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Thread: [Faction Research Thread] The Sasanian Empire

  1. #1

    Default [Faction Research Thread] The Sasanian Empire

    Greetings Sassanid fans

    Post anything related to the Sassanids here

    Sassanids have a shadow faction Sassanian Rebels
    Last edited by Deutschland; July 16, 2011 at 03:46 AM.

  2. #2

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    *Osprey images removed*

    Chimaeira.


    Courtesy of Cyrus Empire

    Sassanid Empire



    The Sassanids established an empire roughly within the frontiers achieved by the Achaemenids, with the capital at Ctesiphon. The Sassanids consciously sought to resuscitate Iranian traditions and to obliterate Greek cultural influence. Their rule was characterized by considerable centralization, ambitious urban planning, agricultural development, and technological improvements. Sassanid rulers adopted the title of shahanshah (king of kings), as sovereigns over numerous petty rulers, known as shahrdars. Historians believe that society was divided into four classes: the priests, warriors, secretaries, and commoners. The royal princes, petty rulers, great landlords, and priests together constituted a privileged stratum, and the social system appears to have been fairly rigid.

    Sassanid rule and the system of social stratification were reinforced by Zoroastrianism, which became the state religion. The Zoroastrian priesthood became immensely powerful. The head of the priestly class, the mobadan mobad, along with the military commander, the eran spahbod, and the head of the bureaucracy, were among the great men of the state. Rome, with its capital at Constantinople, had replaced Greece as Iran's principal Western enemy, and hostilities between the two empires were frequent. Shahpur I (240-272 CE), son and successor of Ardeshir, waged successful campaigns against the Romans and in 260 CE even took the emperor Valerian prisoner. Between 260 and 263 CE he had lost his conquest to Odenathus, and ally of Rome. Shapur II (ruled 309-379 CE) regained the lost territories, however, in three successive wars with the Romans.

    A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of
    Shapur I over the Roman Emperor Valerian, and Philip the Arabian Khosro I (531-579 CE), also known as Anushirvan the Just, is the most celebrated of the Sassanid rulers. He reformed the tax system and reorganized the army and the bureaucracy, tying the army more closely to the central government than to local lords. His reign witnessed the rise of the dihqans (literally, village lords), the petty landholding nobility who were the backbone of later Sassanid provincial administration and the tax collection system. Khosro was a great builder, embellishing his capital, founding new towns, and constructing new buildings. He rebuilt the canals and restocked the farms, which had been destroyed in the wars. He built strong fortifications at the passes and placed subject tribes in carefully chosen towns on the frontiers, so that they could act as guardians of the state against invaders. Justinian paid him 440,000 pieces of gold, as a bribe to keep the peace, but he seems to have been a man who genuinely enjoyed the fruits of peace and saw no reason to continue a senseless war. He was tolerant of all religions, though he decreed that Zoroastrianism should be the official state religion, but he was not unduly disturbed when one of his sons became a Christian. Under his auspices, too, many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world.

    The reign of Khosro II (591-628 CE) was characterized by the wasteful splendor and lavishness of the court. Toward the end of his reign Khosro II's power declined. In renewed fighting with the Byzantines, he enjoyed initial successes, captured Damascus, and seized the Holy Cross in Jerusalem. But counterattacks by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius brought enemy forces deep into Sassanid territory.

    In the spring of 633 CE a grandson of Khosro called Yezdegerd ascended the throne, and in that same year the first Arab squadrons made their first raids into Persian territory.

    Years of warfare exhausted both the Byzantines and the Iranians. The later Sassanids were further weakened by economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, rigid social stratification, the increasing power of the provincial landholders, and a rapid turnover of rulers. These factors facilitated the Arab invasion in the seventh century.


    It was the beginning of the end. Yezdegerd was a boy, at the mercy of his advisers, incapable of uniting a vast country which was crumbling into a number of small feudal kingdoms. Rome no longer threatened. The threat came from the small disciplined armies of Khalid ibn Walid, once one of Mohammad's chosen companion-in-arms and now, after the Prophet's death, the leader of the Arab army.


