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Thread: Crimean Khanate

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    Default Crimean Khanate

    Crimean Khanate ( Khanate of Kirim )



    Coat of arms



    Flag of the Crimean Tatar people



    Crimean Khanate in 1600


    Capital: Bakhchisaray

    Language(s): Crimean Tatar language
    Ottoman Turkish

    Religion: Sunni Islam

    Government Monarchy
    Khan List


    History:
    - Established 1441
    - Subjection by the Ottoman Porte 1478
    - Independence of the Ottoman Porte (Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca) July 21, 1774
    - Annexed to Russia 1783


    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Map of Europe in 1648 at the time of Khmelnytsky Uprising.




    Crimean Tatar soldier fighting with the soldier of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Europe's steppe frontier was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century.




    16 C - Crimean Tatars ( awesome unit )



    Crimean Khanate

    The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Hanlığı, قريم خانلغى‎; Russian: Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство - Kryms'ke khanstvo; Turkish: Kırım Hanlığı; Polish: Chanat Krymski) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. Its native name was Crimean Yurt (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Yurtu, قريم يورتى‎). The khanate was by far the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.


    Early rulers

    The Crimean Khanate was founded when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak (Kypchak Steppes of today's Ukraine and South Russia), decided to make Crimea their yurt (homeland) and invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to be their khan. Hacı Giray accepted this proposal and came from Lithuania, the place he was exiled. He founded his independent state in 1441 after a long-lasting struggle for independence from the Golden Horde. The khanate included the Crimean peninsula (except the south and southwest coast and ports, controlled by the Republic of Genoa) and the steppes of modern southern Ukraine and Russia, also known as Desht-i Kipchak.

    The internal strife among the Hacı's sons followed after his death. The Ottomans interfered and installed Meñli I Giray, a son of Hacı I Giray to the throne. In 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered the Principality of Theodoro and Genoese colonies in Cembalo, Soldaia, and Caffa. The khanate from then on entered the protection of the Ottoman Empire. While the Crimean coast became an Ottoman Kefe sancak, the khans continued to rule in the rest of the peninsula and the northern steppes. The relationship of the Ottomans and the Crimean Tatars were unique. The sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects. Though the chosen khan had to receive approval to the Sultan, they were not appointees of Constantinople. (Halil İnalcık) The Ottomans also recognized the legitimacy of the khans in the steppes, as descendants of Genghis Khan.

    The khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The relations of the khans and the Ottoman Sultan were governed through diplomatic correspondence. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers, two important signs of sovereignty. They did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire, instead the Ottomans paid them in return for their services of providing skilled outriders and frontline cavalry in their campaigns. (Alexandre Bennigsen)

    The alliance of Crimean Tatars and Ottomans was comparable to Polish-Lithuanian in its importance and durability. The Crimean cavalry became indispensable for the Ottomans' campaigns in Europe (Poland, Hungary) and Asia (Persia). This made Crimean Tatars dependent on the booty attained after the successful campaigns, and when the Ottoman military campaigns began to fail, the Crimean Tatar economy also began to decline.

    In 1502 Meñli I Giray defeated the last khan of the Great Horde putting the end to the Horde's claims on Crimea. In the 16th century the Crimean khanate pretended to be the successor authority of the former Golden Horde territory, Great Horde and hence over the Tatar khanates of Caspian-Volga region, particularly the Kazan Khanate and Astrakhan Khanate. This resulted in rivalry with Muscovy for dominance in the region. A successful campaign of Devlet I Giray to Moscow in 1571 finished with the burning of the Russian capital and he was called Taht-Algan (seizer of the throne) after this event. However the Crimean Khanate eventually lost the dispute for access to the Volga due to its catastrophic defeat in the Battle at Molodi just one year later.

    The capital of the Khanate was placed initially in Salaçıq near the Qırq Yer fortress, then moved to Bakhchisaray founded in 1532 by Sahib I Giray.


    Political and economic system

    Girays traced their origins to Genghis Khan, and this made them prevalent among other noble clans. According to the steppe tradition, the ruler was legitimate only if he was of Genghisid royal descent (i.e. ak süyek). Even the Muscovite Tsar claimed Genghisid descent. Instead of the Ottoman ideology of autocracy, the Crimean Khanate followed the Horde tradition. (Schamiloglu) That is, the Giray dynasty was the symbol of government but the khan actually governed with the participation of Qaraçı Beys, the leaders of the noble clans such as Şirin, Barın, Arğın, Qıpçaq, and in the later period, Mansuroğlu and Sicavut. The Nogays who transferred their allegiance to the Crimean khan when the Astrakhan Khanate collapsed in 1556, were an important element of the Crimean Khanate. Circassians and Cossacks also played role at certain times in Crimean politics, transferring their allegiance between the khan and the beys.

    Internally, the khanate territory was divided among the beys and beneath the beys were mirzas from noble families. The relationship of peasants or herdsmen to mirzas were not feudal. They were free, and Islamic law protected them from losing their rights. Apportioned by village, the land was worked in common and the tax was assigned to whole village. The tax was one tenth of agricultural product, one twentieh of the livestock and a variable unpaid labour. During the reforms by the last khan Şahin Giray the internal structure was changed following the Turkish pattern: land-ownings of nobility were proclaimed the domain of the khan and reorganized into "qadılıqs" (provinces governed by representatives of the khan).

    Crimean law was based on Tatar law, Islamic law and on limited matters the Ottoman law. The leader of the Muslim establishment was the mufti, who was selected among the local Muslim clergy. His major duty was neither judicial nor theological, it was financial. The mufti’s administration controlled all of the vakif lands and their enomous revenues. Another Muslim official, appointed not by the clergy but the Ottoman sultan was the kadıasker. He oversaw the khanate’s judicial districts, each under jurisdiction of a kadi. Kadis theoretically depended on kadiasker but in practice to the clan leaders and the khan. The kadis determined the day to day legal behaviour of the Muslims in the khanate.

    The non-Muslim minorities (Greeks, Armenians, Crimean Goths, Adyghe (Circassians), Venetians, Genoese, Crimean Karaites and Qırımçaq Jews) lived in the cities and villages, sometimes having different quarters. They had their own religious and judicial institutions according to the millet system. They controlled the financial occupations and trade, and paid tax in return for which they did not serve in the military. There is no evidence that they faced any discrimination, they lived like Crimean Tatars, and spoke dialects of Crimean Tatar. (Alan Fisher, 1978)

    The nomadic part of the Crimean Tatars and all the Nogays were cattle-breeders. Crimea had important trading ports where the goods carried through Silk Road were exported to the Ottoman Empire and Europe. Crimean Khanate had many sizeable, beautiful and lively cities such as Bakhchisaray - the capital, Kezlev, Karasubazar and Aqmescit having numerous caravansarais, hans and merchant quarters, leather-manufactures, mills. The settled Crimean Tatars were engaged in trade, agriculture, and artisanry. Crimea was a center of wine and tobacco production, and fruit farming. The Bakhchisaray kilims (oriental rugs) were exported to Poland, and knives made by Crimean Tatar artisans were thought to be best among the Caucasian tribes. Crimean Tatars were famous Silkworm cultivation, and honey production. One of the major sources of incomes of Crimean Tatar and Nogay nobility was booty attained from campaigns to the neighbouring countries and slave trade. (Brian G. Williams)


    Golden Age

    The Crimean Khanate was undoubtedly one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century. Crimean Tatars played an invaluable role in defending the borders of Islam, especially against the Muscovites and Poles. In order to prevent the Slavic settlement in the steppes, Crimean Tatar raiding parties (chambuls), in cooperation with the Nogais, engaged in raids on the Danubian principalities, Poland-Lithuania, and Muscovy.

