-c.380)
    155 End of Huns as a major power in inner Asia
    166 Major defeat of Huns by Hsien-pi/Xienbi/Syanbinians, who shifted to Orkhon-Selenga basin and formed a nucleus replacing Huns as dominant tribe in Western (Nothern) Hun Empire, over old Hun's territory from Wusün in the west, Dinlins (Ch. Ting-ling) in the north, Fu-yü in the east, and Chinese Great Wall in the south, spanning approximately 4,000 li (1,663 km) east-west, and 7,000 li (2,911 km) north to south.
    166 Hsien-pi/Xienbi/Syanbinian EMPIRE

    216 End of HUN EMPIRE
    204 B.C - 216 A.D
    Area - At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea; (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
    Founder - Mete (Bagatir)
    216 End of WESTERN HUN EMPIRE
    48 - 216 A.D
    Founder – Panu
    Area - area over present Central Asia
    216 Western Hun Empire separates into 5 successor states (215-290)
    Tele (Gaogyuys)

    260 In 60's of 3-rd century, Caucasian Huns served in Persian army of Sasanid Shapur I (241-272)
    266 Unification of China. Hun rebellion is suppressed
    275 EUROPEAN HUN EMPIRE 275 – 454
    A.D Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars of Dulo clan (Dulo = Tele)
    Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Chekoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N.Hungary to Byzantine Empire (Area - 4,000,000 Km2)
    290 In 90's of 3-rd century, Armenian sources write about Hun wars in Trans-Caucasus (N.Caucasus)
    290 ca 250-800 AD Archeological finds of Hinnish time in Itil and Urals area with inscriptions in Hunno-Kypchak (aka Turanian) alphabet
    300 Tele left early Huns Horde, keeping patriarchal relations and nomadic life. They were not Sinadized. They move on steppes on carts with high wheels
    300 In Chinese annals Gaogyuys – Tele are listed as branch of Huns
    300 Genealogy: Gaogüys =>Tele =>15 tribes =>
    1 Uange (Uygurs)
    2 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto)
    3 Kibi
    4 Dubo (Tubalar)(Dabo)(Tele)
    5 Guligan (Kurykan)(Yakut)
    6 Dolange (Telengits)
    7 Bugu (Pugu)(Uygurs)
    8 Bayegu (Baiyrku)(Uygurs)
    9 Tunlo (Tongra)(Uygurs)
    10 Hun
    11 Sygye (Uygurs)
    12 Husye
    13 Higye
    14 Adye(Eduz)
    15 Baysi (Barsil)
    300 Sirs and Türks live at Ordos
    304 Huns and Syanbinians conquered from China Han Empire northern part and established a sequence of kingdoms. Predominantly Chinese population was led by Hun’s Toba tribe.
    309 Hun's raid eased by rebellion of (Chinese) people against officials
    309 Intrigues of Emperor Huai-di against Sym Yuy. Chinese aliance with Tabgach Khan Ilu against Huns
    310 Hun-Maskuts (Gr. Massagets), together with Sakas, led by king of Massagetae Sanesan invade Armenia in beg. of 4 century (336?) (Tr. Sen-esen=you+storming (man))
    311 Defeat of Sym Yuy. Fall of Loyan, Huns take Chanan
    312 Chinese displace Huns from Chanan
    312 Small Syanbinian tribe with Khans from Muyun family moved from southern Manjuria to west and settled in proximity of lake Kukunor. They fought Tibetans successfully and Tobases unsuccessfully
    312 Syanbinian tribe with Muyun Khans were organized into kingdom Togon and became vassals of Empire Wey
    320 Muyun Khoy becomes Great Shanuy
    321 Tsu Ti dies, and Chinese advance against Huns stopped
    325 China loses lands north of river Huai
    334 First mention of Bulgars, they live in basin of Tanais and Cuban
    336 Türkic names of European Hun rulers
    Karaton (kadadon= dress)
    Mundjuk, Attila's father (bondjus = bead, tirquose)
    Attila (Itil= birthplace, or Ata-il = father of country)
    Illek, Attila's son (Il-Ek = country fortress)
    Dengizik, Attila's son (Den(g)iz = Sea)
    Irnek, Attila's son (=young soldier)
    Aibars, Attila's uncle (= bars, lion)
    Oktar, Attila's uncle (= )
    Ary Kan (aryg-kan = beautiful Quinn)
    Basyk
    Kursyk
    Atakam
    Eshkam
    336 Türkic names of Hun rulers (cont'd)
    Nation
    Agacheri (Forrest people)
    Shar (sary - ak, = yellow - white)
    Ogur (Ok-gur = ten federates)
    Potential link of ruling family with Asian Tankhu (king)

    Notes

    Yu.L.Zuev, Ethnic History of Usuns, Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences Publishing House, Alma-Ata, 1960, p.12
    Hsiung-nu is one of Chinese derogatory monikers for Huns, with a meaning “ferocious slaves”. There were more respectful names for Huns in Chinese, like “western nomads”, etc. It is doubtful that scholars are not aware of the derogatory nature of the Chinese terms. Chinese also had plenty of derogatory terms for themselves too, but, unlike “Hsiung-nu/Hiung-nu/Xiong Nu etc.”, these terms are not used in the scientific literature to designate Chinese.
    Iakinf (Vol. 2. SPb, 1828) tells us that in Chinese hieroglyphic rendering, the sign selected for “Hun” is a “malicious slave” hieroglyph, and the sign for “Gun” is a “respectful slave” hieroglyph.
    Most ancient Chinese texts bearing information about Türkic-speaking tribes already contained a number of ethnonyms with distinctive ending, graphically usually conveyed by the same hieroglyphs: Hun (anc. reading giuən) and Kun (kiən), i.e. gün, kün. As shown by L.Bazen, the form of gün/ kün is identical to the ancient Türkic plural-collective affix -gün-/ -kgün- , ascending to the primary Türkic word kün - people - human collective - tribe - woman - custodian of home hearth - femininity.
    Affirming mutuality of gün/ kün = "woman" = "people" concepts, bound in the beginning by kinship bonds, and then by common ethnic origin, allows to add Chinese rendition of that term to the codex of ancient Türkic social terminology. Significantly, sporadically appearing in the ancient Türkic monuments kün - clan, family completely coincides with the translation of the Chinese transcription hun = gün/ kün in the group Lu-Hun (Six Hüns), equivalent to the group lu-si "six clans", where si is generation, clan. And the compositions of the 5th-10th centuries have descriptions of tribes Hün (Gün) and Kün (Kgün), which names are compatible only with the Hün of the early Chinese chronicles and Kün of the Orhono-Enisei inscriptions. Folk legends of ethnic alliances which included these tribes ascend their origin to Sünnu-Hunnu, known in the western antique sources under a name Hüns (Yu.L.Zuev, Ethnic History of Usuns, Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences Publishing House, Alma-Ata, 1960, p.11).
    In the transcription of the Greek and Syrian authors the term "Hun" is transmited Hion (Gün) and Kionaye (Kion-Kün) (N.V.Pigulevskaya. Syrian sources on history of peoples of the USSR. M. - L., 1941, p. 37, 39)



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  5. #5
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    337-439 AD
    DATELINE

    Time
    Events

    337
    Hun's avant-garde reached Tanais, displaced Ostgoths, who displaced Visigoths and Sarmats into Roman territory. Death of Constantine the Great leads to formal division into Western and Eastern Roman Empires

    338
    Tele tribes subjugated by Tobases Khan. They live west of Ordos

    350
    Ügülüy from Syanbinian cavalry organizes a band and joints neighboring nomads

    350
    Tele are living of animal husbandry, in a weak confederation of tribes, fighting for their independence

    354
    Earliest known European record about Bulgarians is "Anonymous chronograph", a list of tribes and peoples in Latin. He mentiones a certain 'Ziezi ex quo Vulgares'

    360
    Huns cross Volga and attacked Alans. Part of Alans retreat to N. Caucasus, part is absorbed in Huns Horde, part retreat to N. Donets. Most likely, after conquest a part of Bulgars joins Huns, and a part remains

    363
    In 363, Armenian, Roman and Persian authors write about necessity of fortifying Caucasian passages, especially Derbent passage, against Hun hordes, making repeated raids and campaigns against Persians , Armenians and peoples of Middle East

    364
    Goth's invasion of Thrace

    370
    Huns defeat Goths (Germans)

    370
    Romans hired Hunnic warriors as auxiliary troops and paid them a yearly tribute, partly for services rendered and partly as a bribe to keep them from raiding provinces

    370
    Huns were a genetic hybrid between Mongoloid, Altaic (Siberian), and Central Asian Türkic stocks. Typical Hunno-Bulgars probably had a squarish face, high cheekbones, and slanting eyes.
    Term 'Bulgar' comes from Türkic 'bulgha' = 'to mix'. These nomadic horsemen groups were mainly composed of As - Ossetians, Eastern Antes - Iranian-Slavic blend, Khazars - a mixed Türkic group, and a people known as Sarmatians, an Iranian group.

    370
    Huns defeat Ostrogoths. Death of Germanarix. Vinitari (Vitimir?) becomes new Ostrogothic king. Ostrogoths retire to Lower Dniepr. Geruls and Burgundians part of Ostrogoths

    370
    370-376 War between Alans and Goths.

    370
    Huns control N. Pontic, Tanais and N. Caspian steppes. Living there Alans join Huns

    370
    Guylüchoy, successor to Ügülüy, organized a horde, move along all Khalka to Khingan, subordinated to Tobas Khans, paid tribute in horses, sable and martens.

    370
    Guylüchoy life and organization are primitive and organized by regiments of 1000 men. No changes for 200 years. All efforts went to rob neighbors.

    370
    2 migrations of Bulgarians from Caucasus to Armenia. 1st during Armenian ruler Vaharshak, immigrants of Vh' ndur Bulgar Vund, lands named Vanand.

    370
    Because of expansion of Huns in E European steppes , disturbances ... in land of Bulgars, many of whom migrated and settled south of Kokh, 2nd migration during Armenian ruler Arshak

    372
    After crushing, or compelling alliance of, various nations Alpilzuri, Alcidzuri, Himari, Tuncarsi, Boisci, Huns reached Alani, Don Alans crushed by Huns. Part of Alans joins Huns in advance to Europe

    374
    Retreating to Dnieper Ostrogoths fight with Ants living there. After a number of battles and defeats, Ostrogoths captured Antian King Boz (Bus, Bog?) and executed him

    375
    Jordanes, XLVIII, 249. Battle between Alans under Balamber ( Bulümar, 363 - 378) and Ostrogoths at river Erac (Tiligul liman, about 35 km east of Odessa). After death of Vitimir, young Vidirix bacame a King. Alatey and Safrac ruled under his name. Ostrogoths retreated to Dniestr.

    375
    Ammianus Marcellinus: After his (Hermanaric) departure, Vitimir was made a King, and resisted Halans for some time… But after many defeats he suffered, he was subdued by arms and died in battle

    376
    Huns captured Atilkuzu (Bessarabia). Alans remained in Dacia. Vestgoths and Ostrogoths, defeated by Huns and Alans, retreated to Danube

    376
    Vestgoths and Ostrogoths Goths fled from Huns, asked help from Emperor Valens, who allowed them cross Danube to guard borders, and entered Roman Empire. Poor control of crossing, extractions by officials caused rebellion. Rome faced Gothic invasion.

    376
    Goths who crossed Danube became Visigoths, and Goths who remained behind and became subjects of Huns were designated Ostrogoths. Ostrogoths who cross Danube joined Vestgoths. Entire Alaric's Visigothic population is estimated to be around 100,000 people

    377
    Hunnish-Bolgarian association during period of Hunnish hegemony in Central Europe. Attilla's combat power consists mostly of mounted Bolgarian troops. Attila' dynasty is continued for Bolgars.

    377
    A detachment of Huns crossed Kerch straight from Caucasus, displaced Goths in Crimea to center of peninsula, and went to join main army in Dniestr estuary

    378
    At a victory celebration Bulümar (363 - 378) dies, his son Alyp-bi Arbat (Gr. Uldin) becomes Khan of Huns (378-402 b 361)

    378
    Oldest son of Hun's Bulümar (Balamber) Alyp-bi defeats Sadumians (Scandinavians), crossed Danube and with estimated 200,000 of Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Alans warriors defeats 80K Byzantium army at Andrianopol. Valens acted alone and engaged a massive Hun's force. Result was a catastrophe, Valens army was completely annihilated, he perished (9 August AD 378). His body was never found

    380
    Western (Northern) Huns in westward migration (93-c.380) take possession of lower Don river valley and north of Sea of Azov .

    380
    New Roman Emperor Theodosius settles Gothic problem diplomatically. Goths become federates, and Alans move north.

    380
    380-395 Alans clear Dacia and Atilkuzu from Vestgoths, Taifals, Gepids, Burgunds and other peoples. Huns went to Pontic steppes.

    386
    Creation of Tabgach-Northern Wey Empire

    390
    Tele move north, to Djungaria, and spread in West Mongolia to Selenga.

    395
    Huns under Khan Alyp-bi campaign in N.Caucasus and even raid Syria. Alans, Ostrogoths and Geruls, retreated earlier to N.Caucasus, subordinate to Huns

    395
    Rebellion of Alarics and Visigoths

    400
    In Danube area, evidently, arrived Huns. They killed Byzantian federate Gain, expelled by rebels from Constantinople.

    400
    Syanbian language, ancient Mongolian, becomes inter-tribe language for Türk's allied tribes. "Türk" = "strong", "powerful".

    400
    Alans and Bulgars live between Itil and Don

    400
    Arab and Persian authors mention town Varachan (Belenjer), capital of Hun state, in Sulak valley near Upper Chir-Ürt in Daghestan. Later authors refer to Balanjar as native land of Khazars.

    400
    Ancestors of Khazars among Huns called selves Basils (Bas, head; il/el, people--ruling people)

    402
    Alyp-bi (Gr. Uldin) (378-402) dies, is buried on Kuyantau mountain (current Kiev) under Baltavar stone with Ψ sign. His son Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk, Karaten, Charaton) becomes Khan of Huns (402-414, b 380).

    402
    Ruler of Western Roman Empire Stilihon allied with Huns and Alans, who help Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes.

    405
    New help by Huns and Alans to Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes (Suewes)

    405
    Alans join Vandals in invasion to Gallia (modern France).

    406
    Radagais leads Vandals, Suebis, Kuads, Burgonds, Saksons, Almants, is cuptured at Fiesol (N.Italy) by Huns under Ulduz (Khagan? Yabgu?) (?-410?), supposedly, ruler of right, eastern wing of Hunish army), allied with Romans, and executed (Aug 406). Vandals cross Rein, retreat to Gaul

    409
    Alans and Vandals moving from Gaul to Spain.

    410
    Syanbinian Jujan Khan Shelun Deuday unlimitly controlled steppes from Khingan to Altai. Tele were subjugated. Central Asian Huns, after winning battle at river Ili, recognized suzerainty of Syanbinian Jujans and bought peace by submissiveness.

    410
    Syanbinian Jujan Khan Shelun Deuday died (?-410), his brother Khulüy (410-414) becomes Khan.

    410
    Bishop of Rome Innocent I (401-417) exchange hostages with Hun Khan Aybat to ensure peace, royal prince of Rome for Atila (434-453 b 406) who is sent to Northern Italy. Young Attila is educated in Western Roman Empire
    410
    Huns attack Roman Empire and sack Rome. Huns introduce pants to Roman Empire, which replace traditional togas.

    410
    After death of Khagan Uldiz (?-410?) Charaton (410-422?) becomes Khagan of Huns. In 412 Charaton receives Byzantian ambassador Olimpiodors. Charaton rules mostly eastern part of empire. No information till 422.

    412
    Byzantian embassy to Huns in Pontic area

    414
    Syanbinian Jujan Khan Khulüy (410-414) died, his cousin Datan (414-?) becomes Khan

    414
    Khan Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk, Karaten, Charaton) (402-414, b 380) dies, His son becomes Khan of Huns .

    418
    Syanbinian Jujanes penetrated Tarbagatay area

    420
    Toba tribe unites Northern China into a kingdom known under Chinese name of Empire Wey

    420
    Huns settle in middle Danube. Rulers were Yabgu Roila (Rugila), Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk) and Khagan Oktar

    420
    St. Jerome (342-420) Letter CVII To Laeta: The Armenians have laid aside their quivers, the Huns are learning the psalter, the frosts of Scythia are warmed by the fire of faith. Huns (Danube or Caucasus?) are proselytized into Christianity
    420
    WHITE HUN (EPHTALITE) EMPIRE
    420 - 552 A.D
    Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
    Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)

    420
    Ephtalites were divided into White Chions and Red Chions

    424
    Jujan Khan Datan (?-424) with 60K cavalry invades Empire Wey. In 425 Tobases of Empire Wey expel them to behind Gobi

    424
    Huns advance force sacked Rome. Huns are free warriors with equal rights. Their universe rotates around Polar Star, and their goal is subjugation then pacification of the peoples, of the four corners of the world. All conquered peoples became their friends once they identified with interests of Huns. Huns had common ownership and interest rather than clans or blood-ties
    430
    Major campaign by Tabgach Empire Wey army, under Emperor Tay-u-di (Toba Dao) disperses Syanbinian Jujanes. Datan disappears, leadership taken by his son Udi (430-445). Udi agrees to pay tribute to Empire Wey

    430
    Huns reach Rein. Yabgu Roila (Ruga) keeps friendly relations with Rome, lending troops to suppress Bagauds in Gaul

    430
    Many Huns in Pannonia live in houses and depend on agriculture to support them. Prince Attila the Hun entered into alliance with many peoples who occupy C. Europe (Germany)
    432
    After Oktar, Ruga (432-437) becomes Hun Khagan

    433
    Huns began to sweep into Roman Empire (Europe). Attila the Hun is educated in Italy in Roman Christian traditions and its not surprising Huns should again subjugate Europe.
    434
    Akatzirs are subjects to Huns under Hunnish Khagan Ruga

    434
    Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk) (390-434) dies. His son Bleda, becomes Kagan and ruler of E. Huns (Ak Bulgar) (434-445). His son Attila becomes Yabgu of W. Huns (Kara Bulgar) (434-445).

    434
    Roman bishop of Margus crossed Danube and robbed royal Hun graves, stealing their burial treasures. War broke out

    434
    Possibly during Byzantine campain Ruga (Rua, Roila, Rugila) dies (?-434), Atilla and his brother Bleda are elected, his nephew Attila becomes ruler of left (western) wing of empire

    434
    Attila forces Eastern Roman Empire to recognize the superiority of Huns. Constantinople gives many concessions in treaty of Margus: Hun merchants’ rights, military alliance conducts, the return of Hun fugitives, and increases tribute to 700 pounds of gold to be paid each year

    434
    Sidonius Apollinaris: ca. 434 Khazars are Attila's tributary, followed banners of Attila, and in 452 fought on the Catalanian fields in company with the Black Huns and Alans.
    435
    Brother of Prince Atilla the Hun Prince Blada negotiates with Rome. Romans align with Huns against Germanic Burgundi armies. Battle near Rhine sees Burgundi King Gunther killed. King Ruha the Hun dies and Blada and Atilla are pitted against each other for Hun's Kingship.
    437
    Syanbinian Jujanes under Udi resume attacks on Empire Wey. In 439 Empire Wey counterattacks, without decisive battle. In 440 Udi attacks border and flees. Then again in 445.