    Sassanid Kings:
    Ardashir I / 224 - 241 CE
    Shapur I / 241 - 272 CE
    Hormoz I / 272 - 273 CE
    Bahram I / 273 - 276 CE
    Bahram II / 276 - 293 CE
    Bahram III / 293 - 293 CE
    Narseh / 293 - 302 CE
    Hormoz II / 302 - 309 CE
    Shapur II / 309 - 379 CE
    Ardashir II / 379 - 383 CE
    Shapur III / 383 - 388 CE
    Bahram IV / 388 - 399 CE
    Yazdgerd I / 399 - 420 CE
    Bahram V / 420 - 438 CE
    Yazdgerd II / 438 - 457 CE
    Hormoz III / 457 - 459 CE
    Peroz / 459 - 484 CE
    Balash / 484 - 488 CE
    Kaveh I (first reign) / 488 - 496 CE
    Zamasp / 496 - 498 CE
    Kaveh I (second reign) / 498 - 531 CE
    Khosro I, Anoushirvan / 531 - 579 CE
    Hormoz IV / 579 - 590 CE
    Bahram VI, Chobin / 590 - 590 CE
    Khosro II, Parviz / 590 - 628 CE
    Kaveh II / 628 - 628 CE
    Ardashir III / 628 - 629 CE
    Shahrvaraz / 629 - 629 CE
    Porandokht (woman king) / 629 - 630 CE
    Hormoz V / 630 - 632 CE
    Yazdgerd III / 632 - 651 CE

    Sassanian Army

    Derafsh Kavian The Iranian society under the Sasanians was divided-allegedly by Ardašir I, into four groups: priests, warriors (arteštdar), state officials, and artisans and peasants. The second category embraced princes, lords, and landed aristocracy, and one of the three great fires of the empire, Adur Gušnasp at Šiz (Takt-e Solayman in Azerbaijan) belonged to them. With a clear military plan aimed at the revival of the Iranian Empire, Ardašir I, formed a standing army which was under his personal command and its officers were separate from satraps and local princes and nobility. Ardešir had started as the military commander of Darabgerd, and was knowledgeable in older and contemporary military history, from which he benefited, as history shows, substantially. For he restored Achaemenid military organizations, retained Parthian cavalry, and employed new-style armour and siege-engines, thereby creating a standing army (Mid. Pers. spah) which served his successors for over four centuries, and defended Iran against Central Asiatic nomads and Roman armies.

    The backbone of the spah was its heavy cavalry "in which all the nobles and men of rank" underwent "hard service" and became professional soldiers "through military training and discipline, through constant exercise in warfare and military manoeuvres". From the third century the Romans also formed units of heavy cavalry of the Oriental type; they called such horsemen clibanarii "mailclad [riders]", a term thought to have derived from an Iranian *griwbanar < *griwbanwar < *griva-pana-bara "neck-guard wearer". The heavy cavalry of Shapur II is described by an eye-witness historian as follows:

    "all the companies were clad in iron, and all parts of their bodies were covered with thick plates, so fitted that the stiff-joints conformed with those of their limbs; and the forms of human faces were so skilfully fitted to their heads, that since their entire body was covered with metal, arrows that fell upon them could lodge only where they could see a little through tiny openings opposite the pupil of the eye, or where through the tip of their nose they were able to get a little breath. Of these some who were armed with pikes, stood so motionless that you would have thought them held fast by clamps of bronze".

    The described horsemen are represented by the seventh-century knight depicting Emperor Khosrow Parvez on his steed Šabdiz on a rock relief at Taq-e Bostan in Kermanšah. Since the Sassanian horseman lacked the stirrup, he used a war saddle which, like the medieval type, had a cantle at the back and two guard clamps curving across the top of the rider's thighs enabling him thereby to stay in the saddle especially during violent contact in battle. The inventory of weapons ascribed to Sassanian horsemen at the time of Khosrow Anoširavan, resembles the twelve items of war mentioned in Vendidad 14.9, thus showing that this part of the text had been revised in the later Sassanian period.