    In a process called "harvesting of the steppe" they enslaved many Slavic peasants, and acquired booty, from which the khan received a fixed share (savğa) of 10 or 20%. The campaigns by Crimean forces could be divided into "sefers" - officially declared military operations led by the khans themselves - and "çapuls" - raids undertaken by separate groups of noblemen (sometimes illegal and banned because they contravened the treaties concluded by the khans with the neighbor rulers). For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. Kefe was one of the best known and significant trading ports and slave markets.


    The Crimean Khanate also made several alliances with Polish-Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Cossacks against growing Muscovy, which made competing claims to Golden Horde territories. The region in dispute was highly valued by Muscovy since it would allow the settlement of Russians to fertile areas where the growing season is longer than the more northerly areas which Muscovy depended on. It is speculated that with this soil, agriculture in Russia would have been rich enough to allow for a quicker decline of serfdom in the 17th century. In any case the permanent warfare in the borderland and the fast increase of the Russian nobles' armies contributed to increased exploitation of the Russian peasants.

    Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainians but also Circassians, Russians, Belarusians and Poles, were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate. One of their most famous victims was Roxelana (Khurem Sultan), who later became the wife of Suleyman the Magnificent and achieved great power in the Ottoman court. A constant threat from Crimean Tatars supported the appearance of Cossackdom.

    Perfecting their raiding tactics, Crimean Tatars chose routes along watersheds. The main way to Moscow was Muravski shliach, going from Crimean Perekop up to Tula between the rivers Dnieper and Seversky Donets. Having gone deep into the populated area for 100-200 kilometers, the Tatars turned back and looted and captured slaves. Annually Moscow mobilized in the spring up to 65,000 soldiers for border service, which was a heavy burden for the state. The defensive Russian lines consisted of the circuit of earthen shafts, fallen trees, trenches and fortresses such as Belev, Odoev, and Tula. The coast of the river Oka near to Moscow served as last line of defense. Cossacks and young noblemen were organized into sentry and patrol services that observed Crimean Tatars on the steppe. (Source: Vasily Klyuchevsky, "The course of Russian History".) About 30 major Tatar raids were recorded into Muscovite territories between 1558-1596.


    Decline

    The decline of the Crimean Khanate was tied to the weakening of the Ottoman empire and a change in the balance of power in Eastern Europe that favoured the Christian kingdoms. Crimean Tatars returned from the Ottoman campaigns empty-handed, while the Tatar cavalry without sufficient guns suffered great loss against European and Russian modern armies. By the late 17th century, Muscovite Russia became too strong a power for Crimea to pillage it. From then on, Crimean Tatars were not able to conducts raids for attaining slaves or booty to Ukraine and Russia and this cut one of the economic sources of the khanate. The support of the khan by noble clans also began to erode as a result of these external failures, and internal conflict for power ensued. The Nogays, who provided a significant portion of the Crimean military forces, also took back their support from the khans towards the end of the empire.

    In the first half of 17th century Kalmyks formed the Kalmyk Khanate in the Lower Volga and under Ayuka Khan conducted many military expeditions against the Crimean Khanate and Nogays. By becoming part of Russia and keeping their oath to protect its southeastern borders, Kalmyk Khanate took an active part in all Russian war campaigns in 17th and 18th centuries, providing up to 40 000 fully equipped horsemen.

    The united Russian and Ukrainian forces attacked the Khanate during the Chigirin Campaigns and the Crimean Campaigns. It was during the Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739 that the Russians under command of Field-Marshal Munnich finally managed to penetrate the Crimean Peninsula itself.

    More warfare ensued during the reign of Catherine II. The Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 resulted in the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji, which made the Crimean Khanate independent from the Ottoman Empire, and aligned it with the Russian Empire.

    The rule of the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray was marked with increasing Russian influence and outbursts of violence from the side of the khan administration towards internal opposition. On 8 April 1783, in violation of the treaty, Catherine II interfered into the civil war, de facto annexing the whole peninsula into the Russian Empire. In 1787, Şahin Giray took refuge in the Ottoman empire and was eventually executed by the Ottoman authorities for betrayal in Rhodes, although the royal Giray family survives to this day.


    Crimean Khanate RULERS:




    1777-1782 Şahin Giray first reign

    1782 Bahadır II Giray

    1782-1783 Şahin Giray second reign

    † The reigns of Canibek Giray in 1624 and of Maqsud Giray in 1771-1772 are not listed. Though these khans were formally appointed by Ottoman sultans they did not reach the throne and did not rule Crimea. In the years mentioned, the authority in the Crimean Khanate was exercised by Mehmed III Giray and Sahib II Giray correspondingly.

    Note: The nominal khans Şahbaz Giray (1787-1789) and Baht Giray (1789-1792) mentioned in some works are not listed in this table as they did not rule the Crimean Khanate annexed by Russia in 1783.



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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Crimean Khanate


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    Coat and Arms



    Khan's Crown's




    MAP:









    RULERS of Crimean Khanate

    The Khans of Crimean

    Hajji Giray I Khan 1449-1456 1456-1466
    Haydar Giray Khan 1456
    Nur Dawlat Giray Khan 1466-1467, 1474-1475 1476-1478
    Mengli Giray Khan 1467-1474, 1475-1476 1478-1514