    439
    In 439 Tobases had victory over Huns and joined Chesi to Wey Empire, Khan Ashina with 500 families fled to Syanbinian Jujanes and settled south of Altai mountains and produce iron for Syanbinian Jujanes.

    439
    Huns stand in Dunkhuan and battle against Shanshan

    439
    An horde of warlike Syanbinians retreated to Tibet from Khesi. Coming to a rich, but disunited country, Syanbinian leader attracted Kyans, i.e. occupied a dominating position between ever-hostile tribes.

    439
    In Tibet, descendants of Syanbinian leader had title Tsenpo, meaning in between King and Head of Government, supported by Syanbinians who are the only real force in country.

    439
    Huns stand in Dunkhuan and battle against Shanshan



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  6. #6
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    440-499 AD
    DATELINE

    Time
    Events

    440 Atilla has a full control in N. Caucasus. Treaty with Persian Shakh Yazdagar
    440 Hephthalites (White Huns, later known in the West as Avars) move south from Altai region to occupy Transoxiana, Bactria, Khorasan, and eastern Persia
    441 Huns are again on Danube border, took Singidun (Belgrad)
    442 Ultimatum by Atilla to Theodosius II, who rejects it
    442 442-447 Huns powerfully invades Byzantium. Destruction of 70 cities in Illiria and Thrace, capture and inclusion of vast territory in Hunnish state
    443 Peace between Theodosius II and Atilla. By peace of Anatolius (the mediator of the treaty negotiation) Romans were to pay 6,000 pounds of gold immediately, and yearly tribute set at 2,100 pounds of gold, and immediate release of Hun fugitives
    444 Atilla, Kara Bulgar Yabgu, becomes Hun Kagan (445-453) upon death of Kagan Bled (434-445), the highest ruler from Caucasus to Danube. Per Priscus, Bleda had honor burial and three-day giant feast attended by all nobles in Kaganate
    445 Syanbinian Jujan Khan Udi (430-445) died, his son Tukhechjen becomes Khan. Empire Wey undertakes punishment raids into steppes against Syanbinian Jujanes
    447 2-nd peace of Anatolius between Byzantiun and Huns. Big tribute to Huns. Hun commander Edeco assented to assassinate Atilla for 50 pounds of gold
    448 Byzantian embassy to Atilla, described by Priscus. Byzantian attempt to organize Atilla's murder
    448 Akatzirs are reported by Priscus living near Black Sea and subjects to Huns. Attila (7) (437-453) installs Karidach (Kuridach) as Akatzirs Khan
    450 In written sources, Huns are identified with Scythians and Cimmerians, and specifically with "Royal Scythians". Scythian ethnonym "As-kishi", or its stem "as" is retained in written sources, especially old Georgian documents, in Huns' name as "ovs", "os"
    450 Hunnish society attained progress thanks to contact with Roman civilization. In Attila's court, in dwelling place of Onegesios, bath constructed by prisoner from Sirmium are only some examples
    450 Priscus: "because Scythians are mixed and besides their own language, they try to speak language of Huns, or Goths or Ausoni, when some of them have to do with Romans"
    450 Per Priscus, Sabirs conquered lands of Onogurs, Saragurs and Ugors in steppes around north-western Caspian coast
    450 Death of Theodosius II Flavy on a hunt (10.4.401). Markian, a son of a plain soldier, becomes Emperor, formally as a husband of Pulheria. 450 Markian refuses to pay tribute to Huns
    450 Huns were called Os in 5th century, during their raids in Georgia in time of king Vakhtang. Word "ovs" of Georgian sources is actually a slightly deformed name of a Turk tribe "As"
    451 Attila heads great army, size of Hunnic army has been variously estimated at between 300,000 and 700,000, crossed Rhine and swept across Europe looting, pillaging, and burning. Aetius battles Attila at Battle of Chalons on Catalaunian Plains
    451 451.06.15 "Battle of Peoples" at Catalaun ravine near present Trua. On Atilla's side are Huns, Geruls, and part of Franks, on Aecius side Roman legions recruited from Gaul and Germany, Vestgoths, Burgunds, Franks, Armorician Alans headed by Sanhiban. No definite result.
    451
    Sidonius Apollinaris: Khazars follow banners of Attila, and in 452 fought on the Catalanian fields in company with the Black Huns and Alans.
    451 Jordanes: In a direct fight battled strongest troops on both sides, without surprise attacks. Mighty tribes were killed, 165K on each side, plus 15K Gepids and Franks who fought at night, killing each other, Franks on Roman side, Gepids on Hun's side
    451 Atilla prepares a campain in Italy
    452 Italian campain of Atilla, ending with peace. In spite of large conquests, Atilla agreed to peace because of epidemy in his army.
    453 Atilla (434-453) weds young German Ildico. Next morning he is found dead. End of Hunnish hegemony in Central Europe. Atilla is given state funerals. Ellak becomes Hun Kagan (453-454)
    453 Vestgoths, headed by Torismud, son of killed in Catalaunian Plains Theodorix, defeat Huns and expell them from their territory.
    453 Coalition of Germanic clans defeats and kills Ellak in battle at Nedao.
    453 Gepids under Ardaric battle Huns under Kagan Ellak. Tingiz (Dengizik/Diggiz) and Bel-Kermek (Hernach) retreat to a military camp and defend for 2 years. Negotiations allow Tingiz and Bel-Kermek leave with Bulgars, remaining defenders are surrendered to Ardaric.
    453 To Ellak, eldest of brothers, given Sabir ulus, to 2-nd son Tengiz given Kutrigur ulus, to Bel-Kermek, 3-rd son, given Utigur ulus
    453 454-565 Gepids control Pannonia. Gepidian reign is established in Dacia (current day Transylvania)
    454 Several Hunno-Bulgar uluses outside of three main Hunnic hordes joined with Byzantines with obligation of military services, and were given land to settle as protectors against their northern cousins
    454 Coalition of Germanic clans defeats and kills Ellak (453-454) in battle. Sabirs without Ellak retreat to East, through Pontic Steppes, to Daghestan. Kutriguri and Utiguri under Bel-Kermek (Hernach), fell back to 'Ugol' place that corresponds to Bessarabia
    454 454 - 455 Rebelion in Hun's state. German tribes of Gepids, Rugs, Geruls rebelled. Battle at Nedao (Nedava, tributary of Sava). The coalition was composed of the Gepids, Scires, Suaves, Ruges, Herules and Ostrogoths
    454 Jordanes: You could see Goth with lances, Gepids with mad with sword, Rug breaking spears in his wounds, and Svev bravely acting with bat, and Hun with arrow, Alan with heavy, Gerule with light weapons.
    454 Atilla's son Ellak tried suppress rebelion, was defeated and died in battle. Remains of Ellak's army retreated east of Carpathians. Two other sons Dengizik (454-455) and Ernak remained in Dacia and Bessarabia. Alans led by ruler Kandak were forced to go to Dobrudja
    454 Ostrogoths take part on losing side in battle at Nedao where Gepids under Ardaric crush last Hun coalition. Ostrogoths become sovereign and settle in Pannonia
    454 End of EUROPEAN HUN EMPIRE
    275 - 454 A.D
    Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars
    Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Chekoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N Hungary to Byzantine Empire (Area -4,000,000 Km2)
    455 Tingiz and Bel-Kermek (Hernach) (455-465) lead Bulgars, on way from Pannonia to estuary of Buri-chai (Dnieper) are attacked by Gallidjians (Scandinavians). Tingiz is killed. Bel-Kermek raises red flag of Asses and breaks through to lower Dnieper.
    455 Bel-Kermek, 3rd son of Atilla, leads Bulgars to settle between Crimea and estuary of Buri-chai (Dnieper), and proclaims a beylik of Altynoba, with Bel-Kermek as Baltavar (Lord of Beys).
    455 Bel-Kermek with Hun's Sadagariem and other tribes remain in Dobrudja (Little Scythia) and Lower Moesia. Later known as Sacromontizies and Fossatizies.
    455 Two other Attilla's sons, Emnetzur and Ultzindur lead from Crimea tribes of Ultzindzur and Ultzindgur to Byzantium on right bank of Danube
    455 Jews from Armenia and Persia begin immigration to North Caucasus
    455 Hephthalites conquer Kushans and invade India
    460 Bulgar tribes of Ultinzur, Bittugur and Bardor flock to Altynoba, with Bel-Kermek as Baltabar (Lord of Beys). Huns adopt name Bulgar, Bulgars adopt Hun's language.
    463 Ogur Türkic tribes, including Onogurs (Onoghur = 10 Ogur Confederation), Saragurs (White Türks) and Uturgurs (Utigurs) (Uturgur = 30 Ogur Confederation) cross Itil and enter Europe.
    463 Priscus Rhetor: In 463 Byzantium was visited by an embassy of Saragurs, Urogs and Onogurs, who, dislodged by Avars drive to west, conquered conquered lands of Akacirs and asked for a union with Byzantium
    463 Destunis G.C.: Saragurs, Urogs and Onogurs sent embassy to Byzantine. They said that they were expelled by Savirs, who fled Avars, who fled from people living on shores of ocean. Saragurs subjugated Akacirs and want to become Roman federates
    463 Gumilev suggests that after fall of Hun's Empire Bulgars take a lead and decimated Akacirs, finishing fall of Hun's Empire
    465 Bulgars led by Bel-Kermek control lands of Akacirs and asked for a union with Byzantium
    465 Altynoba's Bel-Kermek (455-465) dies, his older son Djurash Masgut becomes Altynoba Baltavar (465-505).
    465 Agaçeris crossed Caucasus and invaded Media. Agaçeris are included in Five Ogur confederation which also included Karluk, Kangly, Kalaç and Kipchak nations
    468 Tengiz (Dengizik) and Bel-Kermek (Hernach) sent ultimatum to Byzantium, when it is rejected, Dengizik invades Thrace, but is defeated under command of Byzantine’s Anagast and Aspar. Dengizik dies in battle.
    468 Bulgar Kutigurs fight Byzantine (468-469). Byzantine’s Anagast procured Khan Dengizik's head after he was killed and sent it to Constantinople where it was displayed atop of a spear. Kutrigurs never forgot Utigur Hernach's refusal of help.
    468 468 - 469 Danube war between Huns and Byzantium. Bel-Kermek (Hernach) after Dengizik death leads army. Byzantium beats off invasion with difficulty. Byzantium mercenary army consists of Slavs and Alans commanded by Aspar, whose father was Alan.
    468 Vernadsky G.V.:"in some respect Danube war of 468 - 469 was a war of Alans and Ants against their former masters, Huns." After Byzantian victory Huns left Dacia and Bessarabia. These provinces opened for Slavic colonization.
    469 Western Hunnish clans retreated. Utigurs to Azov-Taman SE of Sea of Azov. Kutrigurs to between Dnieper and Don Rivers, NW from Sea of Azov Utigurs. Sabirs in Daghestan SE of other two Hunnic hordes, between Daryal Gorge and Kuma River on Caspian Sea.
    469 469 - 488 movement of Bel-Kermek army back to Meotian-Taman region. They call themselves descendents of Hernach and are known as Utigurs (Kulakovsky "Alans")
    469 Remnants of Tengiz (Dengizik) horde follow Utigurs to Dniepr and settle between Dniepr and Meotian Sea. They were called Kutigurs.
    481 Ioanes Antiochenus: First written agreement of Byzantium emperor Zeno (474-475,476-491) with Bulgars' Djurash Masgut (465-505), allying them in war against Ostrogoths Goths of Theodoric (493-526), son of Triarius [Must be 475]
    486 Bulgars fight again against Goths as allies of Byzantium
    488 Bulgars settle in Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia after expelling Theodoric Ostrogoths (488).
    488 Khazarian khalifa begins rule over Georgia and Abania in S. Caucasus
    488 Bulgars fought again against Goths as allies of Gepids.
    488 Bulgarians had been regarded as a brave and invincible in war people
    488 Chersonesus ruler decided to restore walls and towers damaged by earthquake, scared of Kutugur's raids
    490 Moisey Kagankatvacy: Hunnish episcope Iunan in Caucasus Hunnia lived during Armenian Vachagan
    492 Kutigur Bulgars invade Thrace, defeat Byzantine army and kill their leader Julian.
    493 493-499 Altynoba's Djurash Masgut Kutigur Huns start raiding Thrace, possibly with Slavs. They took advantage of a civil war in Byzantium.
    498 Altynoba's Djurash Masgut in winter 498-499 annihilate Byzantium Illyrium army and extends to left bank of Danube. Altynoba subordinates to Avar overlordship.
    498 Nestorians accompany Shah Kavad I to Turkestan and evangelize the Hephthalite Huns, north of the Oxus River



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  7. #7
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    500-552 ADDATELINE

    Time
    Events

    500
    Earliest settlement on site of city of Bolgary dates to about AD 500

    502
    Altynoba's Djurash Masgut Kutigur Huns Bulgars plundered all of Thrace

    504
    Altynoba's Djurash Masgut Kutigur Huns raid Thrace, possibly with Slavs

    505
    Altynoba's Djurash Masgut (465-505) dies, Tatra (505-) becomes Bulgarian Baltazar subordinated to Avar overlordship.

    505
    Sabirs from Pannonia immigrate to North Caucasus and Itil valley

    505
    Sabirs created a powerful federation of akin tribes, "Kingdom of Huns". They were populous and had an army of 20,000 well equipped cavalrymen. They were masters of art of war and build siege machines unknown even to Persians and Byzantines.

    508
    Teles (Teleutes) Khan Mivotu in vassalage to Ephtalites. Helps Empire Wey 's 3K army defeated Syanbinian Jujanes at lake Puley, after being paid 60 pieces of silk by Empire Wey. Futu dies in struggles. Mivotu is rewarded with musical instruments.

    508
    Cheunu (508-520) becomes Syanbinian Jujan Khan.

    513
    Altynoba's Tatra Bolgarian raids against Byzantium become annual. Hunno-Bulgars aid in Vitalians Revolt (514 ).

    513
    Buddhism penetrates to Syanbinian Jujanes. Khan Cheunu converts to Buddhism. Religious divisions in ruling clan

    516
    Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogüy, captures Tele (Teleut) lord Mivota, Tele escape to Ephtalites.

    516
    Slavs raid Macedonia and Illiria

    518
    Cheunu sends an embassy to Empire Wey, received by emperor Syao-min-di, re-establishes vassalage to Wey.

    518
    Justin I repulsed Slav hordes beyond Danube

    519
    Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu makes a treaty with Ephtalites, gives Eftalite lords his princesses as wives. Allies with Korea (Gao-Guyli) against Empire Wey, and together smash Manju tribe Dideugan.

    519
    Empire Wey recognized suzerainty of Turfan's Gaochan, and Syanbinian Jujanes continue to trade with them, receiving bread and cloth. Iron goods are provided to Syanbinian Jujans by their Türk (Türks-tuku) vassals in Altai.

    520
    Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu (508-520) killed by his mother, installed her another son, Anahuan, replaced by Polomyn.

    521
    Teles rebel and defeat remaining Syanbinian Jujanes under Polomyn, and Polomyn moves to Empire Wey with remains of his Horde. Anakhuan escaped to Empire Wey in 520, so both branches of Syanbinian Jujan horde ended up in Empire Wey.

    521
    Polomyn's horde is resettled within Empire Wey by lake Kukunor, and Sinifa, brother of Anakhuan, is resettled beyond border, north of Dunkhuan.

    525
    Anahuan leads Empire Wey expedition against rebel fortress Bo-ye and defeats rebels. Receives rewards and absolution from Empire Wey.

    525
    Togon's Syanbinian prince Kualüy pronounces himself Khan.

    527
    Procopius Caesariensis: Hephthalites are people from Unn tribe, but they do not mix with them… they are not nomads like other Unn tribes, but live since ancient times in a fruitful country… Among all other Unns they are the only ones with white bodies and not repulsive faces

    527
    Procopius: Chosroes sent army of Huns into Roman Armenia, to create a diversion there, they fall into hands of Valerian and his Romans, and Huns had been badly beaten in battle, and most of them killed

    530
    Procopius gives first historical accounts about invasions of Slavic tribes across Danube. These invasions started during first half of 6th century during Roman emperors Justinian (527-565) to Heraklios (610-641)

    530
    Migrations of Slavs were frequently led by Türks, shown by archaeological finds (oldest pieces of Slavic pottery and metal art objects are borrowed from Türkic peoples), and by numerous Türkic loanwords concerning state organization and cultural life

    530
    Second army of Romans in Caucasus consists of Saracens (sary chechle - yellow haired, or Kipchaks) under Arethas, ruler of Saracens

    531
    Gao-Khuan revolted, defeated Tobases and split Empire Wey into East Wey and West Wey, both controlled by Chinese military leaders under a nominal Syanbian Emperors.

    531
    With split of Empire Wey Syanbinian Togon became free.

    531
    Khazarian khalifa loses rule over Georgia and Abania in S. Caucasus to Persian Sasanid Chosroes I (531-578)

    531
    Procopius Caesariensis: "Huns and Ants, Sklavens already crossed Danube many times and caused unrecoverable damage to Romans". Attack of Altynoba's Tatra Huns and Slavs on Byzantium. After next raid Justinian appoints Ant (Slav) Khvalibud a Roman commander on Danube

    534
    Anahuan with his horde attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogüy, defeats it. Tele's lord Ifu killed by his brother Üegüy, who continues resistance, is defeated, killed by Ifu's son Bidi.

    535
    The Hephthalite Huns learn to write, as a result of the work of Nestorian missionaries

    537
    Goths siege of Rome. To help Belisarius came army of Altynoba's Tatra Bulgars, Sklavens and Antes. Byzantines drive Goths from Rome with help of Bulgar troops (537-538)

    539
    Altynoba's Tatra Bulgar Huns raid to Thrace. Byzantium runs 3 wars

    540
    Tele's kingdom Gaogüy under Bidi is defeated and Gaogüy stops existing.

    540
    Split of Empire Wey makes Syanbinian Jujan Khan Anakhuan a gegemon for both halves of Empire Wey.

    540
    Altynoba's Tatra Kutigur Bulgars take and plunder not only rural areas, but take forts (539-540). In Illyrium alone, in 540, Kutigur Bulgars seized 32 forts.

    540
    Syanbinian Khan Kualüy sends embassy to Gao-Khuan in Syanbinian Eastern Wey, becoming an enemy of Syanbinian Western Wey.

    540
    Togon occupied considerable territory, had cities (protected settlements), had organized government, maybe copied from Tobases, had extensive cattle growing economy, low in culture, and under strong dominance of Khans.

    540
    Türkic autonomy is recognized by Western Wey

    540
    Byzantine use of treacherous politics cause Utiguri and Kutriguri to unite against them

    545
    Altynoba's Tatra (505-545) dies, Boyan Chelbir (545-590) becomes Baltavar subordinated to Avar overlordship

    545
    Syanbinian Jujan lord Anakhuan, allied with Syanbinian Eastern Wey, together with Eastern Wey's emperor Gao Khuan, and Togon's king Kualüy, attack Syanbinian Western Wey, but do not defeat Syanbinian Western Wey decisively.