    Heavy Armoured Sassanian Cavalry More interestingly, the most important Byzantine treatise on the art of war, the Strategicon, also written at this period, requires the same equipments from a heavily-armed horseman. This was due to the gradual orientalisation of the Roman army to the extent that in the sixth century "the military usages of the Romans and the Persians become more and more assimilated, so that the armies of Justinian and Khosrow are already very much like each other;" and, indeed, the military literatures of the two sides show strong affinities and interrelations. According to the Iranian sources mentioned above, the martial equipments of a heavily-armed Sassanian horseman were as follows: helmet, hauberk (Pahlavi griwban), breastplate, mail, gauntlet (Pahlavi abdast), girdle, thigh-guards (Pahlavi ran-ban), lance, sword, battle-axe, mace, bowcase with two bows and two bowstrings, quiver with 30 arrows, two extra bowstrings, spear, and horse armour (zen-abzar); to these some have added a lasso (kamand), or a sling with slingstones. The elite corps of the cavalry was called "the Immortals," evidently numbering-like their Achaemenid namesakes 10,000 men. On one occasion (under emperor Bahram V) the force attacked a Roman army but outnumbered, it stood firm and was cut down to a man. Another elite cavalry group was the Armenian one, whom the Persians accorded particular honour. In due course the importance of the heavy cavalry increased and the distinguished horseman assumed the meaning of "knight" as in European chivalry; if not of royal blood, he ranked next to the members of the ruling families and was among the king's boon companions.

    The Sassanians did not form light-armed cavalry but extensively employed-as allies or mercenaries-troops from warlike tribes who fought under their own chiefs. "The Sagestani were the bravest of all"; the Gelani, Albani and the Hephthalites, the Kushans and the Khazars were the main suppliers of light-armed cavalry. The skill of the Dailamites in the use of sword and dagger made them valuable troopers in close combat, while Arabs were efficient in desert warfare.

    The infantry (paygan) consisted of the archers and ordinary footmen. The former were protected "by an oblong curved shield, covered with wickerwork and rawhide". Advancing in close order, they showered the enemy with storms of arrows. The ordinary footmen were recruited from peasants and received no pay, serving mainly as pages to the mounted warriors; they also attacked walls, excavated mines and looked after the baggage train, their weapons being a spear and a shield. The cavalry was better supported by war elephants "looking like walking towers", which could cause disorder and damage in enemy ranks in open and level fields. War chariots were not used by the Sassanians. Unlike the Parthians, however, the Iranians organised an efficient siege machine for reducing enemy forts and walled towns. They learned this system of defence from the Romans but soon came to match them not only in the use of offensive siege engines-such as scorpions, balistae, battering rams, and moving towers-but also in the methods of defending their own fortifications against such devices by catapults, by throwing stones or pouring boiling liquid on the attackers or hurling fire brands and blazing missiles.

    Heavy Armoured Sassanian Cavalry The organisation of the Sassanian army is not quite clear, and it is not even certain that a decimal scale prevailed, although such titles as hazarmard might indicate such a system. Yet the proverbial strength of an army was 12,000 men. The total strength of the registered warriors in 578 was 70,000. The army was divided, as in the Parthian times, into several gunds, each consisting of a number of drafšs (units with particular banners), each made up of some Wašts. The imperial banner was the Drafš-a Kavian, a talismanic emblem accompanying the King of Kings or the commander-in-chief of the army who was stationed in the centre of his forces and managed the affairs of the combat from the elevation of a throne. At least from the time of Khosrow Anoširavan a seven-grade hierarchical system seems to have been favoured in the organisation of the army. The highest military title was arghed which was a prerogative of the Sassanian family. Until Khosrow Andoširavan's military reforms, the whole of the Iranian army was under a supreme commander, Eran-spahbed, who acted as the minister of defence, empowered to conduct peace negotiations; he usually came from one of the great noble families and was counted as a counselor of the Great King.

    Along with the revival of "heroic" names in the middle of the Sassanian period, an anachronistic title, arteštaran salar was coined to designate a generalissimo with extraordinary authority, but this was soon abandoned when Anoširavan abolished the office of Eran-spahbed and replaced it with those of the four marshals (spahhed) of the empire, each of whom was the military authority in one quarter of the realm. Other senior officials connected with the army were: Eran-ambaragbed "minister of the magazines of empire," responsible for the arms and armaments of warriors; the marzbans "margraves"-rulers of important border provinces; kanarang-evidently a hereditary title of the ruler of Tus; gund-salar "general"; paygan-salar "commander of the infantry"; and pushtigban-salar "commander of the royal guard".