    Vassals of the Ottoman Empire, 1475;
    conquest of Golden Horde, 1502

    Muhammad Giray I Khan 1514-1523
    Ghazi Giray I Khan 1523-1524
    Sa'adat Giray I Khan 1524-1532
    Islam Giray I Khan 1532
    Sahib Giray I Khan 1532-1551
    Dawlat Giray I Khan 1551-1577
    Muhammad Giray II Khan 1577-1584
    Islam Giray II Khan 1584-1588
    Ghazi Giray II Khan 1588-1596, 1596-1608
    Fethi Giray I Khan 1596
    Toqtamish Giray Khan 1608
    Salamat Giray I Khan 1608-1610
    Muhammad Giray III Khan 1610, 1623-1624, 1624-1627
    Jani Beg Giray Khan 1610-1623, 1624 1627-1635
    Inayat Boztorgai Giray Khan 1635-1637
    Bahadur Giray I Khan 1637-1641
    Muhammad Giray IV Khan 1641 1644, 1654-1666
    Islam Giray III Khan 1644-1654
    Adil Giray Khan 1666-1671
    Salim Giray I Khan 1671-1678, 1684-1691, 1692-1699, 1702-1704
    Murad Giray Khan 1678-1683
    Hajji Giray II Khan 1683-1684
    Sa'adat Giray II Khan 1691
    Safa Giray Khan 1691-1692
    Dawlat Giray II Khan 1699-1702, 1708-1713
    Ghazi Giray III Khan 1704-1707
    Qaplan Giray I Khan 1707-1708, 1713-1716, 1730-1736
    Dawlat Giray III Khan 1716-1717
    Sa'adat Giray III Khan 1717-1724
    Mengli Giray II Khan 1724-1730, 1737-1740
    Fethi Giray II Khan 1736-1737
    Salamat Giray II Khan 1740-1743
    Salim Giray II Khan 1743-1748
    Arslan Giray Khan 1748-1756, 1767
    Halim Giray Khan 1756-1758
    Qirim Giray Khan 1758-1764, 1768-1769
    Salim Giray III Khan 1764-1767, 1770-1771
    Maqsud Giray Khan 1767-1768, 1771-1772
    Dawlat Giray IV Khan 1769, 1775-1777
    Qaplan Giray II Khan 1769-1770
    Sahib Giray II Khan 1772-1775

    Sahin Giray Khan 1777-1782, Russian vassal, 1783-1787

    Bahadur Giray II Khan 1782-1783

    1783, Russian annexation
    by Catharine II the Great









    the Crimean Khanate



    CAPITAL:
    Bakhchisaray


    The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Hanlığı, قريم خانلغى‎; Russian: Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство - Kryms'ke khanstvo; Turkish: Kırım Hanlığı; Polish: Chanat Krymski) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. Its native name was Crimean Yurt (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Yurtu, قريم يورتى‎). The khanate was by far the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.


    Early rulers

    The Crimean Khanate was founded when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak (Kypchak Steppes of today's Ukraine and South Russia), decided to make Crimea their yurt (homeland) and invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to be their khan. Hacı Giray accepted this proposal and came from Lithuania, the place he was exiled. He founded his independent state in 1441 after a long-lasting struggle for independence from the Golden Horde. The khanate included the Crimean peninsula (except the south and southwest coast and ports, controlled by the Republic of Genoa) and the steppes of modern southern Ukraine and Russia, also known as Desht-i Kipchak.

    The internal strife among the Hacı's sons followed after his death. The Ottomans interfered and installed Meñli I Giray, a son of Hacı I Giray to the throne. In 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered the Principality of Theodoro and Genoese colonies in Cembalo, Soldaia, and Caffa. The khanate from then on entered the protection of the Ottoman Empire. While the Crimean coast became an Ottoman Kefe sancak, the khans continued to rule in the rest of the peninsula and the northern steppes. The relationship of the Ottomans and the Crimean Tatars were unique. The sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects. Though the chosen khan had to receive approval to the Sultan, they were not appointees of Constantinople. (Halil İnalcık) The Ottomans also recognized the legitimacy of the khans in the steppes, as descendants of Genghis Khan.

    The khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The relations of the khans and the Ottoman Sultan were governed through diplomatic correspondence. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers, two important signs of sovereignty. They did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire, instead the Ottomans paid them in return for their services of providing skilled outriders and frontline cavalry in their campaigns. (Alexandre Bennigsen)

    The alliance of Crimean Tatars and Ottomans was comparable to Polish-Lithuanian in its importance and durability. The Crimean cavalry became indispensable for the Ottomans' campaigns in Europe (Poland, Hungary) and Asia (Persia). This made Crimean Tatars dependent on the booty attained after the successful campaigns, and when the Ottoman military campaigns began to fail, the Crimean Tatar economy also began to decline.

    In 1502 Meñli I Giray defeated the last khan of the Great Horde putting the end to the Horde's claims on Crimea. In the 16th century the Crimean khanate pretended to be the successor authority of the former Golden Horde territory, Great Horde and hence over the Tatar khanates of Caspian-Volga region, particularly the Kazan Khanate and Astrakhan Khanate. This resulted in rivalry with Muscovy for dominance in the region. A successful campaign of Devlet I Giray to Moscow in 1571 finished with the burning of the Russian capital and he was called Taht-Algan (seizer of the throne) after this event. However the Crimean Khanate eventually lost the dispute for access to the Volga due to its catastrophic defeat in the Battle at Molodi just one year later.

    The capital of the Khanate was placed initially in Salaçıq near the Qırq Yer fortress, then moved to Bakhchisaray founded in 1532 by Sahib I Giray.


    Political and economic system

    Girays traced their origins to Genghis Khan, and this made them prevalent among other noble clans. According to the steppe tradition, the ruler was legitimate only if he is of Genghisid royal descent (i.e. ak süyek). Even the Muscovite Tsar claimed Genghisid descent. Instead of the Ottoman ideology of autocracy, the Crimean Khanate followed the Horde tradition. (Schamiloglu) That is, the Giray dynasty was the symbol of government but the khan actually governed with the participation of Qaraçı Beys, the leaders of the noble clans such as Şirin, Barın, Arğın, Qıpçaq, and in the later period, Mansuroğlu and Sicavut. The Nogays who transferred their allegiance to the Crimean khan when the Astrakhan Khanate collapsed in 1556, were an important element of the Crimean Khanate. Circassians and Cossacks also played role at certain times in Crimean politics, transferring their allegiance between the khan and the beys.

    Internally, the khanate territory was divided among the beys and beneath the beys were mirzas from noble families. The relationship of peasants or herdsmen to mirzas were not feudal. They were free, and Islamic law protected them from losing their rights. Apportioned by village, the land was worked in common and the tax was assigned to whole village. The tax was one tenth of agricultural product, one twentieh of the livestock and a variable unpaid labour. During the reforms by the last khan Şahin Giray the internal structure was changed following the Turkish pattern: land-ownings of nobility were proclaimed the domain of the khan and reorganized into "qadılıqs" (provinces governed by representatives of the khan).


    Crimean law was based on Tatar law, Islamic law and on limited matters the Ottoman law. The leader of the Muslim establishment was the mufti, who was selected among the local Muslim clergy. His major duty was neither judicial nor theological, it was financial. The mufti’s administration controlled all of the vakif lands and their enomous revenues. Another Muslim official, appointed not by the clergy but the Ottoman sultan was the kadıasker. He oversaw the khanate’s judicial districts, each under jurisdiction of a kadi. Kadis theoretically depended on kadiasker but in practice to the clan leaders and the khan. The kadis determined the day to day legal behaviour of the Muslims in the khanate.