    545
    Emperor of Syanbinian Western Wey Ven-di sends ambassador An Nopanto to Türk lord Bumyn. Bumyn displays disloyalty to their suzerain Syanbinian Jujanes and sends a reciprocating embassy to Syanbinian Western Wey capital Chanan.

    545
    Türks under Khan Bumyn become allies of Syanbinian Western Wey and its successor Bey Chjou.

    546
    Bey Chjou dynasty was not of Chinese, but of Syanbinian roots and relied on assimilated Syanbinian elite.

    546
    Ephtalite embassy came to W. Wey

    549
    Bishop consecrated for the Hephthalite Huns

    550
    West Tele tribes revolt against Syanbinian Jujan dominance, and attack from western Djungaria toward Khalka in Syanbinian Jujan heartland.

    550
    West Tele tribes are intercepted on the march by Türkic army coming from valleys of Gobi Altai in lined formations, covered by armored plates, on well fed war horses. West Tele army, surprised by unintended enemy, pledged submission to Türkic Lord Bumyn.

    550
    Bumyn, by accepting West Tele tribes vassalage displays another unloyalty to Syanbinian Jujanian suzerainty.

    550
    Descendant of Gao-Khuan, Gao Yan, establishes his own dynasty in Syanbinian Eastern Wey named Bey-Tsi.

    550
    Mid. 4-th century Period of king Sarosius' government in Alania. Establishment of tight contacts between Alania and Byzantine

    551
    Türkic Khan Bumyn (1) provokes Syanbinian Jujanes to a war by asking for a Syanbinian Jujan princess as a wife. Anakhuan refuses, calling him slave-smelter daring for such an offer.

    551
    Boyan Chelbir Bulgars and Slavs led by Khagan Zabergan (558-582) cross Danube, loot Thrace and Macedonia, and attack Constantinople. Military losses, Byzantine bribes, and attack of Bulgar homeland by Avars causes Khagan Zabergan to withdraw his forces.

    551
    Boyan Chelbir Kutriguri Bulgars break through Antian border guard into Byzantine

    551
    Zachariah Ritor: Bulgars and Alans are mentioned once as settled populations with towns, and once as nomads. Bulgarians towns were in territory immediately next to Caspian gates, while nomads - in steppes north of Caucasus.

    551
    Zachariah Ritor: Thirteen peoples Avnagur (Onogur), Avgar, Sabir, Burgar, Alan, Kurtargar, Avar, Hasar, Dirmar, Sirurgur, Bagrasir, Kulas, Abdel and Hephtalit live in tents, earn their living on meat of livestock and fish, of wild animals and by their weapons."

    551
    Onogurs had towns - in earlier times they had built town of Bakat.

    551
    Boyan Chelbir Kutrigurs raid Thrace. Byzantium, with a skillful diplomacy, incite Uturgurs against Kutrigurs, and Uturgurs attack Kutugurs

    552
    Türkic Khan Bumyn executes Syanbinian Jujan's ambassador, and in winter of 552 attacks Syanbinian Jujanes and defeats them.

    552
    Bumyn Il Khan (1) dies in 552, his son Kolo Isigi (3) becomes Khan (552-552) under name of Kara Issyk Khan (3) , his uncle Istemi (2) remains Istemi-Yabguu.

    552
    Syanbinian Jujanes, defeated by Türks, elect Anakhuan's uncle Dynshuttsy Khan and continue fight. In a battle near mountain Lyanshan they are defeated by Kara Issyk Khan.

    552
    Anakhuan commits suicide, his son Yanlochen flees to Syanbinian Eastern Wey under dynasty of Bey-Tsi. Bumyn takes title of Il Khan, but dies in same 552

    552
    Huns and Syanbinians conquered from China western part of Shansy province. Local people were submitted to Hunnish Khan Mugan, who controlled Chesi area west of Ordos, between bends of Chuanche and Nanshan.

    552
    Kipchaks were members of Türkic Kaganate, Boma were not members of Türkic Kaganate

    552
    Kipchaks lived in Altai, valley of Chjelyan = Djilan = Snake, so Snake mountain and city Zmeinogorsk. Probably same as Boma of Dinlin Belonged to Türkic Kaganate, lived in Alashan, mixed with Kangals, became Koman/Kuman/Cuman Russ. Polovets)

    552
    Kara Issyk Khan (3) dies in 552, his younger brother Kushu (4) becomes Khan as Mugan Khan (553-572).

    552
    Huns and Syanbinians conquered from China western part of Shansy province. Local people were submitted to Hunnish Khan Mugan, who controlled Chesi area west of Ordos, between bends of Chuanche and Nanshan.

    552
    GOKTÜRK EMPIRE
    552 - 743 A.D
    Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
    Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)


    552
    End of WHITE HUN (EPHTALITE) EMPIRE
    420 - 552 A.D
    Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
    Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)



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  8. #8
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    552-599 AD
    DATELINE
    Time Events
    552
    GOKTÜRK EMPIRE
    552 - 743 A.D
    Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
    Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)


    552
    End of WHITE HUN (EPHTALITE) EMPIRE
    420 - 552 A.D
    Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)
    Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)

    558
    Discovered in Mongolia late in 20c inscription Var-guni (Bar-guni) mention European Avars. Majority of Avar time skeletons from Hungary are Mongoloids, Bayan was probably Mongolian word, evidence that Avars were Mongol Jujuns

    558
    Avarian embassy to Byzantium. Avars defeat Sabirs and Ants.

    558
    Avars led by Khan Bayan invaded N Caucasus and faced Byzantium's allies. In Byzantian sources first time they are mentioned

    558
    Avars show up on Danube.In Jan-Feb embassy of Kagan Bayan negociates in Constantinopole. Justinian hires them to guard agains "barbarians", the same Türkic nomadic hordes as Avars, who continued to erupt from N China.

    559
    Utugurs under Sandilch attack returning Kutugurs, and start a war. War weakens both peoples.

    559
    Kutugur Bulgars under Zabergan, with Avars, made a treaty with Sklavins(?), cross Danube on ice, raid Byzantine, in three directions. Via Macedonia to Ellada to Thermopile, to Thracian Chersones, under Zabergan through a break in Long Wall to Constantinop

    559
    Velizarius led defense and repulsed Kutugurs. Kutugurs remained in Thracia until paid off and received "gifts" on same conditions as Utugurs. Kutugurs leave Thracia.

    559
    After unsuccessful storm of Constantinopol Bulgars and Slavs were trapped. Byzantians cut their retreat. Justinian magnificiently spared them. Velizarius pushed them behind Long Wall. Zabergan retreated because Avars were coming fron east.

    560
    Avar Khaganate extended from Itil to mouth of Danube. Bulgars are split, with Kuturgur Huns (also listed are Onogundurs (10 Ogur Confederation), Hunnogurs, Sabirs belonging to Avar Khaganate, and Utugur Huns (30 Ogur) and Khazars loyal to W. Khaganate

    560
    Avars invaded land of Utigurs on east shore of Meotida. Utigurs recognized Avarian rule. Avars invaded Kutigurs. Kutigurs defeated and became Avarian vassals too. Bayan proclames himself Kagan.

    560
    Goktürkic ambassadors to Iran killed by Ephtalites on the road

    561
    Embassy from Kucha to Bay-Chjou

    561
    Avars captured Bessarabia, execute local ruler Mesamer

    561
    Sosroi Nushirvan crushes Sibirs

    562
    Last incursion by Kutigur Bulgars into Byzantium, stopped by Byzantium's instigating internecine wars between two most powerful branches, Kutigur (Kutrigur) and Utigur.

    562
    Second Avarian embassy to Byzantium

    562
    Avars came to Dobrudja and settle there

    562
    Persians defeat Ephtalites

    563
    Western Wey dynasty Bey-Chjou was of Syanbinian descent, and relying on support of Syanbinian elite transformed into large landlords. They assimilated and used Chinese language.

    563
    Goktürkic emissary in Constantinopole

    563
    Goktürkic armies, supported by Khosrov, attack Balkh, invade Ephtalite lands south of Amudarya. Per 'Shah-Name', decisive battle near Bukhara. Ephtalite army of King Gatifar is crushed

    564
    Army service was made compulsory for simple people of Empire Wey, and two armies were organized. Army of nobles - fubin - was balanced by army of people. Fubin came from military organization of Syanbinian tribe Toba, who conquered Northern China in 4 c.

    564
    Service in army was mandatory for Syanbinian clansmen. In reward they received land parcels, and were released from any other obligations. Service was inherited, and with time soldiers become a privileged caste.

    564
    Initially army consisted exclusively of Syanbinians, but later it was supplemented by rich Chinese from Shansi and Shensi who accepted foreign dynasty after it adopted Chinese culture and language.

    565
    Avars under Khan Bayan (c. 565-602) subjugate Hunnugur and Sabir, and other Hunnic hordes, assimilating them under Avar Khaganate.

    565
    After defeat of their forces by Avars, Khazars took lead in Sabir-Khazar federation. Part of Sabirs move north, to Middle Itil region, among settled there Bulgarian tribes. Their main city Suvar is a great center of Itil Bulgaria.

    565
    Pannonia came under pressure from Avars, Lombardian new king, Alboin, found support from Constantinople less then he had hoped for.

    565
    Langobards destroys Gepidian Reign

    565
    Goktürkic Khagan Mugan Khagan and Istemi Yabgu defeat Ephtilites at Neseph. Considered fall year of Ephtilite state. Ephtilites traces lost in history

    565
    Hephthalite territory divided between Iran and Goktürk Khaganate. Border between them ran west of Balkh and east of Murgab

    566
    Between 566 and 571 Istemi Yabgu subjugated peoples Bandjar, Balandjar (Belendjer) and Khazar. Barandjar (Balandjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bulgars. Khazar influence increased as Khazars became Goktürks' closest allies and assistants.

    567
    Goktürks capture Bosphorus

    567
    Gepidic kingdom defeated by Avars

    567
    Avars ally with Longobards

    567
    Goktürk embassy to Sasanids, with a request for Silk Route transit trade through their territories is rejected

    568
    Sirs live in towns and have ports in Djurdjan, across Amu-Darya

    568
    Avars occupy Panonia

    568
    Lombardian King Alboin led a host of Lombards, Gepids, Sarmatians and other peoples (including Hunnic Bulgars, per Paul the Deacon) from Pannonia to Italy. Others, amongst them Bavarians, Saxons and Taifali, joined the invasion en route

    568
    As Lombardian King Alboin advanced, vacuum left behind them was filled by Avars, Bulgars and Slavs

    568
    Goktürk embassy to Constantinople led by a Soghdian Maniakh, proposing to ally against Sasanians

    569
    Goktürks invade and conquer Sirs.

    569
    Zemarkh embassy to Goktürks, with five further embassies exchanged by 576

    569
    Goktürk war agains Sasanians; penetration of Kabul and Gandhara regions

    570
    Kutugurs, as all people on Itil ruled by Goktürks, are encouraged by rise of Avars as alternative to Goktürk suzerainty.

    570
    Syanbinian Jujan horde keeps robbing neighbors. Language = Syanbinian Consider themselves to be ethnically Tobases.

    570
    Khazars are ruled by Western Goktürk Khaganate (570-659)

    570
    Goktürk rulers receive 100,000 pieces of silk tribute a year from China. Goktürks are the first Eurasian steppe empire to extend from Roman/Byzantine world in west, Iranian/Sasanian in south and Chinese in East

    572
    572-591 Goktürks and Byzantines ally against Sassanians

    572
    Goktürks subjugate Utiguri until about 581.

    572
    Western Goktürk Khaganate's "Ulus" on lower Itil and Yaik

    572
    Mugan Khan (4) dies in 572, his younger brother Tobo (5) becomes Khan (572-581)

    572
    Peace between Bey-Tsi and Goktürks

    574
    Embassy from Khotan to Bey-Chjou

    575
    Istemi Yabgu (2) dies, his son Dyangu (Tardu) Kara ChurinTürk (7) becomes Tardu Yabgu (575-603).

    575
    Uturgurs are allied with W. Goktürk Khaganate.

    575
    Alliance between Goktürks and Uturgurs

    576
    Tardu Yabgu sends Bokhan to attack Byzantine in Crimea and Panticapeum (Kerch) as a leader of Utigur Huns under chief Anagai.

    576
    Utugurs under Khan Anagai, as auxiliaries of Goktürks, take Bospor. Utugurs remain on N. Caucasus from Dagestan to Derbent, under W. Goktürk Khaganate suzerainty

    576
    Goktürks establish Khazar Khanate.

    576
    Bulgars of lower Itil and Kuban are loyal to Goktürkish dynasty Ashina

    576
    Goktürks are on both sides of Kerch straight. Goktürkic army leader (Tma Tarkhan) on Taman peninsula, giving name to city Tmutarkhan

    577
    Goktürks invade Crimea

    578
    Slavs invade Ellada

    578
    Bysantium allies with Avars. Avars defeat Slavs, killing their Prince Davrit

    578
    Regions along lower Danube were in 6th and 7th centuries inhabited by Sclavinae, Antes, and Huns (probably Bulgarians). Moldavia and northeastern Muntenia were populated by Slavic tribe of Antes.

    579
    Avarian ultimatum by Kagan Bayan to sessede city Sirmiy. Tiberius refuses. Avars capture Sirmiy after a two tear siege

    580
    Presence in Istria of hostile to Bysantium Slavs and Avars. Avars were partly responsible for southward migration of Serbs and Croats

    580
    Slavic chieftain sacked Corinth

    580
    Avars conquered and plundered cities and strongholds in Hellas

    580
    Goktürks invade Lasica

    580
    Peace of Bay-djou with Kaganate

    581
    Tobo (5) dies, Shetu (9) becomes Khagan (581-587).

    581
    Tardu Yabgu sends Bokhan to attack Cheronesus as a leader of Utigur Huns under chief Anagai.

    581
    Goktürks at Chersonessus walls

    581
    581-584 Devastating raid of Slavs through Thrace, Macedonia and Ellada. Settlement of Slavs in Thrace

    581
    Khans Ashina are Türks and are" wolves". Syanbian quean describes her husband Shabolio as Wolf by his personality.

    581
    Chinese revolt against Syanbinian dynasty. New dynasty received name Suy. Sinadized Syanbinian elite survived.

    582
    Avar Khagan Bayan attacks Byzantium in Thrace.

    582
    Kuturgur Hun Bolgars settle in Bessarabia and Wallachia, from which they will move to Moesia under pressure from Magyars, and make it Bulgaria.

    582
    Hunnic Khan Zabergan (558?-582) dies, Gostun becomes Hunnic Khan ruling over Kutigurs.

    582
    Shetu Kagan appoints Gostun Kutigurian Khan

    582
    Goktürkic Khaganate officially breaks up into Western and Eastern Khaganates. Khwarezm (lower part of Amu Darya R., S. of Aral Sea) and Sugd/Sogdiana (Zerafshan and Kashka Darya R., including area around Samarkand) likely autonomous kingdoms to become independent in next century with Tang defeat of Goktürks

    582 EASTERN GOKTÜRK KAGANATE
    582 - 840 A.D
    Founder -
    Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
    582 WESTERN GOKTÜRK KAGANATE
    582 - 659 A.D
    Founder -
    Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)
    582
    582 - 602 Rule of Byzantine Emperor Maurice. First mention of Khazars in Byzantine annals, along with Bulgars and Barsils. Noted their coming from Bersilia, supposedly in Caspian steppe

    582
    Avar Khagan Bayan appointed Gostun as Kutriguri Khan (582-584 AD) (House Ermi) after Khan Zabergan's death in an invasion of Byzantium in northern Illyricum. Avars and Hunno-Bulgars attacked and seized Fortress of Sirmium on lower Sava River. Byzantium hastily concluded peace treaty with Avars, promising to give them an annual tribute of 80,000 gold coins

    583
    Avarian attack on Byzantium

    584
    Hunnic Khan Gostun (582-584) dies, Orchona (584-594) becomes regent of his nephew Kubrat

    584
    New Emperor recognizes queen Khan's wife as daughter, thus Shetu as son, thus recognizing previous traditions of trading with Goktürks as a form of paying tribute, and confirming privileges of Syanbinian elite. Shetu acknowledges vassalage to empire.

    584
    New Slav attack on Constantinople. Defeat and retreat

    586
    Avars and Slavs besieged Thessalonica

    587
    Shetu (9) dies, Moho (14) becomes Khagan, followed by Tulan (Ün-Ulug) (16) (587-599). Tulan has anti-khan Tuli (Jangar) (18) (600-609) supported by empire.

    587
    Byzantium peace with Avars

    588
    Shetu Khan (19) dies, Ün Ulug (Tulan) (Dulan) (16) (587-599) becomes Khan

    588
    China open markets for trade with Türks

    588
    582? Separation of Goktürkic Empire into East (Mongolia) and West (Turkestan) parts

    589
    W. Goktürk Khaganate campaign against Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars. Both Khazars and Bulgars are confederated (jointed voluntarily, not as conquered) into W. Goktürk Khaganate.

    589
    W. Goktürk Khaganate's Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth. Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured wealth.

    589
    Invasion of Khazars, Greeks and Georgians to Agvania is repelled by Persians

    590
    Under dynasty Suy position of fubin worsened. Soldiers were moved from "military" lists to "Civil household lists", thus exemption from taxes ended. This was aimed against Syanbinian privileges left from Syanbinian overlordship.

    594
    Hunnic Regent Orchona (584-594) dies, Kubrat accends to Khanship (594-642).

    594
    Judging from some eparchial lists from end of 7-th or beginning of 8-th century, in 7-th century there was an Onogurian episcopate in Gothic eparchy. This attests early spread of Christianity among Onogurs

    594
    Theophanes Confessor and Constantinus Porphyrogeneus explicitly state that Bulgarians, settled on Balkans, had been called earlier Unogundurs

    594
    Byzantine patriarch Nicephorus calls ruler of Great Bulgaria khan Kubrat "ruler of Unogundurs"

    594
    Heir of throne, Tulan Khagan's cousin, Tuli (Jangar), with a title of Toleses' Khan = Tuli Khan, was Khan of north-east territory. Tuli Khan had vassals ShiWey (Tatars), Kidanes, Khi (Tatabs).


    598
    Kara Churin embassy to Constantinipole

    599
    Tulan (Ün-Üylüy) (16) is killed, Kara Churin Türk (7) becomes Khan with title Boke Khan (599-604)

    599
    Chinese fight successfully in Ordos



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  9. #9
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    600-649 AD
    DATELINE
    Time Events
    600
    Tulan (Ün-Üylüy) (16) dies, Jangar (Tuli) (18) (600-609) assumes control of all Eastern Goktürk Khaganate, in vassalage of Chinese empire.