    A good deal of what is known of the Sassanian army dates from the sixth and seventh centuries when, as the results of Anoširavan's reforms, four main corps were established; soldiers were enrolled as state officials receiving pay and subsidies as well as arms and horses; and many vulnerable border areas were garrisoned by resettled warlike tribes. The sources are particularly rich in accounts of the Sassanian art of warfare because there existed a substantial military literature, traces of which are found in the Šah-nama, Denkard 8.26-an abstract of a chapter of the Sassanian Avesta entitled Arteštarestan "warrior code"-and in the extracts from the A'in-nama which Ebn Qotayba has preserved in his Oyun al-akhbar and Inostrantsev has explained in detail. The Arteštarestan was a complete manual for the military: it described in detail the regulations on recruitments, arms and armour, horses and their equipments, trainings, ranks, and pay of the soldiers and provisions for them, gathering military intelligence and taking precaution against surprise attack, qualifications of commanders and their duties in arraying the lines, preserving the lives of their men, safeguarding Iran, rewarding the brave and treating the vanquished. The A'in-nama furnished valuable instructions on tactics, strategy and logistics. It enjoined, for instance, that the cavalry should be placed in front, left-handed archers capable of shooting to both sides be positioned on the left wing, which was to remain defensive and be used as support in case of enemy advance, the centre be stationed in an elevated place so that its two main parts (i. e., the chief line of cavalry, and the lesser line of infantry behind them) could resist enemy charges more efficiently, and that the men should be so lined up as to have the sun and wind to their back.

    A Sassanian helmet from the siege mines beneath Tower 19, Dura-Europos, in today Syria. It is a rare find of Sasanian military archaeology, and also clearly a prototype for Roman helmets of the 4th century CE. Battles were usually decided by the shock cavalry of the front line charging the opposite ranks with heavy lances while archers gave support by discharging storms of arrows. The centre, where the commander-in-chief took his position on a throne under the Drafš-a Kavian, was defended by the strongest units. Since the carrying of the shield on the left made a soldier inefficient in using his weapons leftwards, the right was considered the line of attack, each side trying to outflank the enemy from that direction, i.e., at the respective opponent's left; hence, the left wing was made stronger but assigned a defensive role. The chief weakness of the Iranian army was its lack of endurance in close combat. Another fault was the Iranian's too great a reliance on the presence of their leader: the moment the commander fell or fled his men gave way regardless of the course of action.

    During the Sassanian period the ancient tradition of single combat (maid-o-maid) developed to a firm code. In 421 CE Emperor Bahram V opposed a Roman army but accepted the war as lost when his champion in a single contest was slain by a Goth from the Roman side. Such duels are represented on several Sassanian rock-reliefs at Naqsh-a Rostam, and on a famous cameo in Paris depicting Emperor Shapur I capturing Valerian.

    Sassanian Emperors were conscious of their role as military leaders: many took part in battle, and some were killed; the Picture Book of Sassanian Kings showed them as warriors with lance or sword. Some are credited with writing manuals on archery, and they are known to have kept accounts of their campaigns ("When Kosrow Parvez concluded his wars with Bahram-e Choubina and consolidated his rule over the empire, he ordered his secretary to write down an account of those wars and related events in full, from the beginning to the end").

    While heavy cavalry proved efficient against Roman armies, it was too slow and regimentalised to act with full force against agile and unpredictable light-armed cavalry and rapid foot archers; the Persians who in the early seventh century conquered Egypt and Asia Minor lost decisive battles a generation later when nimble, lightly armed Arabs accustomed to skirmishes and desert warfare attacked them. Hired light-armed Arab or East Iranian mercenaries could have served them much better.