    The non-Muslim minorities (Greeks, Armenians, Crimean Goths, Adyghe (Circassians), Venetians, Genoese, Crimean Karaites and Qırımçaq Jews) lived in the cities and villages, sometimes having different quarters. They had their own religious and judicial institutions according to the millet system. They controlled the financial occupations and trade, and paid tax in return for which they did not serve in the military. There is no evidence that they faced any discrimination, they lived like Crimean Tatars, and spoke dialects of Crimean Tatar. (Alan Fisher, 1978)

    The nomadic part of the Crimean Tatars and all the Nogays were cattle-breeders. Crimea had important trading ports where the goods carried through Silk Road were exported to the Ottoman Empire and Europe. Crimean Khanate had many sizeable, beautiful and lively cities such as Bakhchisaray - the capital, Kezlev, Karasubazar and Aqmescit having numerous caravansarais, hans and merchant quarters, leather-manufactures, mills. The settled Crimean Tatars were engaged in trade, agriculture, and artisanry. Crimea was a center of wine and tobacco production, and fruit farming. The Bakhchisaray kilims (oriental rugs) were exported to Poland, and knives made by Crimean Tatar artisans were thought to be best among the Caucasian tribes. Crimean Tatars were famous Silkworm cultivation, and honey production. One of the major sources of incomes of Crimean Tatar and Nogay nobility was booty attained from campaigns to the neighbouring countries and slave trade. (Brian G. Williams)


    Golden Age

    The Crimean Khanate was undoubtedly one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century. Crimean Tatars played an invaluable role in defending the borders of Islam, especially against the Muscovites and Poles. In order to prevent the Slavic settlement in the steppes, Crimean Tatar raiding parties (chambuls), in cooperation with the Nogais, engaged in raids on the Danubian principalities, Poland-Lithuania, and Muscovy.

    In a process called "harvesting of the steppe" they enslaved many Slavic peasants, and acquired booty, from which the khan received a fixed share (savğa) of 10 or 20%. The campaigns by Crimean forces could be divided into "sefers" - officially declared military operations led by the khans themselves - and "çapuls" - raids undertaken by separate groups of noblemen (sometimes illegal and banned because they contravened the treaties concluded by the khans with the neighbor rulers). For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. Kefe was one of the best known and significant trading ports and slave markets.


    The Crimean Khanate also made several alliances with Polish-Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Cossacks against growing Muscovy, which made competing claims to Golden Horde territories. The region in dispute was highly valued by Muscovy since it would allow the settlement of Russians to fertile areas where the growing season is longer than the more northerly areas which Muscovy depended on. It is speculated that with this soil, agriculture in Russia would have been rich enough to allow for a quicker decline of serfdom in the 17th century. In any case the permanent warfare in the borderland and the fast increase of the Russian nobles' armies contributed to increased exploitation of the Russian peasants.


    Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainians but also Circassians, Russians, Belarusians and Poles, were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate. One of their most famous victims was Roxelana (Khurem Sultan), who later became the wife of Suleyman the Magnificent and achieved great power in the Ottoman court. A constant threat from Crimean Tatars supported the appearance of Cossackdom.

    Perfecting their raiding tactics, Crimean Tatars chose routes along watersheds. The main way to Moscow was Muravski shliach, going from Crimean Perekop up to Tula between the rivers Dnieper and Seversky Donets. Having gone deep into the populated area for 100-200 kilometers, the Tatars turned back and looted and captured slaves. Annually Moscow mobilized in the spring up to 65,000 soldiers for border service, which was a heavy burden for the state. The defensive Russian lines consisted of the circuit of earthen shafts, fallen trees, trenches and fortresses such as Belev, Odoev, and Tula. The coast of the river Oka near to Moscow served as last line of defense. Cossacks and young noblemen were organized into sentry and patrol services that observed Crimean Tatars on the steppe. (Source: Vasily Klyuchevsky, "The course of Russian History".) About 30 major Tatar raids were recorded into Muscovite territories between 1558-1596.


    Decline

    The decline of the Crimean Khanate was tied to the weakening of the Ottoman empire and a change in the balance of power in Eastern Europe that favoured the Christian kingdoms. Crimean Tatars returned from the Ottoman campaigns empty-handed, while the Tatar cavalry without sufficient guns suffered great loss against European and Russian modern armies. By the late 17th century, Muscovite Russia became too strong a power for Crimea to pillage it. From then on, Crimean Tatars were not able to conducts raids for attaining slaves or booty to Ukraine and Russia and this cut one of the economic sources of the khanate. The support of the khan by noble clans also began to erode as a result of these external failures, and internal conflict for power ensued. The Nogays, who provided a significant portion of the Crimean military forces, also took back their support from the khans towards the end of the empire.

    In the first half of 17th century Kalmyks formed the Kalmyk Khanate in the Lower Volga and under Ayuka Khan conducted many military expeditions against the Crimean Khanate and Nogays. By becoming part of Russia and keeping their oath to protect its southeastern borders, Kalmyk Khanate took an active part in all Russian war campaigns in 17th and 18th centuries, providing up to 40 000 fully equipped horsemen.

    The united Russian and Ukrainian forces attacked the Khanate during the Chigirin Campaigns and the Crimean Campaigns. It was during the Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739 that the Russians under command of Field-Marshal Munnich finally managed to penetrate the Crimean Peninsula itself.

    More warfare ensued during the reign of Catherine II. The Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 resulted in the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji, which made the Crimean Khanate independent from the Ottoman Empire, and aligned it with the Russian Empire.

    The rule of the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray was marked with increasing Russian influence and outbursts of violence from the side of the khan administration towards internal opposition. On 8 April 1783, in violation of the treaty, Catherine II interfered into the civil war, de facto annexing the whole peninsula into the Russian Empire. In 1787, Şahin Giray took refuge in the Ottoman empire and was eventually executed by the Ottoman authorities for betrayal in Rhodes, although the royal Giray family survives to this day.



    List of rulers of Crimean Khanate.