    601
    Byzantians defeat Avars

    601
    Th. Simokattes: Priskos, Byzantine general, defeated Avars in Banat and collected 9.000 prisoners, 3,000 Avars, 800 Slavs, 3,200 Gepidae, and 2,000 “barbarians”

    602
    Byzantium general Priscus defeats Avars. Bayan (c. 565-602) dies. Next Khan rules (602-630).

    602
    HAZAR EMPIRE
    602-1016 A.D
    Founder - no historical data for founder, its greatest ruler was Hakan Yusuf.
    Area - Hazars separated from Goktürks and formed a state from Caucasian Mntns to Danube and N. Pontic area

    603
    Tardu Khan (7) dies in 603, his grandson Buri-Shad (13/14/15) becomes Khan of partitioned Western Goktürk Khaganate, controlling westernmost part. Chulo (10) controls eastern part.

    603
    Kushans rebel against Iran with help from Goktürks. Tocharistan separates from Iran

    604
    Rebellious Tele in basin of Selenga area pacified, but Djungaria and basin of Tarim did not return to Eastern Goktürk Khaganate.

    604
    New dynasty treat carefully descendants of Tobases (Syanbinians). Assimilated Syanbinians live along Great Wall from Khebey to Chanan. There were many large landowners and professional military pushed from power by Chinese landowners who took power.

    604
    Kara Churin Türk Boke Khan (7) dies, Goktürk Kaganate split into West and East. Tuli (Jangar) (18) becomes Khan of Eastern Goktürk Kaganate, Taman (28) becomes Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (604-610).

    604
    Nominally Djungaria and basin of Tarim entered Western Goktürk Khaganate. However Kibi on northern slopes of East Tian-Shan and Seyanto on S. Slopes of Altain-Nuru crest fought western Goktürks for 2 years (605-606) and gained freedom.

    605
    Kidanes revolt against Goktürk suppression

    606
    New state was created in Djungaria, under Kibi leadership, with a vast territory and including settled population necessary for nomadic state, in oasises Karashar, Turfan and Khami. Kibi's Prince Gelen took title Mokhe-Khan.

    606
    Leader of Seyantos Ishibo subordinated to Gelen but retained control over his tribe. State was likely a tribal union.

    607
    Order about outlawing a free trade of Chinese with Goktürks

    608
    Wars between Tele and Goktürks of Western Khaganate end.

    608
    Troops of Empire Suy attack Togon and destroy it.

    608
    Jangar Khan (Tuli) (18) (-608) died, his son, Shad Dugi, becomes Khan of East Goktürk Khaganate in vassalage of Empire Tan, under name Shibir (Shipi) Khan (25) (609-620).

    609
    Troops of Empire Suy attack Tele and Western Goktürk Khaganate

    610
    610-620 Avar Slavs raided Thessalia, Hellas, Aegean Islands, Achaia, and Epirus

    610
    Marquart: Leader of Unugurs (Unogundurs) Organa, founder of Bulgarian Dynasty Dulo, uncle of Kubrat Dulo, related to Ashina by female line, of most-western ulus, is baptized in Constantinople. Kubrat is not baptized.

    610
    Future Sibir-Khan (14), Mokhodu, of most western ulus is baptized in Constantinople. This starts his fight with Buri Shad (34) (610-618) and Tardu Yabgu (Tun-djabgu) (23) (618-630). Kubrat is not baptized.

    610
    Taman Yabgu (28) dies, Buri Shad Yabgu (34) becomes Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (610-618). Chulo (26) = anti-Khan (610-611).

    615
    Tobases living along northern border of Western Wey stopped being Tobases long ago, but did not become Chinese yet. They are equally distanced from steppes and China, and equally close to both. Goktürks called them Tabgach.

    615
    In time of revolt Tabgaches participated because of warlike ancestry, but acted aimlessly, because lost organization and unity.

    617
    617(?) A defeat from Byzantines resulted in deterioration of situation for Avar’s Khakan. Alburi killed at court of Avar’s Khakan.

    617
    Shi Wey, along with Kidan, Togon and Gaochan submitted to Shibir Khan Khagan (25).

    618
    Buri Shad Yabgu (34) dies, Tung Yabgu (23) becomes Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (618-630).

    618
    Bu-Yurgan refused to be elected Baltavar, saying, that he will be a bolyar, i.e. a cleric. On his advice, Kara Bulgars elected Alburi’s senior son Kurbat a Baltavar

    619
    Kubrat allies with Byzantium against Avars.

    619
    Both Tele leaders, Kibi's Mokhe-Khan and Seyanto's Inan, subordinate to Tung Yabguu Khan = Yabgu of Shenuy. Djungaria returned to Western Goktürk Khaganate.

    619
    Sirs are controlled by Tung Yabgu Khan directly.

    619
    Baptism of "Hunnish Khan" in Constantinopole. Avars reach Constantinopole.

    619
    China breakes union with Goktürks. Capture of Khesi. Lyan Shi-du and Lyu U-Chjou invade N China with Goktürkic support

    620
    Shambat, younger brother of Baltavar Kubrat, on Kubrat order, builds in aul Askal on mountains Kuyantau city-fortress named Bashtu, present Kiev. Other names Askal, Kuk-Kuyan, Shambat, Kyi.

    620
    Shibir Khagan (25) (609-620) dies, Kat Il Khan (27) becomes Khan of Eastern Goktürk Khaganate, free from vassalage of empire (620-630).

    620
    In 200 years descendants of Syanbinians assimilated in Tibet. Tsenpo was an inherited position, he received income from lands, taxes, tributes, confiscations and executions. But he could be dismissed at any time because he did not have support or real pow

    620
    Tibet army was under a special advisor. Tsenpo Nimry (570-620). In following history there is no Syanbinian role,

    620
    Avarian retreat from Constantinople

    622
    The Hijra. Start of Islam as a world event

    622
    Union of Lu Shey-da with Goktürks

    623
    Several successfull uprisings of Slavic tribes against Avars are recorded, for example revolt of Vends in 623.

    623
    Avars reigned over a vast territory between Alps, Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    623
    Shambat starts war against Avars, with Ulchis (Slavs) and Ugrs. Shambat captures Pannonia and calls his ulus Duloba (623-658). Baltavar Kubrat calls him Kyi (Separated).

    623
    Slavs attacked Crete

    623
    Byzantine authors recorded ethnic composition of Avar Empire as Avars, Gepids, and Slavs

    623
    Birth of Samo state, first political formation of Slavs, first mentioned in writing in 623

    625
    Exchange of embassies between Byzantium and Western Goktürkic Khaganate

    626
    (Onogur?) Bulgars live in Trans-Caucasus on right bank of Kuban' to Don Different fr and rival to Khazars

    626
    Avars controlled all Kuturgur Hun lands Uturgur (Onogur?) Bolgars did not participate in Khazars' war raids into Caucasus Uturgur (Onogur?) Bolgars guarded western border of Western Kaganate Uturgur (Onogur?) Bolgars are allied with Tele (Dulu).

    626
    W. Goktürk Khaganate campaign against Sasanian Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars

    626
    Khazars and (Onogur?) Bulgars confederated (voluntarily, not conquered) into W. Goktürk Khaganate. Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth. Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured we

    626
    Kubrat proclaims independence from W. Goktürk Khaganate and assumes title of Khagan.

    626
    While Heraclius with W, Goktürk Khaganates fights Persians in Caucasus, Persians with Avars attack Constantinople. Avars retreat with heavy losses and in disgrace. Kubrat suggests sucking Avar Khagan and replacing him. End of Avar-Persian union.

    626
    Khazars ally with Byzantine under Emperor Heraclius (626-630)

    626
    Li Shi-min coup. Peace with Goktürks at river Vey

    626
    Greeks and Goktürks seige Tbilisi

    626
    Avars suffered a crushing defeat at Constantinople in 626

    627
    Seyanto tribe and Djungaria left Western Goktürk Khaganate and joined Eastern Goktürk Khaganate Kat Il Khan

    627
    Cinese embassy to Tun-Yabgu Khan stopped by Kat Il Khan

    627
    Seyanto and Uygurs, both Tele tribes, help each other in Goktürk Khaganate. Seyanto's Inan and Uygur's Pusa support each other.

    627
    Series of revolts against Avars start among subjugated tribes. Uprising of western Slavs, led by Samo, a Frankish merchant, resulted in founding of a Slavic state on territory of present-day Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    627
    Avars and Perians beseige Contantinopole

    628
    Khazars capture Tbilisi

    628
    Seyanto tribe with 70K yurts gains independence.

    629
    Chinese take fortress May in Ordos. Counterattack by Goktürks on all fronts. Srontsangambo enthroned in Tibet

    630
    Bulgars/Barsils are incorporated into elite of W. Goktürk Khaganate horde.

    630
    Great Bulgaria north of Black Sea under Kubrat (630-660)

    630
    End of rule of Khazars by Goktürk W Khaganate

    630
    Seyanto pursue Goktürk Chebi Khan who finds refuge in Altai valley with 30K army.

    630
    Avars treat Bulgars/Barsils badly as conquered people. Western Bulgars/Kuturgurs move to Bavaria, and are annihilated by Frankish king Dagober. Eastern Bulgars/Kuturgurs joint with Bulgars/Uturgur

    630
    Avar Khagan (602-630) dies. Next Khan rules (630-?).

    630
    Sibir-Khan (14) recognized independence of Bulgaria under Kubrat of Dulo dynasty, his nephew of feminine line.

    630
    Qarluqs rebel, Tung Yabgu (23) dies, W. Goktürk Khaganate split, SW and NE. SW run by Nushibis, under Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) (631-631), installed by Nishu Khan Shad (32), son of Baga Shad (24). NE run by Tele (Dulu), under Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) (630-631).

    630 Irbis Bolun Yabgu-Khan was to personify restoration of Türküt rule over tribal federations, but failed. Irbis Bolun Yabgu-Khan received nickname Sydjabgu, i.e. "treacherous" (Djabgu for Yabgu indicates "joking" dialect of Türküts), widely recorded in late antique sources as Silzibul, Zildjibul etc. Taken as a title, this name may also have been applied to following Yabgu's
    630
    Chinese Tang defeat Eastern Goktürkic and occupy Eastern Goktürkic Khanate (Mongolia). Kat Il Khan (27) taken prisoner by Tang army, Eastern Goktürk Khaganate is ruled by Tang Empire for 50 years (630-682)

    630
    630-640 Chinese subdue Tarim Basin

    630
    Türks of Ordos become known as Gok Türks (Blue Türks), different from their northern neighbors - Tele

    630
    80 K Chinese living with Goktürks are captured

    630
    Tardu Tong Yabgu of Western Khaganate (619-630), per Chinese shronicle Tanshu, subjugated Toleses between rivers Orkhon and Tola and Aral Lake, to Iranians, and advanced to Khandagar in south. His army has hundreds of thousands good bow-shooters.

    630
    W. Goktürks invade Armenia and defeat Persians. W. Goktürks clear S Caucasus

    630
    Xuanzang visits court of W. Türk kaghan Tung Yabghu near Lake Issyk-Kul

    631
    Seyanto tribe keeps independence.

    631
    Seyanto under China = 70K wagons

    631
    Uygur leader Tumidu, heir of Pusa, defeated Seyantos and seized their ranges. Emperor Taitszun sent an embassy to Seyanto leader Inan and recognized him as Khan, as a counterweight to Uygurs. Uygurs subordinated and recognized new Khan.

    631
    Seyanto state organized like Türk's. Khan's sons are Shads, leading Tolos (North) and Tardush (South). Army numbered 200K lances, smaller than was 1,000K of Gokürks' Shibir Khan.

    631
    Seyanto state successfully controlled all Türkic leaders except for Ordos Türks under Chinese protection. Some Ordos Türks move north into Seyanto state.

    631
    Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) replaced by Nishu Khan Shad (32) as Dulu Khan (631-634). Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) killed. W. Goktürk Khaganate reunited.

    631
    New Seyanto state spread from Altai to Khingan and from Gobi desert to Baikal.

    631
    Kutugur's rebelion against Avars and defeat of Kutugurs by Avars

    631
    Samo Slavs in 631 beat Frank Army of King Dagobert near Vogatisburg and gain their independence from Franks and Avars

    632
    Seyanto gave a blow from behind. Ashina Chuni, loyal to traditions of Eastern Kaganate, raised his army against Seyanto. He had 50K army without success.

    632
    Yishbara Tolis Shad (33) is not trying to re-subjugate Bulgars

    632
    Kipchaks are not in 10 arrows of Western Kaganate

    633
    Kubrat unites Bulgar Kuturgur and Uturgur tribes and liberated from W. Goktürk Khaganate.

    633
    Kubrat organizes state, 2nd=kavkhan, 3rd=lchirguboyl ??

    634
    Seyanto tribe with 70K wagons keeps independence.

    634
    Dulu Khan (32) (631-634) dies, his younger brother Tong Shad becomes Yabgu as Yshbara Tolis-Shad Yabgu (634-639).

    635
    Kubrat escaped dominance of Goktürks and Khazars, by supporting Sibir-Khan in 630. He became independent, defeated Avars. Controlled near- Black Sea steppes

    635
    Kubrat sent embassy to Constantinople and received title of Patrician. Kubrat's Bulgaria joins Byzantium as Federatae. Byzantium becomes a bordering state with Khazaria of W. Goktürk Khaganate, controlling former Khazar territories.

    635
    In W Goktürk Kaganate nations that did not receive autonomy were Karluks, Yagma (YanNyan), Kipchaks, Basmals, and Hun (Dulu) tribes Chue, Chumi and Shato

    635
    Yshbara Tolis-Shad Yabgu reorganizes W. Goktürk Khaganate into 10-arrow Goktürks, of 5 Nushibi and 5 Tele (Dulu) tribal leaders, recognizing them as Shads (blood prince).

    636
    Bulgaria hostile with Khazars of W. Goktürk Khaganate on East, with Avars on West, with Byzantium on South.

    636
    NE of Western Goktürk Khaganate controlled by Tele Khan Tong Shad Yabgu, who attempts to unite W. and E. Goktürk Khaganates.

    639
    Seyanto ally with Gaochan in defense of Gaochan from aggression of Empire Tan. Gaochan is attacked and occupied.

    639
    Yishbara Tolis Shad (33) died, then (42), then cousin Bagadur, title = Irbis Yshbara Yabguu Khan (37)

    639
    Capital of 'South Horde' at Chu & Ili

    641
    Türks in service of Tan Empire are moved to north bank of Khuankhe and serve as a barrier against Seyanto.

    641
    Seyanto Khan Inan organized expedition against restored Goktürk vassal Khaganate on north bank of Khuankhe. Seyanto army demolished 80%.

    641
    Kipchaks have 100K people, 40K army, 90 K horses

    641
    Irbis Yshbara Yabgu Khan executed (37), his brother Yugu-Ukuk (38) selected Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (641-651)

    641
    Kipchak on Altai subordinated to Khan Ükuk Yabgu

    641
    Boma on Enisey subordinated to Khan Ükuk Yabgu

    642
    First Khazar - Arab war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman

    642
    Imperial Chinese garrison in Khami deafeats W Goktürks of Irbis Dulu Khan

    645
    Seyanto Khan Inan died

    646
    Remains of Seyanto Horde loose to Empire Tan army and are dispersed. Uygurs fought Seyanto with Empire Tan and become loyal subjects and fight in all wars for Empire

    646
    Seyanto Khanate was destroyed by Empire and their allies Uygurs, people were mercilessly wiped out. Remains of Seyanto dispersed by slopes of Beyshan, and joined Goktürks

    646
    Empire Tan breakes relations with W Goktürkic Khaganate

    649
    Türk Chebi Khan horde is resettled in East Khanganate vacated by Seyanto



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  10. #10
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    650-699 AD
    DATELINE

    Time
    Events

    650
    Irbis becomes first Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate (650?-….)

    650
    Kipchaks move to Upper Irtysh and E. Kazakhstan steppes under pressure from China and Uygurs

    650
    In village Nagi Szent Miklos in Hungary is found famous treasure, 23 golden cups with Türkic inscriptions, dated by Avar period (c 650)

    650
    Migration of Bulgars to middle Itil, attested to by burial sites in Shilovka and Brusyany. Burials are of Türkic nobility with complex rites and rich implements.

    651
    With loss of W.Goktürk Khaganate rule, former confedrate Khazaria with attached Bulgar Kutugurs, Alans, Slavs and Itil Bulgars gain independence. Khazars keep Kagan from Ashina dynasty.

    651
    Defeat of Khazar-Alan army by Abd Al Rahman Arabs in Euthrates battle.

    651
    W. Goktürks take Tinchjou (Bishbalyk = Head City)

    652
    End of first Khazar - Arab war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman

    653
    Ükuk (38) died, son Chjenchu (39) (653-659)

    655
    Khazars allied with Alans

    656
    Murder of Calif Osman. Civil war in Califate

    656
    Founded Khazarian state

    656
    Advance of Chinese inperians against W Goktürkic Khaganate. Rebelion of Baiyrku, Sige, Bugu and Tonra against Empire Tan. Sogdiana occupied by Chinese (657-700)

    658
    Great Bulgaria, Baltavar Kubrat's state, is divided into 2 uluses, Western Kara Bulgar and Eastern Ak Bulgar Yorty, separated by river Shir (Don).

    658
    Kara Bulgar extended from estuary of (Danube) to Shir (Don). Ak Bulgar Yorty extended from Shir (Don) to estuary of Itil (Volga). Border went by river Aksu, including aul Kharka (current Kharkov). Bulyar was included as semi-autonomous beylik

    658
    Great Bulgaria's capital Bandja, renamed fron Onoguria (Gr. Phanagoria). Summer stan is Khorysdan or Batavyl ( Lord's stan), present Putivl. In between are two more stans, Tiganak and Baltavar, present Poltava

    659
    Tang defeat last rulers of first Goktürkic empire. Chjenchu (39) executed, end of dynasty. Western Goktürkic Kaganate ceased to exist forever. Yshbara Khan died

    660
    Khan Kubrat Dulo (24) (618-660) died, is buried 13 km from Baltavar, present Poltava, burial excavated in 1912, no anthropological, forensic examination

    660
    Kubrat's 1st son Bayan (Batbayan) is elected Baltavr and remains in Great Bulgaria, confederated with Khazars

    660
    Kubrat's 2nd son Kotrag resettled his Kuturgurs (Kotrags) West of Don, and in 730-740 they spread to E. Azov area to join Kuban Bulgars. Kotrag domain consisted of groups Barsula, Eskel and Bulkar (Bulgar)

    660
    Kubrat's 3rd son, Atilkese, nicknamed Asparukh (Khan Asparukh) heads Onogurs (Utigurs)

    660
    Agvanian Djevanshir defeats Khazars

    662
    Tibetians penetrate Western region to support rebelling Türks

    662
    Arabs fight Khazars for Derbent

    663
    Dismemberment of Great Bulgaria - Divided up among Kubrat's five sons, third of which was Asparukh, Khan of Utiguri.

    665
    With death of Prince Samo first Slavic state is re-intrgrated into Avar Khaganate in 665

    665
    Kutlug (56) restores E. Goktürk Khaganate, becomes Elteres Khagan (665-691)

    667
    150K Kumans, Turkmens, Gok-Oguses and Kyrgises, confederated with Khazars, cross Itil from the east. Shambat and Asparukh battle Khazars, loose and flee to Bashtu, present Kiev.

    667
    Arabs defeat Peroz, last Sassanian shah, and cross Oxus River (Amu Darya) for the first time

    668
    Peace treaty between Khazars' Kagan Kaban and Kara Bulgar's Baltavar Bat-Boyan. Kara Bulgar is subordnated to Khazar.

    669
    Split of Kara Bulgar into W. and E. of Dniepr. West is controlled by Shambat and Asparukh, and East, including Bulyar, by Baltavar Bat-Boyan

    670
    Bat-Boyan Bulgars are defeated by Khazars. Khazars recover territory with east Bulgar (Utugur) and Alan populations.

    670
    Khazars under Alp-Ilitver defeat Bulgars

    671
    Large Horde of Kubrat's 3rd son, Atilkese, nicknamed Asparukh, after death of Shambat in 670, moved west with Onogurs (Utigurs) and some Turkmen (Byzantian historians call them Bolgars from now on), to Danube and Pannonia district Kashan, between rivers B

    673
    Arab raids to Bukhara, across Oxus River

    675
    Bulgars arrive on Danube under Asparukh

    678
    Kubrat's 4th son Kuber (Ultzindur?) (Balkor?) moved from S of Crimea his Ultzindurs and Ultzingurs of Hunnish stock to Pannonia under Avars (678-679)

    678
    Kubrat's 5th son Emnetzur (Altsek) moved his Alciagirs, Alcildzurs and Alpidzurs from Crimea to Italy under Byzantines, to duchy of Benevetto/Abruzi region, Pentapolis at Ravenna.

    679
    Byzantine's Constantine IV attacks Asparukh Bulgars. Bulgars retaliate, take Scythia and lower Moesia, Pliska becomes Khans' new headquarters

    679
    Chuvash may be descendants of Utugur Bulgars and Volgo-Kama Bulgars. Tatars may be descendants of Utugur Bulgars and Volgo-Kama Bulgars

    679
    Territorially, Bulgar's split is along Kutugur/Utugur uluses, with Kutugurs independent of Avar and W. Goktürk Khaganates, and Utugurs remaining in W. Goktürk Khaganate sphere

    679
    Kubrat's Bulgaria is split into independent (Byzantium Federatae) west Khanate under Asparukh, controlling from Donets on East to Danube on West, and Eastern Ak Bulgar Yorty, subject to Khazar Kagan from Itil to Donets, with capital Onogoria (Gr. Phanago

    679
    Kipchaks restored Goktürk Kaganate, second component = Sirs, descendants of Seyanto, became 'Kok Goktürk' = Blue Türks, known as Kipchaks from that time

    679
    Revolt Against Tan Empire

    679
    Asparukh Bulgars invade Thrace

    680
    Asparukh Khaganate includes Slavs. Asparukh Khaganate spreads into Dobrudja south of Danube

    680
    Asparukh 680 treaty with Slavs recognizes their self-government and territory. Slav princes participate in people assembly along with Bulgarian nobles. state administration consists of a Khan and 12 Great Boyls

    680
    Slav's obligation to Bulgars is to pay tribute and supply military contingents. state capital established in Pliska in Moesia

    680
    Empire of Avars peaked at end of 7th century (680 AD), after devision of Kubrat Bulgaria between Avars and Khazars, when it reached from Volga to Danube

    680
    In Avaria, men were laid down in tombs with their horses, arms, and horse-trappings. Tomb objects are characterized by geometrical ornaments pressed upon a print, with a certain degree of Byzantine influence

    680
    Arab raids to Khwarizm, Samarkand

    682
    Albanian missionary bishop Israel describes "Kingdom of Huns" (Belenjer) capital Varachan located north of Derbent, and Tangri cult of Northern Dagestan Baranjar (Balanjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bolgars, subordinated to Khazars

    682
    Kutlug is proclamed Khagan, title Ilterish (Country Creator) and oranized a second Khanate, appointing his brother Kapagan as Shad, and another brother Tosifu as Yabgy

    683
    Successful Türkic rebellion led by Kutlug Ilterish (56) and Tonyukuk, restoration of Türkic Goktürk Khaganate

    683
    Khazar raid to Armenia

    684
    Khazar raid to Cis-Causasus

    688
    Greek occupation of Cis-Causasus

    689
    Otuz-Tatars are hostile to Kutlug Khan state

    690
    Bulgar Khan Bat-Boyan (660-690) dies, succeeded by his son Bu-Timer (690-700) in vassalage of Khazars

    691
    Kutlug Khan (56) (682-691) died, succeeded by his brother Mochur (Bak-chor) (Mochjo) (Mochur) (57) (691-716) as Kapagan Khan

    692
    Boma live N. of Kyrgyz Khanate

    692
    Kutlug Khan subordinated Khalka

    692
    Kipchaks mixed with Kangar (Besenyos, Russ. 'Pecheneg') between Black Irtysh and Syr-Darya in Desht-i-Kipchak

    694
    Embassy from Kurykans arrived to China. Rebellion of Ashina Suytsy and his alliance with Tibetians. Chinese imperial troops crush Tibetians, Turgeshes and W Goktürks



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  11. #11
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    700-749 AD
    DATELINE

    Time
    Events

    700
    Khazars are frequently allied with Huns of North Caucasus. Alp, Elteber of Huns of North Caucasus, is a vassal of Khazars. Huns capital city is Varachan (late 10 c)

    700
    Tatars lived north of Tatabs and Kara-Kibi, on Kerulen tributary of Amur river, in those times mostly engaged in fishing

    700
    Oguz tribe federation relocates in great numbers from Orkhon area to vicinity of Talas, then to Syr Darya. Oguz dialect separates from Eastern Türkic, and by 11th century Oguz language of Syr Darya differs from Eastern Türkic in lexicon and pronounciation

    701
    Khan Asparukh (679-701) of Danube Bulgaria dies, his son or grandson Terval (702-718) succeeds him

    703
    Busir (Ibousir-Glavan) becomes Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate (703?-….)

    703
    Khazar royal princess ….. marries Bysantine emperror Justinian II to become Empress Theodora

    704
    Ashina Khayn subjugated Semirechye for Empire Tan. Shato subdued without fight. Subjugated Western Turks and bowed Karluks, Huvu and Shunishes

    705
    Khan of Danube Bulgaria Tervel aids Justinian II in regaining his control of Constantinople after a rebellion. Afterwards, Terval is crowned "Caesar"

    705
    Beginning of systematic Arab conquest of Transoxania. Qutaiba ben Muslim becomes Governor of Khurasan

    706
    Chinese break negociations with Goktürks

    708
    Chinese built three fortresses north of Huanhe against Goktürks

    709
    709 Arabs capture Bukhara and Samarkand. 711 Arabs capture Khiva. 712 Arabs subdue Khwarezm and recapture Samarkand. 713 Arabs sack Kashgar.

    711
    Khazars help to install Phillipicus as a Byzantine Emperor

    711
    Goktürks suppress rebelion of Turgeshes. Divisions in Khorezm

    712
    Khan-Caesar Tervel, after leaving Justinian II to his doom, sees fit to avenge his death by raiding and looting southern Thrace.

    712
    Kuteyba subjugates Khorezm and takes Samakand. Emperor appoints Mohedo Tutuk a ruler of Samakand

    713
    Arab embassy to China

    714
    Chinese, under emperor T'ai-tsong, defeat Goktürks at Lake Issyk-Kul.

    714
    Khazars loose Derbent to Arabs

    714
    Trurks are defeated at Byshbalyk. Shato subordinate to Empire Tan

    715
    Chinese beat back Goktürkic attacks on Beytin, and Arabs and Tibetians on Fergana 716 Luchen is taken from Kidanes. Turgeshes rebel against Empire and defeat Chinese and Karluks

    715
    Ases, and then Yasygs, are cruelly suppressed by Kapagan Khagan

    716
    Mochur (Bak-chor) (57) (691-716) Qapagan Khan died, after defeating Bayirku of upper Kerulen but killed on return trip. He was succeeded by Mogilyan (Mokilien) (63) (716-734), elder brother of Kul-tegin, installed by Kul-tegin. Peak of second Goktürk empire (716-734)

    718
    Danube Bulgars under Khan Tervel as federats of Byzantium defeat Arab invasion and save Byzantium. Khan-Caesar Terval (26) (702-718) dies, ?.. becomes Khan (718-725).

    718
    Orkhon Inscriptions on Tonyukuk slella are created, describing events and providing Türkic perspective. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters. Sources

    718
    Khazars invade Azerbaijan.

    720
    Goktürks' victory over Chinese imperians. Kashmirian Radj is given title Van

    722
    Second Khazar - Arab war (722-737) First campaign of Arabian troops led by Zh. Jirrah in Northern Caucasus against Alans and Khazars

    722
    Son of Türk Bilge Khagan, Tengru Khan, has 300K army

    723
    Khazars lose Balanjar to Arabs, move capital to Samandar

    723
    Start of massive Jewish emmigration to Khazaria (723-944)

    724
    In Avaria, after about 40 years, i.e., after 720 AD, figures of plants and animals were used more frequently, were cast and decorated. New art shows Türkic Asian features, probably a new population coming from east took place of earlier one

    724
    Second Jirrah's campaign in Northern Caucasus.

    725
    Danube Bulgar Khan ..?. (718-725) dies, end of Dulo dynasty. Sevar becomes Khan (725-740). Danube Bulgar Khanate expands.

    727
    Khazars invade Azerbaijan. Muslam's raid against Khazars

    730
    Khazar's Barjik leads 300K army to raid Azerbaijan (Albania?). At Arbadil, Khazars defeat entire Arab army.

    732
    Orkhon Inscriptions on Kul Tegin slella with a large and small inscriptions, and on Tonyukuk slella. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters. Sources

    732
    Otuz-Tatars moved from Goktürks to Amur-area taiga.

    732
    Khazar princess Chichek marries Bysantine emperror Constantine V to become Empress Irene.

    734
    Mogilyan Khan (63) poisoned, his son Yollyg-Tegin (Yijan) (65) died, his brother Bilge Kutlug Khan (66) succeeded as Tengri Khagan (66) (734-741).

    735
    Fubin annulled statuary. Chinese and foreign (Syanbinian) stratification was fixed and joining Chinese people was impossible. This started a new ethnical substrate. All non-Chinese could only join border army, hated by Chinese element

    735
    Campaign of Arabian military leader Mervan Kru in Alania. Alan king Itaz (Tr. It-As=Dutiful As)

    737
    Arabs force conversion to Islam. …... becomes first Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate to convert to Islam for political reasons (703?-….)

    737
    Khazars loose Samandar to Arabs, move capital to Itil

    737
    Goktürks attack Kucha

    740
    Danube Bulgaria Khan Sevar (725-740) dies, Kormisos becomes Khan (740-756)

    740
    Ashina Sin is appointed a ruler of ten tribes, sent west and killed. After his death Dumochji is appointed Yabgu of three tribes

    740
    UYGUR EMPIRE
    740 - 1335 A.D
    Founder - Kutlug Bilgekul Khan (Bilge Kutlug Tengri Khan)
    Area - Central Asia and Northern Mongolia

    743
    END OF GOKTÜRK EMPIRE
    552 - 743 A.D
    Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)
    Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

    744
    Ozmysh Khagan (68) (742-743) killed by Basmils. Basmils failed to take control of E. Goktürk Khaganate, and Uygurs, with Karluk help, set Kuli Peilo Khan as Kutlug Bilga Khagan (11) (Tengrida Bolmish El, Qutluq Bilge Qaghan) (742 - 747). Creation of Uygur

    744
    Uygurs substituted one Türkic people for another, closely related, for hegemony of Mongolia, in the next century (744-840)

    747
    Khan Marduan of Daghestani Bulgars, Burjans, build a small wooden city, named city Marduan. Khazars called it Mardukan. Present Bulgar (Great Bulgar)

    747
    Tatars lose a battle to Uygurs N-W of Selenga. Tatars were caught at Keyre spring and river Tri- birkyu, and lost half of army.

    747
    Ay Tengrida Qut Bolmish, Tutmish Bilge Qaghan (11) dies. Bayanchur (12) (747 -759).

    747
    Created Shine-usu, Terkhin and Tes inscriptions. Inscriptions are in Old Uygur?? language in Türkic alphabet. Kagan Bayanchur (747-759) relates 6-th c events with "QSR=QASAR". Sources



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  12. #12
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    750-849 AD
    DATELINE

    Time
    Events

    750
    Bulgars live along north-western shore of Caspian Sea

    750
    After living as neighbors of the Chuvash people for over 1,000 years, a part of the Hungarians moved to the south to "Levedia" in approximately 750 AD, while others remained between the River Volga and the Ural Mountains

    750
    Kengeres/Pecheneg/Kangar/Besenyos living west of Uygurs and are hostile with them

    751
    Defeat of Chinese armies at Talas river by a combined forces of Goktürks, Arabs and Tibetans. End of Chinese control over Turkestan. Paper starts spreading to Arabs and on to Europe

    752
    Tatars lived on eastern border of Uygyria.

    753
    Ilmish Kutlug Khan is Kara Khan of Goktürks

    755
    Constantine V (son of Leo III) builds a chain of forts along Bulgarian border. War begins between Danube Bulgars and Byzantines. After initial success, Bulgars are defeated.

    755
    Created Orkhon Inscription on Mogilyan Bilge Khan slella. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters. Sources

    756
    Danube Bulgaria Khan Kormisos (740-756) dies, Vinekh becomes Khan (756-761)

    759
    El Tutmish Alp Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. El Tekin (13) (759 - 779).

    760
    Khazar Khagan Boghatur (760?-…)

    760
    Bulgar Khan Tat-Ugek renames city Marduan to Bulgar, which becomes a center of small Burjan kingdom.

    761
    Khan Vinekh of Danube Bulgaria (756-761) and all his kin assassinated. Teletz of Ugain clan and a leader of conspiracy is elected new Khan (761-763).

    762
    Khazars, led by As Tarkhan, invade and re-conquer Cis-Caucasia.
    764 Khazars take Tbilisi

    763
    Danube Bulgaria Khan Telets seizes southern Thrace. Bulgars loose battle of Anchiel. Khan Telets (761-763) is murdered by hostile Boils for his failure. Umar, then Bayan (763-765) is elected new Khan

    765
    Danube Bulgaria Khan Bayan (763-765) is replaced by Toktu, then Magan, then Telerig (c.765-777) assumes Bulgarian Khan-hood.

    772
    War between Greeks and Danube Bulgars. Khazaria unites with Alania

    775
    Leo IV "Khazar" emperor of Byzantine Empire (775-780)

    777
    Danube Bulgaria Khan Telerig (c.765-777) is replaced by Kardam (c.777-c.803)

    779
    Alp Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Tonga Bagha (14) (779 - 789).

    780
    Leo II, greatson of Khazar Kagan, ruler of Abkhazia. (780-….)

    786
    Khazars help Abkhazia to free from Byzantine, and Abkhazia becomes Khazarian dependency

    789
    Tengride Bolmish Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Taras (15) (789 - 790).

    790
    Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Aychur (16) (790 - 795)

    790
    Shato subordinate to Tibet. Tibetians take Beytin and Kucha (Ansi) 791 Tibetians take Khotan

    791
    Franks met resistance on their campaign in area of Austria and Slovenia

    792
    Franks met with little resistance on their 2 campaigns in area of Austria and Slovenia because of Avar/Bulgar/Slav draught and famine

    792
    Avar leaders fought each other between 792 and 795, but Kaghan and Yugrush, his fellow ruler, were killed by their own men, who blamed them for draught and famine

    794
    Tibetians defeat Uygurs 795 Tatabs and Tatars are defeated by Chinese

    794
    According to archaeological evidence, Avars populated Banat, Crishana, and parts of Transylvania. Their number in Transylvania is not very high, but this is difficult to estimate. As in other territories, they probably lived together with Slavic tribes

    795
    Avars power broken, Franks destroyed residence of Kaganat. Nestor chronicle stipulates that all Avars died, but some retired to east of Tisza. Last reliable mention of Avars is from 822, and in 873 there is a record of uncertain character

    795
    Ay Tengride Ulugh Bolmish Alp Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Qutluq (17) (795 - 805)

    796
    Avar Kaghan and his warlords abandoned their capital Rhing before Frankish host reached it in 796, but 90 per cent of Charlemagne's horses that advanced as far as Gyõr in 791 also perished of famine

    796
    Avar state, weakened by internal dissent, was destroyed by a combined Frankish and Bulgarian Khan Kardam attack in 796

    803
    Danube Bulgaria Khan Kardam (c.777-c.803) is replaced by Krum (38) elected to Bulgarian Khan-hood (803-814). Bulgars under Khagan Krum unite with Franks to crush Avar Khaganate.

    804
    Khan Krum's army has 30,000 chain armored heavily armed cavalry, vs. Byzantium's less than 400.

    804
    Khan Krum venture to become independent suzerain, lays off federatae status, become Tzar, and absorbs Slavic and Avar territories and populations. Policy program for next half century.

    804
    Charlemagne and then Pepin defeat and subjugate Avar Khan in Pannonia, rob 2 centuries of treasuries. In 805 Avar Khagan Zodan baptized with name Theodore. Theodore continued ruling as a subject of Charlemagne

    804
    Joint forces of Bulgars and Franks crush and annihilate Avar Khaganate.

    805
    End of AVAR EMPIRE in Europe
    558-805 AD
    Founder - Khan Bayan
    Area - Pannonia, Balkans, Bessarabia, N. Pontic steppes to Tanais and Itil (Total Area - 2,500,000 Km2)
    Seat of Avar kaghan and his warlords east of Danube in Pannonia, known as Rhing

    805
    Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Unknown (18) (805 - 808)

    806
    Manicheans arrive to Chanan from Uygurs

    807
    Danube Bulgars and Greeks fight

    808
    Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Alp Bilge Qaghan. Unknown (19) (808 - 821).

    813
    Bulgars take Adrianopole

    813
    In 813, Krum led a large army of Slavs and Avars against Byzantium and besieged Constantinople without success. He died in following year

    814
    April 13, 814 While preparing another attack against Byzantines, Khagan Krum (38) bursts a blood vessel and dies. Khagan Omurtag (41) assumes Bulgarian Khan-hood (814-814). Boils rule Bulgaria - Chok (?) (?_?)

    814
    Khan Ditsen (40) (814-816)

    816
    Chok and Boils Danube Bulgars conclude a peace treaty with Byzantines to last thirty years, to be renewed every ten years

    816
    Khan Omurtag (41) (816-831)

    817
    Inhabitants of Samandar revolt against attempts by Khazar Khagan Karak introduce Judaism

    817
    Manichean missionaries are exiled to Uyguria

    818
    Danube Bulgars thrust to north as far as Kiev (818-820).

    819
    Kara Bulgarian Khan Aydar (819-855)

    820
    Khazars found Sambata (sam = high, bat = stronghold) and Kiev ( kui = low, ev = settlement), settled by Khazars and Magyars.