    c.1427 or 1441 - 1456Hac
    ı I Giray Khanfirst reign
    1456Hayder Khan
    1456-1466Hacı I Giray Khansecond reign
    1466-1467Nur Devlet Khanfirst reign
    1467Meñli I Giray Khanfirst reign
    1467-1469Nur Devlet Khansecond reign
    1469-1475Meñli I Giray Khansecond reign
    1475-1476Nur Devlet Khanthird reign
    1476-1478dynastydismissed from power
    1478-1515Meñli I Giray Khanthird reign
    1515-1523Mehmed I Giray Khan
    1523-1524Ğazı I Giray Khan
    1524-1532Saadet I Giray Khan
    1532İslâm I Giray Khan
    1532-1551Sahib I Giray Khan
    1551-1577Devlet I Giray Khan
    1577-1584Mehmed II Giray Khan
    1584Saadet II Giray Khan
    1584-1588İslâm II Giray Khan
    1588-1596Ğazı II Giray Khanfirst reign
    1596Fetih I Giray Khan
    1596-1607Ğazı II Giray Khansecond reign
    1607-1608Toqtamış Giray Khan
    1608-1610Selâmet I Giray Khan
    1610-1623Canibek Giray Khanfirst reign
    1623-1628Mehmed III Giray Khan
    1628-1635Canibek Giray Khansecond reign
    1635-1637İnayet Boztorgai Giray Khan
    1637-1641Bahadır I Giray Khan
    1641-1644Mehmed IV Giray Khanfirst reign
    1644-1654İslâm III Giray Khan
    1654-1666Mehmed IV Giray Khansecond reign
    1666-1671Adil Giray Khan
    1671-1678Selim I Giray Khanfirst reign
    1678-1683Murad Giray Khan
    1683-1684Hacı II Giray Khan
    1684-1691Selim I Giray Khansecond reign
    1691Saadet III Giray Khan
    1691-1692Safa Giray Khan
    1692-1699Selim I Giray Khanthird reign
    1699-1702Devlet II Giray Khanfirst reign
    1702-1704Selim I Giray Khanfourth reign
    1704-1707Ğazı III Giray Khan
    1707-1708Qaplan I Giray Khanfirst reign
    1709-1713Devlet II Giray Khansecond reign
    1713-1715Qaplan I Giray Khansecond reign
    1716-1717Devlet III Giray Khan
    1717-1724Saadet IV Giray Khan
    1724-1730Meñli II Giray Khanfirst reign
    1730-1736Qaplan I Giray Khanthird reign
    1736-1737Fetih II Giray Khan
    1737-1740Meñli II Giray Khansecond reign
    1740-1743Selamet II Giray Khan
    1743-1748Selim II Giray Khan
    1748-1756Arslan Giray Khanfirst reign
    1756-1758Halim Giray Khan
    1758-1764Qırım Giray Khanfirst reign
    1765-1767Selim III Giray Khanfirst reign
    1767Arslan Giray Khansecond reign
    1767-1768Maqsud Giray Khan
    1768-1769Qırım Giray Khansecond reign
    1769-1770Devlet IV Giray Khanfirst reign
    1770Qaplan II Giray Khan
    1770-1771Selim III Giray Khansecond reign
    1771-1775Sahib II Giray Khan
    1775-1777Devlet IV Giray Khansecond reign
    1777-1782Şahin Giray Khanfirst reign
    1782Bahadır II Giray Khan
    1782-1783Şahin Giray Khansecond reign

    The reigns of Canibek Giray Khan in 1624 and of Maqsud Giray Khan in 1771-1772 are not listed. Though these Khans were formally appointed by Ottoman sultans they did not reach the throne and did not rule Crimea. In the years mentioned, the authority in the Crimean Khanate was exercised by Mehmed III Giray Khan and Sahib II Giray Khan correspondingly.
    Note: The nominal KhansŞahbaz Giray Khan (1787-1789) and Baht ( Batu ) Giray Khan (1789-1792) mentioned in some works are not listed in this table as they did not rule the Crimean Khanate annexed by Russia in 1783.
    Last edited by Boztorgai_Khan; September 03, 2008 at 11:34 AM.



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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    What PICTURES of the Crimean Khanate.




































    Women





    Circassian, Nogai Tatars and Kalmyks




    Tatars




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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Crimean Khanate


    BTW: Crimean Tatars is Family and Direct Descendant of Kypchaks and Golden Horde.

    Now I Post Now What Pictures of Kypchaks and Golden Hordes army:


    Cuman


    Pecheneg, but basically the same


    Kipchak


    Cuman Horse Archer


    Cuman Warrior


    Cuman Warrior


    #1 is Cuman Horse Archer (inspiration for the SV unit)


    Pecheneg Horse Archer





    Kypchak - Archer



    Nogai - HORDE



    Nogai - Horde



    Tatar





    - RED ( Merchant ) GREEN ( Princess ) BLUE ( DIPLOMAT )



    Face Hair Style



    Tatar - Horse Archers



    MOSTLY Faction Leaders and Faction Heirs By MONGOLS is that to so ( THE FACE )



    KYPCHAK - Axe SOLDIERS



    Tatar



    FACTION LEADER ( FACE )



    TOGAI BEG KHAN ( a GREAT - KYPCHAK - Leader ) - So was the Kypchak Leaders to ( Look the HAIR's )







    Kazakh SOLDIERS by RUSSIAN's is the Real SOLDIERS of the CUMAN ( KYPCHAK )..



    MOSTLY - TATAR's, KYPCHAK's and MONGOL's - HAIR STYLE and FACE..



    Kypchaks







    Kypchaks Pictures, From Brother Chaghatai Khan.. I Thank Him. :wink:
















    Crimean Khanate


    TATARS







    TATAR ARMY














































































    Crimean Khanate


    The Black Death of the 1340s was a major factor contributing to the Golden Horde's eventual downfall. Following the disastrous rule of Jani Beg and his subsequent assassination, the empire fell into a long civil war, averaging one new Khan per annum for the next few decades (Though Orda's white horde carried on generally free from trouble until the late 1370's). By the 1380s, Khwarezm, Astrakhan, and Muscovy attempted to break free of the Horde's power, while the lower reaches of the Dnieper were annexed by Lithuania and Poland in 1368 (Whilst the eastern principalities were generally annexed with little resistance).


    Mamai, a Tatar general who did not formally hold the throne, attempted to reassert Tatar authority over Russia. His army was defeated by Dmitri Donskoi at the Battle of Kulikovo in his second consecutive victory over the Tatars. Mamai soon fell from power, and in 1378, Tokhtamysh, a descendant of Orda Khan and ruler of the White Horde, invaded and annexed the territory of the Blue Horde, briefly reestablishing the Golden Horde as a dominant regional power.

    After Mamai's defeat, Tokhtamysh tried to restore the dominance of the Golden Horde over Russia by attacking Russian lands in 1382. He besieged Moscow on August 23, but Muscovites beat off his storm, using firearms for the first time in Russian history. On August 26, two sons of Tokhtamysh's supporter Dmitry of Suzdal, dukes of Suzdal and Nizhny Novgorod Vasily and Semyon, who were present in Tokhtamysh's forces, persuaded Muscovites to open the city gates, promising that forces would not harm the city in this case. This allowed Tokhtamysh's troops to burst in and destroy Moscow, killing 24,000 people.


    A fatal blow to the Horde was dealt by Tamerlane, who annihilated Tokhtamysh's army, destroyed his capital, looted the Crimean trade centers, and deported the most skillful craftsmen to his own capital in Samarkand.


    In the first decades of the 15th century, power was wielded by Edigu, a vizier who routed Vytautas of Lithuania in the great Battle of the Vorskla River and established the Nogai Horde as his personal demesne.