    821
    Preslav is completed - new Bulgarian capital.

    821
    Kun Tengride Ulugh Bolmish, Kuch Kuchluk Bilge Qaghan. Unknown (20) (821 - 824)

    824
    Tengride Qut Bolmish, Kuch Bilge Qaghan. Hazar Tekin (21) (824 - 832)

    827
    Danube Bulgars and Franks fight

    830
    Khazar Khagan Khan-Tuvan (Dyggvi) (830?-…)

    830
    Construction of Sarkel fortress by Khazars with Byzantium's help

    830
    Khzarian Kabars rebel against Bek (830-862)

    830
    First Rus Khaganate is established as ulus by Itil Bulgarian Khan Aydar (819-855)

    831
    Danube Bulgaria Khan Malamir (42) (831-837)

    832
    Danube Bulgars and Franks sign peace treaty

    832
    Tengride Qut Bolmish, Kuchluk Bilge Qaghan. Kho Tekin (22) (832 - 839)

    833
    Khan-Tuvan (Dyggvi) sends an embassy to Byzantine asking to send engineers-fortificators to build fortresses against Rus' attacks

    836
    Danube Bulgar Khan Presijan (43)(836-852)

    837
    Magyars crossed Dnieper from east around 837, occupying steppe as far as Danube by year 860

    837
    Atelkuzu, largely consisting of Ukraine, Moldavia and Eastern Wallachia, favoured survival at time of warming. As drought spread, it was possible to move flocks up-river to cooler, wooded regions, where fishing provided an extra food for semi-nomads

    837
    Magyar tribes, and chiefly ruling caste, moved up river as far as Kharka, Bashtu, and Galich

    839
    Kho Tekin (22) (832 - 839) dies. Kichik Tekin (23) (839 - 840)

    840
    Destruction of Uygur Orkhon Empire by Kirgizes. End of Uygur leadership of E. Goktürkic Khaganate

    840
    E. Goktürk Khaganate Kichik Tekin (23) dies

    840
    In about 840-850 AD, Hungarians were forced to move westwards to Atelkuzu (Etelkoz) and they then occupied Carpathian Basin in 896 AD living there to this day

    841
    Kyrgyz ambassador arrived in China

    842
    Muhamad ibn Musa Al Khwarizmi works in Khazarian Kagan's palace, sent there by Caliph Al-Wathiq



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  13. #13
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    850-949 AD
    DATELINE

    Time
    Events

    >850
    Bashkorts used prior to 9c antroponym 'Ishtek/Istek' (Asses, Ossian/Yassian people), and from 9 c became known antroponym 'Bashkort' from (according to Arab author Salam Tardjman) Khan Bashgird, whose horde lived in present area.
    852
    Khan Presijan (43) (836-852) controls Danube Bulgaria extending from Panonnia, Transilvania, Wallachia, Moldavia, Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia, to Donets ??, with numerous inhabitants (Slavs, Bulgars, Thracians (Vlach, Wallach, Dacian, Get)

    855
    Kara Bulgarian Baltavar Khan Aydar (819-855) died, Gabdulla Djilki (Shilki) becomes Khan (855-882)

    859
    Khan Shilki lost battle to Khazar Kagan Iskhak at Baltavar (Poltava)

    859
    Kara Bulgar Khan Gabdulla Djilki (Shilki) lost Bashtu (Kiev) and Urus (Novgorod) uluses to Khazars. Khazars oganize them as ulus Rus. Khagan Iskhak appoints Norman leader Dir (Bulg. Djir) of Slavic militia in Bashtu a ruler of Rus and Norman Ascold (Bulg. As-Khalib) a Viceregent of Rus

    859
    Shilki settles in c. Karadjar (Chernigov) with territory

    859
    Shilki's brother Lachyn becomes Khan of remaining Kara Bulgar with a capital in Khorysdan (Putivl)

    859
    Kara Bulgar Bashtu becomes Khazarian Kiev

    861
    Religious debate in Khazarian court (khazarian Polemic) between Cyril and Methodius, Rabbi Yitzhak Ha Sangari, and Muslem cleric Farabi Ibn Kora.

    861
    Khazar Bulan Bek, nobility and some common people convert to Judaism.

    862
    Chronist Nestor gives 862 as year of creation of Rus. Ruses are rulers of Slavs. Ruses live in military settlements and "feed" by spoils, a part of which was rendered to Jewish Khazars. Slavs are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. Russes are ethnically different from Slavs: they shave their heads, leaving a braid on top, they wash before dinner in a basin. Slavs cut their hair in a circle, and wash under running water.

    862
    Viking warrior Hrorekr (Riurik) leads expedition to Staraya Lagoda and occupied city in 862

    862
    Hrorekr (Riurik) (862-879) takes Novgorod, the other brothers take two other cities. Eventually Riurik gained all three cities. Gradual conquest of surrounding Slavic states, raided as far as Constantinople. At his death, his son Ingvar is too young to ru

    863
    Khan Shilki re-unites Bashtu and Karadjar with Kara Bulgar. Knyaz Dir (Bulg Djir) submits to Shilki, Ascold (Bulg As-Khalib) escapes to Galidj (Novgorod? Galich?) Shilki restores himself as Baltavar of Kara Bulgar with capital at Baltavar (Poltava)

    865
    Khan Barys of Itil Bulgaria beylyk founded by Tat-Ugek, died, and Shilki, Khan of Kara Bulgar with a capital in Baltavar (Poltava) is proclamed Khan of Itil Bulgaria (865-882).

    865
    City Bulgar becomes a capital of Itil Bulgaria.

    865
    Shilki proclames Itil Bulgaria an Islamic state, without a Califate recognition

    866
    Established Kara Bulgar station Kolyn (Khlynov, Vyatka)

    868
    First revolt of Türkish soldiers against Abbasid Calif al-Mutaawakkil (847-861)

    868
    Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Türkish praetorian of Abbasid Califate, becomes an independent ruler of Egypt and extends his rule to Syria

    875
    Khazars built a glass factory in Hrodna (present Belarus)

    879
    879-882 Post Riurik (862-879), pre-Olaf period in Rus ulus

    882
    Khan Shilki (855-882) died, Bat-Ugyr becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (882-895).

    882
    Khan Alabuga of a Baryn line of Sabans starts a city, named later Bilyar.

    882
    Olaf (Russ. Oleg) (882-913) First serious Rus expansion. Dominated several E. Slav tribes as tribute states.

    889
    After 889, Besenyos break through Khazarian border guards and replace Magyars from Levedia

    893
    Catastrophically cold winter of 892-893 froze Itil and Don, made it possible for Besenyos, whom Oguzes attacked, to flee across frozen rivers into Atelkuzu, although some of them were stuck east of Yaik river

    893
    Besenyos stop their pusuit of Majars at Dniepr, spend winter near mouth of river Buh

    894
    Majar Prince Levente leads Khazar Kabars against Bulgaria

    894
    Besenyos in alliance with Bulgars start a second attack of Majars, forcing them to leave Atilkiji (Itil-Kiji, Atelkuzu) for Transylvania and Upper Tisza region

    895
    Bat-Ugyr (882-895) abdicates. Baltavar (Elteber) Almush (Almas), eldest son of Shilki, becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria, accclamed in city Bulgar (895-925).

    895
    Khan Almush Kara Bulgar census lists 550K, 200K are Saban-speaking Bulgars, 180K-Ars (Udmurts, Finno-Ugors), 170K-Modjars

    895
    Alans and Bulgars freed from Khazar power

    895
    Some Khazar Kabars settle in Transilvania/Hungary with Magyars.

    895
    Avaria (Pannonia) is divided between Slavic state of Great Moravia under Svyatopolk, and Turkic Khanate of Bolgaria. Bolgar Onogundur (or Onogur) settle there, possibly giving name to Hungary

    900
    Ibn Ruste lists three branches of Itil Bulgars: "first branch was called Bersula, second - Esegel, and third - Bolgar"

    902
    Varangian Rus mercenaries are mentioned serving in Byzantine naval expedition to Crete. Rus mercenaries also serve Khazars

    904
    Olaf (Russ. Oleg), Prince of Kiev (882-916 ), remains a vassal of Avar Khaganate, divided between Bulgarian principalities.(In 859 to Khazars??)

    909
    Rus raiders (druzhina) with Varangian (Varyag) allies captures Khazarian fort Abezgun on Caspian Sea

    910
    First missions of Christian preachers from Byzantium to Alania. Establishing Alan arch-episcopate. Peter as first arch-bishop of Alania

    913
    Kengeres, once a part of confederation of W. Goktürk Khaganate, were driven toward lower Syr-Darya and Aral Sea by Karluk Türks. They were grazing their herds between Yaik and Itil rivers

    913
    North of Sea of Azov Kengeres occupied Levedia, taking it from Majars, and then drove them from Atilkiji area between Dniepr and Lower Danube

    913
    Ingvar (Russ. Igor) (913-945) re-established control over Eastern Slavs

    913
    Khazars demolish Rus marauding expedition fleet

    915
    Besenyos appear before Kiev for first time in force. Prince Ingvar (Russ. Igor) signs peace treaty with them establishing a frontier between Don and Dniester

    920
    Khazars fight with Burtas (Steppe Alans or Asses), Oguz, Byzantines, Kengeres and Kara Bulgars

    920
    Itil Bulgar Baltavar Almush (Almas) allies with Caliphate as counterbalance to Khazars. Beginnng of minting of Bulgarian dirkhems

    922
    Itil Bulgars congress of Bulgarian tribes adopted Islam as state religion, built mosques and schools. Itil Bulgars start transition to Arabic script from Türkic script

    922
    Baltavar Almush takes a title 'Emir' as obligation to rule in accordance with Quran

    922
    City Bilyar becomes a province Baityuba capital and a 3rd sized city after Bulgar and Bandja

    922
    City Nur-Suvar (922-1246). Present Tatarskiy (Sham-Suar)

    922
    Established city Tukhchi, renamed in 1219 Djuketun (Chistopol)

    925
    Governor of province Mardan-Ballak Balus starts a city, named later Banja (Banja-Burtas). Present Syzran

    925
    Almush (895-925) died, Khasan becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (925-930). Almush is buried in Fortress Gulistan

    930
    Seljuks are from tribe Kynyk - one of 24 Oguz tribes. Oguzes live between Syr Darya, Caspian and Aral seas. Kynyks live near delta of Syr Darya

    930
    Yabgu rules Oguzes. Leader of Seljuk clan, Temir-Yalyg, nicknamed Dukak (Dokak), has a high position. He objects to a raid by Yabgu against other Türkic tribes, and sours relations with Yabgu. He and his tribe may be Moslems

    930
    Itil Bulgaria has 30 cities. Khasan built: Matak Nukrat Bandja (Samara ) (Center of Mardan-Bellak ulus) Bulyar (citadel in Bilyar) Kamysh Simbir Gazan-Deber Kashan Tukhcha Tau-Kerman (Sviyajsk) Tash-Bulgar Subash-Simbir Karadjar Djilan

    930
    Khasan (925-930) died, Yalkau Michail becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (930-943)

    930
    Khazars ally with Alans who adopt Judaism, and arrange a dynastic marriage

    932
    KARAHANID (Karahanli, Ilek (ilig)-khanid, al-Hakaniye, el-Haniye, al-Afrasiyab)
    932 - 1212 A.D
    Founder - Saltuk Bugra Han
    Area - All Trans-Oxus area including area between Issyk and Balkash Lakes Initial center in Kashgar

    932
    Khazars ally with Oguzes

    934
    Kengeres join in Hungarian invasion of Byzantian Thrace

    939
    Khazar Baliqchi Pesakh defeats Rus

    943
    Yalkau Michail died (930-943), Mohammed becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (943-976)

    944
    Kengeres join in Prince Ingvar of Kiev raid on Byzantium

    945
    Helga (Russ. Olga) (945-962) is energetic in subjugating Slavs, exacting terrible revenge upon Drevlians, burying alive and burning their most distinguished men alive in a bath in Kiev, massacring 5,000 at her husbands funeral feast, burning Izkorosten with many killed or enslaved

    944
    All Gothic cities-colonies are robbed to foundation in raid of Prince Ingvar of Kiev

    945
    Start of Itil Bulgar-Turkmen 15 year war

    949
    Talib, junior son of Khan Gazan, and grandson of Almush, organizes a regular army in Itil Bulgaria.



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  14. #14
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    950-1099 AD
    DATELINE

    Time
    Events

    950
    There is information about Bashkir Confederation in 9-12c under Masim Khan, starting with Khan Bashkort. Bashkir 'Shejere' listed Khans Muyten Bey and Maiky Bey at approx. 1220, witha list of 10 predesessors covering 9-12c.

    950
    Al Mas'udi (died in 956) describes 4 Türkic peoples: Ydjni, Badjkurt (Maskurts, Masguts, called by Herodotus (5-th c. BC), Strabo (c.64 BC - A.D. 20), and C. Plinius Secundus (62-113 AD) Massagetae Scythians), Badjanak (Besenyos), Nukardi

    950
    Conversion of Karakhanids and Uighurs from Buddhism to Islam under Satuq Bughra Khan (d.955)

    950
    Magyars living in Lebedia are vassals of Khazars.

    960
    End of Itil Bulgar-Turkmen 15 year war. Chief Turkmen Khan Arslan is beheaded by Bulgar sardar Kukcha Amir

    960
    Besenyos live in Moldova (10th cent.-1171)

    960
    …... becomes second Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate to convert to Islam (960?-….)

    960
    Karahanid Satuk's son, Musa (Baytas) defeated eastern Khan Arslan Han and carried off this branch of dynasty. Entire Karahanli State becomes Muslim (960). Afterwards, forced diffusion of Islam among C. Asian Türks turned into holy war. First case among Türks to abandon tradition of freedom of convitions and to force conversion of subject populations

    961
    After Dukak death, Oguz Yabgu appoints Dukak’s son Seljuk Syu-Bashi as head of army. Seljuk evacuates his tribe to Sugura, near Jend (Hojdent), bordering with Moslem countries. Relocation may be caused by Kipchak wictory over Oguz State or shotage of pastures

    961
    Seljuks (Salchukiyans, Sakachikas) together with Kynyk clan and other Oguz clans leave winter capital of Oguz State Yenikent (Ruins of present Jankent) between Caspian and Aral, with their cattle of horses, camels, sheep and cows, to Maverannakhr

    961
    M Kashgari: To live with Moslem Türks, multitudes of Seljuk tribes adopted Islam. Seljuk adopted Islam for political possibilities, and asked neighboring Bukhara and Khorezm to send Moslem scholars. Prior, they were called Turkmens, Karluks and Oguzes

    961
    Oguz Yabgu's Oguses arriving in Jend to collect annual taxes are driven out by Seljuks under pretext "We are not paying taxes to infidels", and started juhad war against Oguz State with Seljuk’s title Gazi. Start of independent Seljuk Beylyk in Jend

    962
    Svyatoslav (962-972) first Rus Knyaz with Slavic name. Numerous campaigns to assert his authority over eastern Slavs. Invaded Khazaria and destroyed its capitl Itil, and its major fortresses Samander and Sarkel. Allied with Constantinople against Danube Bulgars

    962
    Türkic Ghaznavid dynasty is established in Afghanistan

    962
    GAZNELI EMPIRE
    962 - 1183 A.D
    Founder – Alptekin
    Area - from Trans-Oxus to Ganges River, from Caspian to steppes of Pamir (Total Area - 4,700,000 Km 2)

    964
    Kengeres seriously threaten Khazaria

    965
    Byzantine governor (strategos) of Chersonesus asks Svyatoslav for aid against Khazars. Svyatoslav campaign to Don. En route he attacks Volga Bulgars. He raids Sarkel, Itil, and Tmutarkhan, also captures Chersonesus

    965
    Svyatoslav possibly signed agreement with Besenyos before crossing their territory. He allies with Oguzes. Purpose to gain tribute from Viatchi on Oka by removing their Khazar overlords. He also conquers Yasians and Kasogians in Taman-Kuban area

    965
    Kkazar Kagan temporarily converts to Islam for political reasons

    965
    Itil Bulgars gain independence after defeating Khazars

    966
    Bandja (Fanagoria), capital of Great Bulgaria in VII c, destroyed by Kiev Knyaz Svyatoslav. Escaped inhabitants established New Bandja in Jiguli on Itil (Murom setlement)

    966
    Khan Mohammed established fort Simbir (Simbirsk)

    967
    Knyaz Svyatoslav of Kiev seizes Khazar capital Itil

    969
    Khazaria, broken by Svyatoslav (called Barys by Bulgars), is divided between Itil Bulgaria and N. Caucasus Saklans

    969
    Inflow of silver dirhams from Bulgaria and Khazaria stops

    969
    Saklans receive territory S. of rivers Sal and Kum, Shir (Don), Kuper-Kubar (Khoper), Boryn-Inesh (Voronej). Khin (Sarkel, Belaya Veja) is a province ruled by Bulgar's vali

    970
    Khan Mohammed established fort Balyn (Suzdal) in Mary land

    972
    8 Besenyo (Bedjenek) tribes, under Khan Kura, of Kipchak stock with Oguz element, freed of Khazar dominance, defeat Rus Knyaz Svyatoslav and make a drinking cup of his scull. Bedjenek's continuous figts with Khazars, Byzantines and Russ

    976
    Mohammed died (943-976), Talib becomes Khan of of Itil Bulgaria (976-981)

    981
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Talib (976-981) died, Timar becomes Khan (981-1004)

    985
    Türkic Karakhanid and Gaznevit, and Iranian Samanid states surround Seljuk Beylyk. Seljuks fight with Karakhanids and Samanids. Samanids give Karakhanid Yabgu Arslan Israel with Oguzes control of Nur, near Bukhara

    985
    Seljuq Türks, a ruling tribe of Oguz, move to vicinity of Bukhara

    986
    Khazars present Judaism to Knyaz Voldemir (Russ.Vladimir) of Kiev, Itil Bulgars present Islam

    988
    Voldemir consolidates his possession of conquered city-states through adoption of single state religion. He orders conversion of subject people and launches built-up of Christian churches. Negotiations for military aid with Emperor Basil II end in agreeme

    994
    Formation of Türkic-Ghaznavid dynasty in present day Afganistan

    999
    Destruction of Persian Samanid dynasty by Türkic tribes

    1000
    Some Khazars in Kievan Rus are Slavicized and adopt East Slavic language (1000-1300).

    1004
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Timar (981-1004) died, Masgut becomes Khan (1004-1006).

    1006
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Masgut (1004-1006) died, Ibragim becomes Khan (1006-1025).

    1010
    Kipchaks are pressed by Kumosi- Kimaks and then by Kidanes and move west

    1016
    Last Khazar Khagan Georgius Tzul is cuptured by combined army of Byzantine Basil II and Sfengus, brother of Kiev's Grand Prince Voldemir. Khazaria loses last independence and territories of Crimea and Taman.

    1016
    End of HAZAR EMPIRE
    602-1016 A.D
    Founder - no historical data for founder, its greatest ruler was Hakan Yusuf.
    Area - Hazars separated from Goktürks and formed a state from Caucasian Mntns to Danube and N. Pontic area

    1020
    Kipchaks occupy Middle and Lower Donets basin, lower Don and N.Azov. Earliest Kipchak gravestone monuments are located west of Itil

    1024
    Lavrentiev Chronicle dates establishment of Suzdal in Merya land

    1025
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Ibragim (1006-1025) died, Azgar becomes Khan (1025-1028).

    1025
    One of Seljuk chiefs, Arslan Israil Yabgu, serves as auxiliary to Karakhanid's Ali-Tegin, against Ghazavids.

    1026
    Kengeres invasion of Byzantium is repulsed by Constantine Diogenes..

    1028
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Azgar (1025-1028) abdicated, Ashraf becomes Khan (1028-1061).