    *** - In the 1440s, the Horde was again wracked by civil war. This time it broke up into separate Khanates: Qasim Khanate, Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Astrakhan, Kazakh Khanate, Uzbek Khanate, and Khanate of Crimea all seceding from the last remnant of the Golden Horde - the Great or Big Horde. - ***

    None of these new Khanates was stronger than Muscovite Russia, which finally broke free of Tatar control by 1480. Each Khanate was eventually annexed by it, starting with Kazan and Astrakhan in the 1550s. By the end of the century the Siberia Khanate was also part of Russia, and descendants of its ruling khans entered Russian service.

    The Crimean Khanate became a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in 1475 and subjugated what remained of the Great Horde by 1502. Crimean Tatars wreaked havoc in southern Russia, Ukraine and even Poland in the course of the 16th and early 17th centuries but they were not able to defeat Russia or take Moscow. Under Ottoman protection, the Khanate of Crimea continued its precarious existence until Catherine the Great annexed it on April 8, 1783. It was by far the longest-lived of the successor states to the Golden Horde.









    Crimean Khanate



    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=14sJ55MqfAw


    YouTube Video ERROR: If you can see this, then YouTube is down or you don't have Flash installed.


    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=14sJ55MqfAw



    TURKIC WARRIORS - SPECIAL

    YouTube Video ERROR: If you can see this, then YouTube is down or you don't have Flash installed.







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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate



    16 C - Crimean Tatars ( awesome unit )






    Crimean Tatar



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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Great Info.
    Thank You.


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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Crimean Tatars (sg. Qırımtatar, pl. Qırımtatarlar) or Crimeans (sg. Qırım, Qırımlı, pl. Qırımlar, Qırımlılar) are a Turkic ethnic group originally residing in Crimea. They speak the Crimean Tatar language.

    The Crimean Tatars and non-Russian minorities living in Crimea are descendants of a mix of Turkic (Bulgars, Khazars, Petchenegs and Cumans) and non-Turkic (Alans, Slavs, Romanians, Byzantine Greeks, Crimean Goths, Circassians), as well as of other various people (e.g. Venetians and Genoese), who lived, settled (colonised) or were even brought as slaves by the Tatars themselves, in the Crimean penisula and the adjacent areas north of the Black Sea (the Pontic-Caspian steppe). The non-Turkic populations were assimilated into the Turkic ones.

    The Crimean Tatars are subdivided into three sub-ethnic groups:
    the Tats (Tat Tatars) (not to be confused with the Tat people) who used to inhabit the mountainous Crimea before 1944 (about 55%),
    the Yalıboyu Tatars who lived on the southern coast of the peninsula (about 30%),
    the Noğay Tatars (not to be confused with the Nogai people) - former inhabitants of the Crimean steppe (about 15%).

    The Tats and Yalıboyus have a Caucasian physical appearance, while the Noğays retain Mongoloid characteristics.

    In modern times, in addition to living in Crimea, Ukraine, there is a large diaspora of Crimean Tatars in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Uzbekistan, Western Europe and North America, as well as small communities in Finland, Lithuania, Russia, Belarus and Poland. (See Lipka Tatars and Crimean Tatar diaspora).



    The name "Tatar" initially appeared amongst the nomadic Turkic peoples of northeastern Mongolia in the region around Lake Baikal in the beginning of the 5th century. These people may have been related to the Cumans or the Kipchaks. The Chinese term is Dada and is a comparatively specific term for nomads to the north, emerging in the late Tang. Other names include Dadan and Tatan.

    As various of these nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol and Turkic elements took place, and the invaders of Rus and Hungary became known to Europeans as Tatars (or Tartars). After the break up of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars became especially identified with the western part of the empire, which included most of European Russia and was known as the Golden Horde.

    Formerly, it was believed that the name Tatar derived from the name Tartarus, the Greek name for the underworld; this belief led to the frequent spelling and pronunciation of the name with an extra "r", to conform with the classical Greek word. However, this provenance is unlikely since the Tatars use this name for themselves, spelling it without r (Tatar Cyrillic: Татарлар, Latin: Tatarlar).

    Historically, the term Tatar (often misspelled Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. For example, the Russians referred to various peoples they came into contact with on the Eurasian steppes as Tatars yet the British and Americans generally referred to the Manchu and related peoples as Tatars when they first arrived in China. The old English language designation is now regarded as archaic, although the meaning is preserved in the name of the Strait of Tartary that separates the island of Sakhalin from mainland Asia. Today, the word is generally confined to meaning one of the following:


    Historical meaning of Tatars

    Ta-ta Mongols
    multi-ethnical population of Mongol Empire
    multi-ethnical Muslim population of late Golden Horde (for neighboring peoples, for example, Russians)
    Turkic Muslim population (Volga Tatars, Azeris) and some pagan Turkic and Mongolian peoples (such as Khakass) in the Russian Empire
    Russian term for some peoples, incorporated into the Muslim nation of Russia in the late 19th century (for example, Volga Tatars, Nogais, Azeri)
    Some ethnic groups in the Soviet Union after the policy of Furkinland, such as the Volga Tatars (or simply Tatars), Crimean Tatars, Chulym Tatars, and groups such as the Lipka Tatars (other peoples also switched their Russian names to "Tatar" to promote their desire for self-determination).

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tatars



    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimean_Tatars



    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimean_Khanate


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Crimean_Wars





    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Muscovites at the southern border. Painting by Sergey Vasilievich Ivanov.


    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Crimean Tatars at the court of King John II Casimir of Poland. Detail of a 17th-century portrait of Agha Dedesh with his family.



    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

    Crimean Tatar soldier fighting with the soldier of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Europe's steppe frontier was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century.





    The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Hanlığı, قريم خانلغى‎; Russian: Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство - Kryms'ke khanstvo; Turkish: Kırım Hanlığı; Polish: Chanat Krymski) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. Its native name was Crimean Yurt (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Yurtu, قريم يورتى‎). The khanate was by far the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.

    The Crimean Khanate was founded when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak (Kypchak Steppes of today's Ukraine and South Russia), decided to make Crimea their yurt (homeland) and invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to be their khan. Hacı Giray accepted this proposal and came from Lithuania, the place he was exiled. He founded his independent state in 1441 after a long-lasting struggle for independence from the Golden Horde. The khanate included the Crimean peninsula (except the south and southwest coast and ports, controlled by the Republic of Genoa) and the steppes of modern southern Ukraine and Russia, also known as Desht-i Kipchak.
    The internal strife among the Hacı's sons followed after his death. The Ottomans interfered and installed Meñli I Giray, a son of Hacı I Giray to the throne. In 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered the Principality of Theodoro and Genoese colonies in Cembalo, Soldaia, and Caffa. The khanate from then on entered the protection of the Ottoman Empire. While the Crimean coast became an Ottoman Kefe sancak, the khans continued to rule in the rest of the peninsula and the northern steppes. The relationship of the Ottomans and the Crimean Tatars were unique. The sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects. Though the chosen khan had to receive approval to the Sultan, they were not appointees of Constantinople. (Halil İnalcık) The Ottomans also recognized the legitimacy of the khans in the steppes, as descendants of Genghis Khan.

    The khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The relations of the khans and the Ottoman Sultan were governed through diplomatic correspondence. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers, two important signs of sovereignty. They did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire, instead the Ottomans paid them in return for their services of providing skilled outriders and frontline cavalry in their campaigns. (Alexandre Bennigsen)

    The alliance of Crimean Tatars and Ottomans was comparable to Polish-Lithuanian in its importance and durability. The Crimean cavalry became indispensable for the Ottomans' campaigns in Europe (Poland, Hungary) and Asia (Persia). This made Crimean Tatars dependent on the booty attained after the successful campaigns, and when the Ottoman military campaigns began to fail, the Crimean Tatar economy also began to decline.

    In 1502 Meñli I Giray defeated the last khan of the Great Horde putting the end to the Horde's claims on Crimea. In the 16th century the Crimean khanate pretended to be the successor authority of the former Golden Horde territory, Great Horde and hence over the Tatar khanates of Caspian-Volga region, particularly the Kazan Khanate and Astrakhan Khanate. This resulted in rivalry with Muscovy for dominance in the region. A successful campaign of Devlet I Giray to Moscow in 1571 finished with the burning of the Russian capital and he was called Taht-Algan (seizer of the throne) after this event. However the Crimean Khanate eventually lost the dispute for access to the Volga due to its catastrophic defeat in the Battle at Molodi just one year later.

    The capital of the Khanate was placed initially in Salaçıq near the Qırq Yer fortress, then moved to Bakhchisaray founded in 1532 by Sahib I Giray.


    Girays traced their origins to Genghis Khan, and this made them prevalent among other noble clans. According to the steppe tradition, the ruler was legitimate only if he was of Genghisid royal descent (i.e. ak süyek). Even the Muscovite Tsar claimed Genghisid descent. Instead of the Ottoman ideology of autocracy, the Crimean Khanate followed the Horde tradition. (Schamiloglu) That is, the Giray dynasty was the symbol of government but the khan actually governed with the participation of Qaraçı Beys, the leaders of the noble clans such as Şirin, Barın, Arğın, Qıpçaq, and in the later period, Mansuroğlu and Sicavut. The Nogays who transferred their allegiance to the Crimean khan when the Astrakhan Khanate collapsed in 1556, were an important element of the Crimean Khanate. Circassians and Cossacks also played role at certain times in Crimean politics, transferring their allegiance between the khan and the beys.

    Internally, the khanate territory was divided among the beys and beneath the beys were mirzas from noble families. The relationship of peasants or herdsmen to mirzas were not feudal. They were free, and Islamic law protected them from losing their rights. Apportioned by village, the land was worked in common and the tax was assigned to whole village. The tax was one tenth of agricultural product, one twentieh of the livestock and a variable unpaid labour. During the reforms by the last khan Şahin Giray the internal structure was changed following the Turkish pattern: land-ownings of nobility were proclaimed the domain of the khan and reorganized into "qadılıqs" (provinces governed by representatives of the khan).

    Crimean law was based on Tatar law, Islamic law and on limited matters the Ottoman law. The leader of the Muslim establishment was the mufti, who was selected among the local Muslim clergy. His major duty was neither judicial nor theological, it was financial. The mufti’s administration controlled all of the vakif lands and their enomous revenues. Another Muslim official, appointed not by the clergy but the Ottoman sultan was the kadıasker. He oversaw the khanate’s judicial districts, each under jurisdiction of a kadi. Kadis theoretically depended on kadiasker but in practice to the clan leaders and the khan. The kadis determined the day to day legal behaviour of the Muslims in the khanate.

    The non-Muslim minorities (Greeks, Armenians, Crimean Goths, Adyghe (Circassians), Venetians, Genoese, Crimean Karaites and Qırımçaq Jews) lived in the cities and villages, sometimes having different quarters. They had their own religious and judicial institutions according to the millet system. They controlled the financial occupations and trade, and paid tax in return for which they did not serve in the military. There is no evidence that they faced any discrimination, they lived like Crimean Tatars, and spoke dialects of Crimean Tatar. (Alan Fisher, 1978)

    The nomadic part of the Crimean Tatars and all the Nogays were cattle-breeders. Crimea had important trading ports where the goods carried through Silk Road were exported to the Ottoman Empire and Europe. Crimean Khanate had many sizeable, beautiful and lively cities such as Bakhchisaray - the capital, Kezlev, Karasubazar and Aqmescit having numerous caravansarais, hans and merchant quarters, leather-manufactures, mills. The settled Crimean Tatars were engaged in trade, agriculture, and artisanry. Crimea was a center of wine and tobacco production, and fruit farming. The Bakhchisaray kilims (oriental rugs) were exported to Poland, and knives made by Crimean Tatar artisans were thought to be best among the Caucasian tribes. Crimean Tatars were famous Silkworm cultivation, and honey production. One of the major sources of incomes of Crimean Tatar and Nogay nobility was booty attained from campaigns to the neighbouring countries and slave trade. (Brian G. Williams)

    The Crimean Khanate was undoubtedly one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century. Crimean Tatars played an invaluable role in defending the borders of Islam, especially against the Muscovites and Poles. In order to prevent the Slavic settlement in the steppes, Crimean Tatar raiding parties (chambuls), in cooperation with the Nogais, engaged in raids on the Danubian principalities, Poland-Lithuania, and Muscovy.

    In a process called "harvesting of the steppe" they enslaved many Slavic peasants, and acquired booty, from which the khan received a fixed share (savğa) of 10 or 20%. The campaigns by Crimean forces could be divided into "sefers" - officially declared military operations led by the khans themselves - and "çapuls" - raids undertaken by separate groups of noblemen (sometimes illegal and banned because they contravened the treaties concluded by the khans with the neighbor rulers). For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. Kefe was one of the best known and significant trading ports and slave markets.

    The Crimean Khanate also made several alliances with Polish-Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Cossacks against growing Muscovy, which made competing claims to Golden Horde territories. The region in dispute was highly valued by Muscovy since it would allow the settlement of Russians to fertile areas where the growing season is longer than the more northerly areas which Muscovy depended on. It is speculated that with this soil, agriculture in Russia would have been rich enough to allow for a quicker decline of serfdom in the 17th century. In any case the permanent warfare in the borderland and the fast increase of the Russian nobles' armies contributed to increased exploitation of the Russian peasants.

    Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainians but also Circassians, Russians, Belarusians and Poles, were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate. One of their most famous victims was Roxelana (Khurem Sultan), who later became the wife of Suleyman the Magnificent and achieved great power in the Ottoman court. A constant threat from Crimean Tatars supported the appearance of Cossackdom.