    1029
    Kipchaks control steppes from Itil to Irtysh

    1032
    Torgul-beg , with Daud and Arslan Israil Yabgu, acquires control of E. Iran.

    1035
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Azgar established fort Khazar (Voronej)

    1036
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Azgar established city Tyumen, center of Tubdjak ulus (Tyumen)

    1040
    SELCUK EMPIRE
    1040 - 1157 A.D
    Founder – Seljuk
    Area - East, Balkash and Issyk Lakes and Tarim Derya; West, Aegean and Mediterranean; North, Aral, Caspian Sea, Caucasian and Black Sea; South, area including Arabia (Area - 10,000,000 Km 2)

    1051
    Kengeres invade Byzantium.

    1054
    Seljuks, under Tügral Beg, capture Baghdad, Abbasid capital, from Buwayhids, establish Seljuq Sultanate, and become official protectors of Caliphate.

    1054
    Rus chronicles record appearance of Guz people, pushed by Kipchaks - a branch of Kimaks of middle Irtysh and of Ob.

    1055
    Rus claims that majority of Kipchak tribes have crossed Itil and occupy E. Europian steepes.

    1055
    Ipatian Chronicle reports first arrival of Kipchaks at border of Pereyaslav principality

    1059
    Yabgu Arslan Israel with Oguzes fights Karakhanids, and withdraw with booty, leaving Samanid heir Ismail El Muntasyr, who loses war with Karakhanids,and dies. Samanid state desintegrates, Karakhanids take over Maverannakhr, and Gazavids take Horasan.

    1060
    Kipchaks replace Besenyos (Bedjenek) from N Caucasus steppes. Stan of Kipchak Khans is located on river Sunj. N Caucasus steppes is an important component of Deshti-Kipchak.

    1063
    Beginning of reign of Seljuc Alp Arslan

    1064
    Kengeres invade Byzantium, across Thrace to gates of Constantinople..

    1065
    600K Oguzes crossed Danube, devastated Balkans to Thessalonica. Emperor Constantine X Ducas, and then Kengeres and Bulgars, who were ruled at that time from Byzantium, annihilated them. Remains of Oguzes were subjugated, eliminated or assimilated by Kipch

    1065
    Visit of Alanian king Durguleit Great to Georgian king Bagrat IV in Kutais.

    1065
    Three Türkic peoples inhabit steppes N. of Lake Balkhash: Oguz (Ghuz, Torks, Ouzoi, Uzes, Türkmen), Kimaks/Kipchak of middle Enisey of Ob, and Kirghiz. Ogur group is distinguished from Oguz Türkic people that they had Y mutated to J (DJ).

    1169
    Prince of Suzdal, Andrei Bogoliubskii, sacked Kiev, then moved seat of Great Prince to Vladimir, capital of Suzdal

    1070
    Turks in Karahanli State engage in cultural and scientific activities. Turkish written with Uighur and Arabic alphabets becomes literary language and literature spread for the first time. Karahanli people exchange with Gazneli and other state sultans in Turkish written in Uighur letters

    1070
    Most ancient monument of Islam era in Türkic is "Kutadgu Blig" written by Yusuf Has Hacib in 1069-1070 in Uighur and Arabic letters about ideal administration system of a state

    1071
    Kengeres, in service of Byzantium, desert Emperor Romanus Diogenes V (1067-1071) in favor of Oguz Sultan Alp Arslan.

    1072
    Beginning of reign of Seljuc Malik Shakh.

    1072
    Marriage of Maria of Alania to Byzantine emperor Michael VII Duca Parapinaces (1071-1078 d. 1078). Marriage of Georgian king George III with Alanian princess Burduhan

    1073
    Probably grandson of Mohammed b. Yusuf Kadir Han, Great Khan of Eastern Karahanli State, Mahmut Kashgari work, titled "Divan-i Legat it-Turk" written in Baghdad in 1073-1077, gave examples of dialects of various Türkic peoples ranging from Byzantine borders to borders of China. He wrote about geography of Türkish cities, political and economical life of Türks and their beliefs, gave examples of literary works and ancient epics and folk literature that did not survive

    1076
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Akhad (1061-1076) deposed, Adam becomes Khan (1076-1118).

    1076
    Capital of Itil Bulgaria is transferred from city Bulgar to city Bilyar

    1077
    HARZEMSHAH
    1077 - 1231 A.D
    Founder - Kudrettin Mehmet (Harzemshah)
    Area - Persia, Southern Caucasia, Dagestan, Afghanistan and most of Central Asia. (Total Area - 5,000,000 Km 2)

    1078
    Daughter of Burduhan and George III is crowned as Queen Tamar on Georgian throne

    1087
    Kengeres invade Byzantium across Thrace, are driven back, and defeat Alexius Comneus.

    1088
    Former Khan, Emir Akhad Moskha built in Batyshes' (Russ. Vyatiches) land fort Moskha (Caw), now Moscow (Moskva).

    1089
    King of Ovs (As, Alans) David Soslan's son marries Queen Tamar

    1091
    Kipchaks under Togortak and Maniak are allied with Byzantium under Alexius Comnenus, and together crush Kengeres army.

    1096
    Rabbi Nissim: Seventeen Khazarian communities join nomads (Kengeres, Bulgars, Oguses)

    1099
    Khan Bonyak Cumans defeat Hungarian army of King Coloman Beauclerc at Przemysl

    1099
    Formation of Karachai-Balkarian (Alan) people completed.

    1099
    Tatars are beaten by Kerayit Türks' Khan Torgul, son of Khan Cyriacus(Qurjaquz), son of Marcus(Marguz) Buyiruq

    1099
    Tatars lived since at least 8th cent. on south bank of Kerulen river near Bor Nor to Khingan range. On north bank of Kerulen to Onon river roved neghbouring Mongols. On west bank of Selenga river to Black Irtysh river roved neighboring Naiman Türks.

    1099
    200,000 Kerayit Türks, Nestorian Christians since 1009, roved neighboring south of Selenga river, on upper Orkhon, to Karakorum. Tatars are confederated as Tokuz Tatars (Nine Tatars) and Otuz Tatars (Thirty Tatars).

    1099
    Tatars are redoubtable warriors and ranked among fiercest of all people.

    1099
    Tatars constitute a serious danger to Sino-Tungustic kingdom of Kin. Kin used early Chingiz Khan to attack Tatars from Northwest.



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  15. #15
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS



    1100-1249 AD DATELINE

    Time
    Events

    1100
    Kipchaks are subdivided into hordes: Dniepr, Don, Lower Itil (Kipchak-Saksin), Eastern (Kipchak)

    1103
    Established settlement Uchel (Kazan)

    1103
    W. Kipchaks are raided and defeated on river Suten (Molochnaya) by Voldemir Monomakh and Svyatopolk Izyaslavich of Kiev. 20 Kipchak princes died. Kipchaks retreat from Bug

    1109
    Don Kipchaks are invaded and defeated by Rus Knyazes

    1110
    Kipchaks stone monuments spread in Dniepr basin, Crimea, N.Azov, Don, itil, N Caucasus

    1111
    Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Rus Knyazes

    1116
    Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Rus Knyazes. Cities Sharukhan, Sugrov and Balin with Alano-Bulgar populations are taken

    1116
    (1116-1236) End of Russo-Kipchak wars. Kipchaks ally with Rus Principalities and join in in Rus intestine wars. In 120 years Kipchaks participate in 16 Russo-Russo wars, with only 6 Russo-Kipchak invasions and 6 Kipchak-Russo invasions

    1117
    Kipchaks under Khan Otrok retreat to N Caucasus steppes. Kipchak Khan Syrchan remains in Don Steppes. Kipchaks under Khan Otrok on way to N Caucasus destroy Sarkel, last known as Itil Bulgarian domain. Its inhabitants with Besenyos (Bedjenek) and Oguz Tür

    1118
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Adam (1076-1118) died, Shamgun (Sain) becomes Khan (1118-1135)

    1118
    Old capital city Bulgar becomes capital of Itil Bulgaria instead of city Bilyar

    1118
    Kipchaks make peace with Alans. Khan Otrak has 40K army and is allied with Georgian King David IV the Builder and participates in war with Seljuks. A number of Kipchaks settle in Georgia

    1120
    Capital of Itil Bulgaria is again transferred from city Bulgar to city Bilyar

    1122
    As-Tarkhan established settlement As-Tarkhan (Astrakhan)

    1122
    Ruses defeat Cumans

    1123
    Scyths/Besenyos (Bedjenek) reported as really wiped out by Byzantine Emperor John II in 1123

    1124
    Formation of Kara Kitai Empire in Transoxania

    1130
    1130-1150 Kipchaks participate in intercine wars of Rus principalities.

    1135
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Shamgun (Sain) (1118-1135) died, Khisam Anbal becomes Khan (1135-1164)

    1136
    Khan Khisam Anbal established station Omek (Omsk)

    1137
    Khan Khisam Anbal established station Kazgyn (Novosibirsk)

    1201
    Tatars join anti-Wamg-Khan an Chingiz Khan coalition that included 8 Mongol clans, and Türkic Markit, Oirat, Naiman

    1202
    Kipchak Khan Kotyan's reign (1202-1240 ) over territories in N. Pontic and Hungary

    1202
    After subjugating Mongolian clan Tayichi'ut, Chingiz Khan turns to Chaghan Tatars and Alchi Tatars. Tatars vanquished and were massacred and were distributed among Mongol tribes. Chingiz Khan choosed two beautiful Tatar women, Yesui and Yesugan

    1202
    Further east, Solons, of river Nonni, acknowledge Chingiz Khan as tributaries

    1203
    Chingiz Khan is in control of eastern Mongolia. Naimans under Khan Tayang remain in control of western Mongolia

    1203
    Türkic tribes Markit, Oirat, Tatars, with rebel Mongolian clans, unite against Chingiz Khan, but he is warned about war by Ongut-Türks' Alaqush-tegin, invited into alliance to outflank Chingiz Khan


    1203
    Chingiz Khan calls quriltai and starts a war against Naimans and allies

    1206
    Chingiz Khan calls quriltai and is proclaimed Khagan of all Turco-Mongol peoples

    1206
    Khazar Jews are reported to use a form of Cyrillic script.

    1209
    Uighurs, under Barchuq, submit to Mongol rule

    1212
    End of KARAHANID Empire
    932 – 1212A.D
    Founder - Saltuk Bugra Han
    Area - All Trans-Oxus area including area between Issyk and Balkash Lakes

    1218
    Chingiz Khan starts western campaign

    1219
    Chingiz Khan grants Muyten Bey yarlik for Bashkir? Kipchak? Ulus from Yaik and Agizel (Belaya), tributary of Kama, to Irtish

    1220
    Chingiz Khan conquest of Bukhara, Samarkand, Tirmidh and Gurganj

    1220
    Uchel (Kazan) renamed Gazan

    1220
    Rus Knyaz George II of Vladimir raids Itil Bulgars, captures Oshel and other cities along Kama. Bilyar city was saved by paying rich ransome

    1221
    Chingiz Khan conquest of Balkh, Merv, Heart and Nishapur

    1222
    Defeat of Alans and Kipchaks in first fight against Mongol-Tatars. Mongol-Tatars seizing capital of Alania Magas (Meget)

    1223
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Gabdulla Chelbir makes a deal with Juchi to help him in taking Khwarezm, Persia and Caucasus in exchange of not attacking Itil Bulgaria

    1223
    An important Russo-Kipchak force was defeated on , at battle of Kalka

    1223
    War councel in Kiev: Kipchak Khan Kotyak Galicia Knyaz Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloy (Brave) Kiev Knyaz Mstislav Romanovich Chernigov Knyaz Mstislav Svyatoslavich Volyn Knyaz Daniil Kursk Knyaz Oleg Smolensk Knyaz Vladimir Former Novgorod Knyaz Vsevolod

    1223
    80K Russo-Kipchak force was defeated by 20K, 3 tumen force of Subetai on June 16, (May 31?) 1223, at battle of Kalka

    1223
    Gabdulla Chelbir collects 24K army, of 5K Kursybays, 3K militia of Dair Tetush, 6K Kazanchies, 10K Bashkorts. Staged at Kermek, NW of Mardan-Sember (Simbirsk), Left bank of Itil. Subetai had 20K Tataro-Mongols, and 50K Turkmen and Kumans

    1223
    Second son of Subetai Uran Kytai led a battle at Kermek and ordered a surrender to Gabdulla Chelbir of 38K surviving troops. Subetai lost 4K dead, and ransomed captured in exchange for sheep

    1223
    Chingiz Khan army penetration as far as Novgorod.

    1225
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Gabdulla Chelbir (1178-1225) dies, ?? becomes Khan (?)

    1227
    Juchi dies, Batu becomes Ulus Juchi (Kipchak) Khan (1227-1255)

    1227
    Cuman Khan west of the Dneiper Barc/Bortz/Bortch (Turk. "debt") and 15,000 of his people baptized as Catholics and swear allegiance to Hungary in Moldavia


    1228
    First bishopric of Cumania, with seat at Milkov in Moldavia, established in Transylvania and King Béla IV of Hungary assumed title “king of Cumania”

    1229
    Itil Bulgaria Khan ?? died, Gazi Baradj becomes Khan (1229-1246)

    1229
    Chingiz Khan dies in 1229, Ogodei becomes Khan (1229-1241).

    1235
    Eastern Desht-I Kipchak from Altai to Idel are included in Tataro-Mongol Empire Kipchak Kaganaate

    1236
    5 November 1236 Capital of Itil Bulgaria Bilyar is taken by Batu

    1237
    Capture of Bulgar city and Voronej by Batu Tataro-Mongols, and subjugation of Bulgar population

    1237
    Batu founded his capital, Sarai Batu, in city Saksin-Bolgar on lower stretch of Itil. Capital was later moved upstream to Sarai Berke, which at its peak held perhaps 600,000 inhabitants

    1237
    Batu Khan becomes ruler of Kipchak Kaganate (Altyn Urdu)

    1237
    Batu army invades Asses and Kipchaks in N.W. Caspian and N. Caucasus. Leading Kipchak warrior Bachman killed, Khan Kotyan retreat beyond Tanais. Batu starts encircling maneuver going through Burtases, Erzya, Moksha, and Rus

    1237
    KIPCHAK KHANATE (ALTYN URDU) (GOLDEN HORDE)
    1224 - 1502 A.D
    Founder - Batur Han
    Area - Eastern Europe, Western Ural Area, Crimea and area to north of Itil


    1238
    Capture of Moscow, Vladimir and Suzdal.

    1239
    King Béla IV of Hungary granted asylum to Cumans and their prince Kuthen, who had earlier unsuccessfully tried organize Rus resistance to Mongols

    1239
    Assimilation of Alania into Ulus Juchi

    1240
    Batu Khan controls Kipchak, Bulgar, Rus Principalities

    1240
    Batu Khan sack and burn city of Kiev in 1241, and subjugate S.Slavic population

    1240
    Türkic tribes concentrated on animal husbandry in steppes, while their subject peoples, Russ, Mordvinians, Greeks, Georgians, and Armenians, contributed tribute

    1240
    Cumans' leader Kuthen, considered a dangerous alien, is murdered. Cumans left Hungary but resettled there by Béla IV in 1245

    1241
    Death of Ogodei (1229-1241), Shiramon becomes Khan (1241-1242), then Toragana (Regent) (1242-1246)

    1241
    Tataro-Mongols defeat of Hungarians and European knights. Invasion of Poland all the way to Silesia. Poles beaten in battle of Legnica and Henry the Pious of Silesia killed, yet Poland avoided fate befallen to Ruthenia conquered by Mongols


    1241
    Cumans exacted revenge upon the Hungarians by deserting them in their greatest time of need. They fled to the Balkans, ravaging as they went

    1241
    Mongols defeat Hungarians and European knights

    1241
    Cumans lose control of Moldova to Mongols (1241-1286 )

    1242
    End of Daghestani Khazar kingdom

    1243
    Great Prince Yaroslav II of Vladimir calls a meeting of Rus Knyazes, suggests recognizing Khan Batu as Tsar, and concluding a treaty with Bordjugins clan of Batu, to find a protection from conquering by Teutons and Lithuania

    1243
    City Saksin-Bolgar is renamed Sarai Batu

    1243
    MONGOL EMPIRE
    1229 – 1405A.D
    Founder - Chingiz Khan
    Area – From Mideterranian to Pacific, from Baltic to Indian Ocean


    1246
    Guük becomes Mongol Khan (1246-1248), then Oghul Ghaimish (Regent) (1248-1251)

    1246
    Itil Bulgaria Khan Gazi Baradj (1229-1246) died

    1246
    City Nur-Suvar destroyed (922-1246). Present name Tatarskiy (Sham-Suar)

    1248
    Appointment of metropolitan for Khanbalik (Peking)

    1249
    Establishment of Kipchak Türkic Mamluk dynasty in Egypt

    1249
    1249-1345 Date of inscriptions on Nestorian gravestones near Bishkek



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  16. #16
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS




    BANNERS / FLAG / SYMBOL ::

    The Great Hun Empire (Büyük Hün İmparatorluğu)

    Alleged flag of the Great Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Mete (Bagatir), bordering Siberia in the North, Tibet-Kashmir in the South, the Pacific Ocean in the East and the Caspian Sea in the West (total area 18,000,000 sq. km).
    Additional information: The Chinese called them the Hsiung-Nu.
    Flag: The alleged flag of the Great Hun Empire is an orange-yellow flag with a yellow dragon.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004




    The Western Hun Empire (Batı Hün İmparatorluğu)

    Alleged flag of the Western Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Panu, covering the area over present day Central Asia.
    Additional information: The Empire of Western (Hiung-Nu) Huns lasted from 48 to 304 AD. The ruler had the title of Shan-Yu. This state was under Chinese overlordship. One of the leaders founded the short-lived Earlier Chao state, one of the 16 kingdoms, in Shansi (304-329).
    Flag: The alleged flag of the Western Hun Empire is a plain yellow-orange flag.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004




    The European Hun Empire (Avrupa Hün İmparatorluğu)

    Alleged flag of the European Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Muncuk, Oktar, Rua and Aybars (brothers) covering the area ofpresent day Southern Russia, Romania, Northern Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Southern and Central Germany (total area 4,000,000 sq. km). Gradual decline after 454 AD.
    Additional information: This is Attila the Hun's Empire, which caused the Great Migration in Europe and ended with Attila's death in 453 AD.
    Flag: The alleged flag of the European Hun Empire is white with a yellow crowned bird with spread wings.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004




    The White Hun Empire (Ak Hün İmparatorluğu)

    Alleged flag of the White Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Aksuvar (Aksungur) covering half of Northern India, Afghanistan and part of Turkestan (total area 3,500,000 sq. km).
    Additional information: The White Huns (a.k.a. Hephthalites, Ephthalites, Hayathelites, Ye-tai, Huna), originating from the Altai Mountains, occupied in the Vth century AD Western Turkestan and disappeared in the second half of the VIIth century.
    Flag: The alleged flag of the White Huns is white with three yellow stars placed vertically in upper hoist.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004





    MAP / AREA ::