    Perfecting their raiding tactics, Crimean Tatars chose routes along watersheds. The main way to Moscow was Muravski shliach, going from Crimean Perekop up to Tula between the rivers Dnieper and Seversky Donets. Having gone deep into the populated area for 100-200 kilometers, the Tatars turned back and looted and captured slaves. Annually Moscow mobilized in the spring up to 65,000 soldiers for border service, which was a heavy burden for the state. The defensive Russian lines consisted of the circuit of earthen shafts, fallen trees, trenches and fortresses such as Belev, Odoev, and Tula. The coast of the river Oka near to Moscow served as last line of defense. Cossacks and young noblemen were organized into sentry and patrol services that observed Crimean Tatars on the steppe. (Source: Vasily Klyuchevsky, "The course of Russian History".) About 30 major Tatar raids were recorded into Muscovite territories between 1558-1596.

    The decline of the Crimean Khanate was tied to the weakening of the Ottoman empire and a change in the balance of power in Eastern Europe that favoured the Christian kingdoms. Crimean Tatars returned from the Ottoman campaigns empty-handed, while the Tatar cavalry without sufficient guns suffered great loss against European and Russian modern armies. By the late 17th century, Muscovite Russia became too strong a power for Crimea to pillage it. From then on, Crimean Tatars were not able to conducts raids for attaining slaves or booty to Ukraine and Russia and this cut one of the economic sources of the khanate. The support of the khan by noble clans also began to erode as a result of these external failures, and internal conflict for power ensued. The Nogays, who provided a significant portion of the Crimean military forces, also took back their support from the khans towards the end of the empire.

    In the first half of 17th century Kalmyks formed the Kalmyk Khanate in the Lower Volga and under Ayuka Khan conducted many military expeditions against the Crimean Khanate and Nogays. By becoming part of Russia and keeping their oath to protect its southeastern borders, Kalmyk Khanate took an active part in all Russian war campaigns in 17th and 18th centuries, providing up to 40 000 fully equipped horsemen.

    The united Russian and Ukrainian forces attacked the Khanate during the Chigirin Campaigns and the Crimean Campaigns. It was during the Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739 that the Russians under command of Field-Marshal Munnich finally managed to penetrate the Crimean Peninsula itself.

    More warfare ensued during the reign of Catherine II. The Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 resulted in the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji, which made the Crimean Khanate independent from the Ottoman Empire, and aligned it with the Russian Empire.

    The rule of the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray was marked with increasing Russian influence and outbursts of violence from the side of the khan administration towards internal opposition. On 8 April 1783, in violation of the treaty, Catherine II interfered into the civil war, de facto annexing the whole peninsula into the Russian Empire. In 1787, Şahin Giray took refuge in the Ottoman empire and was eventually executed by the Ottoman authorities for betrayal in Rhodes, although the royal Giray family survives to this day.
    Last edited by Boztorgai_Khan; September 03, 2008 at 12:16 PM.



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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Quote Originally Posted by King Louise Assurbanipal View Post
    Great Info.
    Thank You.

    I Thank You.. Too Brother That you add my Favo Faction

    My all two GrandMothers is from Crimean Tatars origin Kypchak (Cuman) Golden Horde.

    And my Fathers Father is from Mongol origin.


    I want see Crimean Khanate in your MOD with Real Names, Real Ruler Names, Real Unit names, Real Banner and Real History.

    For that I to do all what you want.
    If you need what tell me I want add for you.



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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Thanks Boztorgai_Khan this material will be very helpfull in making new faction.
    + REP for you sir.
    Last edited by Sebulba; September 03, 2008 at 05:08 PM.



  10. #10
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Quote Originally Posted by Sebulba View Post
    Thanks Boztorgai_Khan this material will be very helpfull in making new faction.
    + REP for you sir.

    Thank You.. Brother,



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  11. #11
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    I Post this Week Unit List



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  12. #12
    Redcoat69's Avatar Campidoctor
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    holy crap dude!!lol my comp was exploding with all this info.good info

  13. #13
    Herr Lindstrom's Avatar Semisalis
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Quote Originally Posted by Redcoat69 View Post
    holy crap dude!!lol my comp was exploding with all this info.good info
    Same here dude! Took me a minute to load this entire topic!

  14. #14
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    I'm busy now with Unit List, Names list ( male, female, bynames, surnames )



    @Redcoat69;


    Thank You..




    @Herr Lindstrom;


    Thank You..



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  15. #15
    Salvo's Avatar Maréchal de l'Empire
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Vey nice infos
    REP for You!

  16. #16
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Quote Originally Posted by Salvo View Post
    Vey nice infos
    REP for You!

    Thank You.. Dude,



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  17. #17

    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Boztorgai_Khan, good info and pics!!!

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    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Quote Originally Posted by Marszałek Poniatowski View Post
    Boztorgai_Khan, good info and pics!!!

    Thank You.. Brother,



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  19. #19
    Boztorgai_Khan's Avatar Domesticus
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Names in Crimean Tatars

    tuday[1]
    tumen[2]
    ordu, ceri, cergov
    yeni ceri
    cayav asker, piyade asker
    atli asker
    yuzbasi
    binbasi
    at agasi, ataga[3]
    ceribasi
    sancaqbey[4]
    qalga[5]
    nureddin[6]
    esame kagiti[7]

    [1] in Turkish: tugay; in English: brigade
    [2] in Turkish: tumen; in English: division
    [3] Cavalry units Commander
    [4] Banner, City and Units Armors Commander
    [5] General of Khan and Village ect units ( Nomads )
    [6] General of Khan and Castle units ( Musketeers / Grenadiers )
    [7] Diplomat

    ordu, ceri, cergov - Horde / Army
    yeni ceri - Janissary ( Ottomans units then Tatar / Mongol type )
    cayav asker, piyade asker - Infantry units
    atli asker - Cavalry units
    yuzbasi - 100 units Commander
    binbasi - 1000 units Commander
    ceribasi - Army Commander




    24 - So Far ( Busy with Pictures For Units )


    Ottomans Janissary
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    Cossack Archer
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    Cossack Infantry
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    Karay Infantry
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    Nogai Archer
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    Tatar Archer
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    Tatar Lancer
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    Cossack Grenadier
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    Cossack
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    Tatar Grenadier
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    Tatar Musketeer
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    searching



    Cossack Horse Archer
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    Cossack Cavalry
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    Kalmuk Cavalry
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    Karacay Cavalry
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    Nogai Archer
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    Tatar Archer
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    Tatar Lancer
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

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    Cossack Grenadier
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    Uhlan Cavalry
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    Tatar Grenadier
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    Girays Guard
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    Tumen - General
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 

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    imam - Cleric
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
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    Khatun-Beqi - Princess
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    Giray Tegin - Faction Heir / Prince

    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 
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    Giray Khan - Faction Leader / King
    Spoiler Alert, click show to read: 


    -
    Last edited by Boztorgai_Khan; November 26, 2009 at 07:25 PM. Reason: 21-10-2009 - Add NEW Pictures



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  20. #20
    Salvo's Avatar Maréchal de l'Empire
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    Default Re: Crimean Khanate

    Could You write something more about cossacks grenadiers?

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