    The Great Hun Empire (Büyük Hün İmparatorluğu)

    Alleged flag of the Great Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Mete (Bagatir), bordering Siberia in the North, Tibet-Kashmir in the South, the Pacific Ocean in the East and the Caspian Sea in the West (total area 18,000,000 sq. km).
    Additional information: The Chinese called them the Hsiung-Nu.
    Flag: The alleged flag of the Great Hun Empire is an orange-yellow flag with a yellow dragon.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004




    The Western Hun Empire (Batı Hün İmparatorluğu)

    +ALL RUSSIA WAS IN WESTERN HUN EMPIRE


    Alleged flag of the Western Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Panu, covering the area over present day Central Asia.
    Additional information: The Empire of Western (Hiung-Nu) Huns lasted from 48 to 304 AD. The ruler had the title of Shan-Yu. This state was under Chinese overlordship. One of the leaders founded the short-lived Earlier Chao state, one of the 16 kingdoms, in Shansi (304-329).
    Flag: The alleged flag of the Western Hun Empire is a plain yellow-orange flag.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004




    The European Hun Empire (Avrupa Hün İmparatorluğu)

    Alleged flag of the European Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Muncuk, Oktar, Rua and Aybars (brothers) covering the area ofpresent day Southern Russia, Romania, Northern Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Southern and Central Germany (total area 4,000,000 sq. km). Gradual decline after 454 AD.
    Additional information: This is Attila the Hun's Empire, which caused the Great Migration in Europe and ended with Attila's death in 453 AD.
    Flag: The alleged flag of the European Hun Empire is white with a yellow crowned bird with spread wings.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004




    The White Hun Empire (Ak Hün İmparatorluğu)

    Alleged flag of the White Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Aksuvar (Aksungur) covering half of Northern India, Afghanistan and part of Turkestan (total area 3,500,000 sq. km).
    Additional information: The White Huns (a.k.a. Hephthalites, Ephthalites, Hayathelites, Ye-tai, Huna), originating from the Altai Mountains, occupied in the Vth century AD Western Turkestan and disappeared in the second half of the VIIth century.
    Flag: The alleged flag of the White Huns is white with three yellow stars placed vertically in upper hoist.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004



    MOD's: >>> K-MTW2 & EW MOD & BC MOD <<< BoZToRGai KHaN

    Website:
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  17. #17
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Huns

    the HUNS


    I see that your MOD must place is Europe then we can add European Huns. :original: :wink:



    The European Hun Empire (Avrupa Hün İmparatorluğu)

    Alleged flag of the European Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Muncuk, Oktar, Rua and Aybars (brothers) covering the area ofpresent day Southern Russia, Romania, Northern Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Southern and Central Germany (total area 4,000,000 sq. km). Gradual decline after 454 AD.
    Additional information: This is Attila the Hun's Empire, which caused the Great Migration in Europe and ended with Attila's death in 453 AD.
    Flag: The alleged flag of the European Hun Empire is white with a yellow crowned bird with spread wings.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004



    The European Hun Empire (Avrupa Hün İmparatorluğu)

    Alleged flag of the European Hun Empire - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 July 2004

    Official description: Founded by Muncuk, Oktar, Rua and Aybars (brothers) covering the area ofpresent day Southern Russia, Romania, Northern Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Southern and Central Germany (total area 4,000,000 sq. km). Gradual decline after 454 AD.
    Additional information: This is Attila the Hun's Empire, which caused the Great Migration in Europe and ended with Attila's death in 453 AD.
    Flag: The alleged flag of the European Hun Empire is white with a yellow crowned bird with spread wings.

    Ivan Sache & Jarig Bakker, 4 July 2004



    RULERS / FAMILY MEMBERSL ::


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






    HUNS PICTURES ::

    The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea



    Hunnish Camp, as imagined in the 19th century "Young Folks' History of Rome" by Charlotte Mary Yonge.



    A 14th century chivalric-romanticized painting of "the huns" laying siege to a city. Note anachronistic details in weapons, armor and city type. Hungarian Chronicon Pictum, 1360.




    The Huns, led by Attila, invade Italy, as visualised in a 19th century painting by V. Checa.





    Hunnic Cavalry, 1870s engraving after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Geiger (1805-1880).





    Huns

    The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads, with a Turkic core of aristocracy. Some of these Eurasian tribes moved into Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries, most famously under Attila the Hun. Huns remaining in Asia are recorded by neighboring peoples to the south, east, and west as having occupied Central Asia roughly from the 4th century to the 6th century, with some surviving in the Caucasus until the early 8th century.


    Origin and identity

    Research and debate about the Asian ancestral origins of the Huns has been ongoing since the 18th century. For example philologists still debate to this day which ethnonym from Chinese or Persian sources is identical with the Latin Hunni or the Greek Hounnoi as evidence of the Huns' identity.

    The most recent genetic and ethnogenesis based scholarship shows that many of the great confederations of steppe warriors were not entirely of the same race, but rather tended to be ethnic mixtures of Eurasian clans. In addition, many clans may have claimed to be Huns simply based on the prestige and fame of the name, or it was attributed to them by outsiders describing their common characteristics, believed place of origin, or reputation. Similarly, Greek or Latin chroniclers may have used "Huns" in a more general sense, to describe social or ethnic characteristics, believed place of origin, or reputation. "All we can say safely", says Walter Pohl,"is that the name Huns, in late antiquity, described prestigious ruling groups of steppe warriors". The older views come in the context of the ethnocentric and nationalistic scholarship of past generations, which often presumed that ethnic homogeneity must underlie a socially and culturally homogeneous people. The modern research shows that each of the large confederations of steppe warriors (such as the Scythians, Xiongnu, Huns, Avars, Khazars, Cumans, Mongols, etc.) were not ethnically homogeneous, but rather unions of multiple ethnicities such as Turkic, Yeniseian, Tungusic, Ugric, Iranic, Mongolic and many other peoples.

    Modern genetic and ethnogenesis scholarship contrasts with traditional theories based on Chinese records, archaeology, linguistics and other indirect evidence. These older theories contain various elements: that the name "Hun" first described a nomadic ruling group of warriors whose ethnic origins were in Central Asia, and was most likely in present day Mongolia; that possibly they were related to, or part of, the Xiongnu (匈奴) (first suggested by Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century); that the Xiongnu were defeated by the Chinese Han Empire; and that this is why they left Mongolia and moved west, eventually invading Europe 200 years later. Indirect evidence includes the transmission of grip laths for composite bows from Central Asia to the west.

    This narrative is ingrained in western (and eastern) historiography, but the evidence is often indirect or ambiguous. The Huns left practically no written records. There is no record of what happened between the time they left China and arrived in Europe 150 years later. The last mention of the northern Xiongnu was their defeat by the Chinese in 151 at the lake of Barkol, after which they fled to the western steppe at Kangju (centered on the city of Turkistan in Kazakhstan). Chinese records between the 3rd and 4th century suggest that a small tribe called Yueban, remnants of northern Xiongnu, was distributed about the steppe of Kazakhstan.

    One recent line of reasoning favors a political and cultural link between the Huns and the Xiongnu. The Central Asian (Sogdian and Bactrian) sources of the 4th century translate "Huns" as "Xiongnu", and "Xiongnu" as "Huns"; also, Xiongnu and Hunnic cauldrons are virtually identical, and were buried on the same spots (river banks) in Hungary and in the Ordos.

    It has to be noted that skeletal remains from Kazakhstan (Central Asia), excavated from different sites dating between the 15th century BC to the 5th century AD, have been analysed for the hypervariable control region and haplogroup diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA genome. The distribution of east and west Eurasian lineages through time in the region is concordant with the available archaeological information: prior to the 13th - 7th century BC, all samples belong to European lineages; while later an arrival of East Asian sequences that coexisted with the previous genetic substratum was detected. The presence of an ancient genetic substratum of European origin in West Asia may be related to the discovery of ancient Mummies from Xinjiang with European features and to the existence of an extinct Indo-European language, Tocharian.


    Turkic theory

    Further information: Hunnic language

    The Huns may be of Turkic (or pre-Proto-Turkic) origin. This school of thought emerged when Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century identified the Huns with the Xiongnu or (H)siung-nu. It is supported by O. Maenchen-Helfen on the basis of his linguistic studies. English scholar Peter Heather called the Huns "the first group of Turkic, as opposed to Iranian, nomads to have intruded into Europe". Turkish researcher Kemal Cemal bolsters this assertion by showing similarities in words and names in Turkic and Hunnic languages, and similarities in systems of governance of Hunnic and Turkic tribes. Hungarian historian Gyula Nemeth also supports this view. Uyghur historian Turghun Almas has suggested a link between the Huns and the Uyghurs, a Turkic speaking people who reside in Xinjiang, China.

    This article will not discuss the "White Huns" and "Red Huns", since there is no definite evidence that they were related to the classical "Huns". Furthermore, not much is known of their language.



    History

    2nd-5th centuries

    Dionysius Periegetes describes a people who may be Huns living near the Caspian Sea in the 2nd century. By AD 139, the European geographer Ptolemy writes that the "Khuni" are next to the Dnieper River and ruled by "Suni". He lists the century, although it is not known for certain if these people were the Huns. The 5th century Armenian historian Moses of Khorene, in his "History of Armenia," introduces the Hunni near the Sarmatians and describes their capture of the city of Balkh ("Kush" in Armenian) sometime between 194 and 214, which explains why the Greeks call that city Hunuk.

    Following the defeat of the Xiongnu by the Han, the Xiongnu history became unknown for a century; thereafter, the Liu family of southern Xiongnu Tiefu attempted to establish a state in western China (see Han Zhao). Chionites (OIONO/Xiyon) appear on the scene in Transoxiana in 320 immediately after Jin Zhun overthrew Liu Can, sending the Xiongnu into chaos. Later Kidara came along to lead the Chionites into pressing on the Kushans.

    In the west, Ostrogoths came in contact with the Huns in AD 358. The Armenians mention Vund c.370: the first recorded Hunnic leader in the Caucasus region. The Romans invited the Huns east of Ukraine to settle Pannonia in 361, and in 372 they pushed west led by their king Balimir, and defeated the Alans. In the east, in the early 5th century, Tiefu Xia is the last southern Xiongnu dynasty in Western China and the Alchon / Huna appear in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan. At this point deciphering Hunnic histories for the multi-linguist becomes easier with relatively well-documented events in Byzantine, Armenian, Persian, Indian, and Chinese sources.


    European Huns

    The Huns appeared in Europe in the 4th century, apparently from Central Asia. They first appeared north of the Black Sea, forcing a large number of Goths to seek refuge in the Roman Empire; later, the Huns appeared west of the Carpathians in Pannonia, probably sometime between 400 and 410, perhaps triggering the massive migration of Germanic tribes westward across the Rhine in December 406.

    The establishment of the 5th century Hunnic Empire marks a historically early instance of horseback migration. Under the leadership of Attila the Hun, the Huns achieved hegemony over several rivals by using the composite bow, their highly maneuverable hit-and-run tactics with their horsemanship, and a well-organized system of taxation. Supplementing their wealth by plundering wealthy Roman cities to the south, the Huns maintained the loyalties of a number of tributary tribes.

    Attila's Huns incorporated groups of unrelated tributary peoples. In Europe, Alans, Gepids, Scirii, Rugians, Sarmatians and Gothic tribes all united under the Hun by Ardaric's coalition at the Battle of Nedao in 454, at modern day Nedava.

    Memory of the Hunnic conquest was transmitted orally among Germanic peoples and is an important component in the Old Norse Völsunga saga and Hervarar saga, and the Middle High German Nibelungenlied, all of which portray Migration period events a millennium before their written recordings. In the Hervarar saga, the Goths make first contact with the bow-wielding Huns and meet them in an epic battle on the plains of the Danube.

    In the Nibelungenlied, Kriemhild marries Attila (Etzel in German) after her first husband Siegfried was murdered by Hagen with the complicity of her brother, King Gunther. She then uses her power as Etzel's wife to take a bloody revenge in which not only Hagen and Gunther but all Burgundian knights find their death at festivities to which she and Etzel had invited them. After defending quite successfully for days against the Huns who outnumber them by an enormous ratio, the remaining tired Burgundians are finally defeated not by the Huns but by Rüdeger (Austrian), who dies in the fight too, and Dietrich von Bern (Ostrogoths), both being vassals to Etzel and actually very reluctant to fight against their Burgundian friends but caught in personal dilemmas forcing them to do so.

    In the Völsunga saga, Attila (Atli in Norse and Etzel in German) defeats the Frankish king Sigebert I (Sigurðr or Siegfried) and the Burgundian King Guntram (Gunnar or Gunther), but is later assassinated by Queen Fredegund (Gudrun or Kriemhild), the sister of the latter and wife of the former.


    Successor nations

    Many nations have tried to assert themselves as ethnic or cultural successors to the Huns. For instance, the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans may indicate that they believed themselves to have been descended from Attila. The Bulgars certainly were part of the Hun tribal alliance for some time, and some have hypothesized that the Chuvash language (which is believed to have descended from the Bulgar language) is the closest surviving relative of the Hunnic language.

    The Magyars (Hungarians) also have laid claims to Hunnic heritage. Because the Huns who invaded Europe represented a loose coalition of various peoples, it is possible that Magyars were part of it. Until the early 20th century, many Hungarian historians believed that the Székely people were the descendants of the Huns.

    In 2005, a group of about 2,500 Hungarians petitioned the government for recognition of minority status as direct descendants of Attila. The bid failed, but gained some publicity for the group, which formed in the early 1990s and appears to represent a special Hun(garian)-centric brand of mysticism. The self-proclaimed Huns are not known to possess any distinctly Hunnic culture or language beyond what would be available from historical and modern-mystical Hungarian sources.

    While it is clear that the Huns left descendants all over Eastern Europe, the disintegration of the Hun Empire meant they never regained their lost glory. One reason was that the Huns never fully established the mechanisms of a state, such as bureaucracy and taxes, unlike the Magyars or Golden Horde. Once disorganized, the Huns were absorbed by more organized polities.


    Historiography

    The term "Hun" has been also used to describe peoples with no historical connection to what scholars consider to be "Huns".
    On July 27, 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion in China, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave the order to "make the name 'Germany' be remembered in China for a thousand years, so that no Chinese will ever again dare to even squint at a German." This speech, wherein Kaiser Wilhelm invoked the memory of the 5th century Huns, coupled with the Pickelhaube or spiked helmet worn by German forces until 1916, that was reminiscent of ancient Hun (and Hungarian) helmets, gave rise to later English use of the term for the German enemy during World War I. However, another reason given for the English use of the term was the motto "Gott mit uns" (God with us) on German soldiers' belt buckles during World War I. "uns" was mistaken for Huns, and entered into slang. This usage was reinforced by Allied propaganda throughout the war, and many pilots of the RFC referred to their foe as "The Hun". The usage resurfaced during World War II.


    See also

    Hunnic Empire
    Turkic Khaganate
    Oghur
    Uar
    Avars
    Xionites
    Hephthalites


    References and notes
    1. <LI id=cite_note-0>^ Walter Pohl has remarked "early medieval peoples were far less homogeneous than often thought. They themselves shared the fundamental belief to be of common origin; and modern historians, for a long time, found no reason to think otherwise" (Walter Pohl, "Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies" "Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings", ed. Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein, (Blackwell), 1998, p.16). In reviewing Joachim Werner's Beiträge zur Archäologie des Attila-Reiches, (Munich 1956), in Speculum 33.1 (January 1958), p.159, Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen noted with relief that "the author is not concerned with the slightly infantile question, who the Huns were; he does not ask where the Huns ultimately came from". <LI id=cite_note-1>^ Transylvania through the age of migrations <LI id=cite_note-2>^ Calise, J.M.P. (2002). 'Pictish Sourcebook: Documents of Medieval Legend and Dark Age History'. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p279, ISBN 0313322953 <LI id=cite_note-3>^ Peckham, D. Paulston, C. B. (1998). Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Clevedon, UK : Multilingual Matters. p100, ISBN 1853594164 <LI id=cite_note-4>^ Canfield, R.L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p49, ISBN 0521522919 <LI id=cite_note-5>^ Frazee, C.A. (2002). Two Thousand Years Ago: The World at the Time of Jesus. Wm. B. Eerdmans <LI id=cite_note-Pohl-6>^ a b c d e f Walter Pohl (1999), "Huns" in Late Antiquity, editor Peter Brown, p.501-502 .. further references to F.H Bauml and M. Birnbaum, eds., Atilla: The Man and His Image (1993). Peter Heather, "The Huns and the End of the Roman Empire in Western Europe," English Historical Review 90 (1995):4-41. Peter Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire (2005). Otto Maenchen-Helfen, The World of the Huns (1973). E. de la Vaissière, Huns et Xiongnu "Central Asiatic Journal" 2005-1 pp. 3-26 <LI id=cite_note-7>^ Michael Kulikowski (2005). Rome's Gothic Wars. Cambridge University Press. Page 52-54 <LI id=cite_note-8>^ E. de la Vaissière, Huns et Xiongnu "Central Asiatic Journal" 2005-1 pp. 3-26 <LI id=cite_note-9>^ Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient Central Asians - Unitat d'Antropologia, Departimenti Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. <LI id=cite_note-10>^ "Sir H. H. Howorth, History of the Mongols (1876-1880); 6th Congress of Orientalists, Leiden, 1883 (Actes, part iv. pp. 177-195); de Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongoles, et des autres Tartares occidentaux (1756-1758)" <LI id=cite_note-11>^ Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen. The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture. University of California Press, 1973 <LI id=cite_note-12>^ Otto Maenchen-Helfen, Language of Huns <LI id=cite_note-13>^ Peter Heather, "The Huns and the End of Roman Empire in Western Europe", The English Historical Review, Vol. 110, No. 435, February 1995, p. 5. <LI id=cite_note-14>^ "Europe: The Origins of the Huns", on The History Files, based on conversations with Kemal Cemal, Turkey, 2002 <LI id=cite_note-15>^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "HUN", Online Academic Edition, 2007. <LI id=cite_note-16>^ Columbia Encyclopedia <LI id=cite_note-17>^ Encyclopædia Britannica <LI id=cite_note-18>^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1997: Turkic languages.
      "Formerly, scholars considered Chuvash probably spoken by the Huns."
      <LI id=cite_note-19>^ BBC News - "Hungary blocks Hun minority bid" - By Nick Thorpe, April 12, 2005
    2. ^ Weser-Zeitung, July 28, 1900, second morning edition, p. 1: 'Wie vor tausend Jahren die Hunnen unter ihrem König Etzel sich einen Namen gemacht, der sie noch jetzt in der Überlieferung gewaltig erscheinen läßt, so möge der Name Deutschland in China in einer solchen Weise bekannt werden, daß niemals wieder ein Chinese es wagt, etwa einen Deutschen auch nur schiel anzusehen'.





      Further reading



      Classics
      • Otto J. Mänchen-Helfen (ed. Max Knight): The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1973) ISBN 0-520-01596-7
      • The Legend of the Origin of the Huns (published in Byzantion, vol. XVII, 1944-45, pp. 244-251)
      • E. A. Thompson: A History of Attila and the Huns (London, Oxford University Press, 1948)
      Other








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    the HUNS



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