    The Sassanids established an empire roughly within the frontiers achieved by the Achaemenids, with the capital at Ctesiphon in the Khvarvaran province. In administering this empire, Sassanid rulers, took the title of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), became the central overlords and also assumed guardianship of the sacred fire, the symbol of the national religion. This symbol is explicit on Sassanid coins where the reigning monarch, with his crown and regalia of office, appears on the obverse, backed by the sacred fire, the symbol of the national religion, on the coin's reverse. Sassanid queens had the title of Banebshenan banebshen (the Queen of Queens).
    On smaller scale the territory might also be ruled by a number of petty rulers from Sassanid royal family, known as Shahrdar (شهردار) overseen directly by Shahanshah. Sassanid rule was characterized by considerable centralization, ambitious urban planning, agricultural development, and technological improvements. Below the king a powerful bureaucracy carried out much of the affairs of government; The head of the bureaucracy and Vice-Chancellor, was the "Vuzorg (Bozorg) Farmadar" (بزرگ فرمادار). Within this bureaucracy the Zoroastrian priesthood was immensely powerful. The head of the Magi priestly class, the Mobadan (موبدان), along with the commander in chief, the Iran (Eran) Spahbod (ايران سپهد), the head of traders and merchants syndicate "Ho Tokhshan Bod" (هوتوخشان بد) and minister of agriculture "Vastrioshansalar" (واستریوشانسالار) who was also head of farmers, were below the emperor the most powerful men of the Sassanid state.

    In Pahlavi language, smaller divisions of the spāh were referred to as vasht and larger divisions were designated as gond. Interestingly, the Arabic word jond (Arabic: جند‎), meaning "army", is derived from the latter.
    • Erān Spahbod: Commander-in chief.
    • Spahbod: Field general.
    • Pādgospān or Padouspān (Modern Persian: پادوسبان): Commander of each of the four provincial divisions devised during the reign of Khosrau I.
    • Marzbān or Kanārang: Equivalent to Margrave or commander of the border guards; according to Procopius, it had been equivalent in rank to the East Roman strategos or magister militum.
    • Poshtikbān Sālār: Head of the royal guard.
    • Erān anbāraghbad: Senior rank responsible for army supplies.
    • Stor-bezashk: Senior vet who looked after the cavalry elite's mounts.
    • Argbadh: Castellan, commander of a castle or fort.
    • Pāyygān Sālār: Chief of an infantry division.
    • Savārān Sardār: Head of a cavalry division.
    • Gond Sālār: Commander of a gond division.

    Spahbod or Spahbed (Persian: سپهبد, in Modern Persian Sepahbod, is derived from the words Spah سپه army bod بد master; or "Aspah'Paeity" (in new Persian "Asb" and "Payeh") commander of cavaliers/knights; alternatively Spah Salar (سپهسالار) and was a rank used in the Parthian empire and more widely in the Sassanid Empire of Persia (Iran). The title continued in usage after the Islamic conquest of Persia among both native Iranian dynasties and also those who were under Persian influence, such as the Armenian (see Sparapet) and Georgian (see Spaspet) kingdoms.

    Used alone, it refers to the senior military officer but when it is used with Eran (Iran), Eran Spahbod ايران سپهبد or Iran Spahbod, is equivalent to field marshal or generalissimo of the Empire. It was the highest military rank after the emperor Shahanshah (King of Kings) himself. The Iran Spahbod acted as commander-in chief as well as Minister of War and chief peace negotiator. Lesser spahbods could command a field army while the regional Marzbans could be regarded as field marshals.

    During the Pahlavi dynasty in 20th century, Pahlavi army reinforced the usage of many ancient Sassanid military ranks including Spahbod. The rank Spahbod in the Pahlavi army was equivalent to lieutenant general ranking below arteshbod (full general).

    some sassanid empire regions:
    SOGDIANA
    BACTARIA
    MARGIANA (MERV)
    ARIA (HERAT)
    SAKASTAN (SISTAN)
    MOKRAN
    HYRCANIA (GORGAN)
    RHAGAE (REY)
    ESPADANA (ESFAHAN)
    SUSIANA (KHUZESTAN)
    PERSIS (FARS OR SHIRAZ)
    CARMANIA (KERMAN)
    ATROPATENE (AZARBAIJAN)
    MEDIA (HAMADAN)
    CTESIPHON
    ARMENIA
    PARTHIA
    MAZUN (OMAN)

    note: its only name of region, it is not a city name! for example: SUSIANA have a any cities ( susa, bishapur, gur and other)
    Last edited by Chim; August 22, 2008 at 09:19 AM.

  3. #3

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    *Osprey Images removed.*
    Last edited by Chim; August 22, 2008 at 09:20 AM.

  4. #4
    R-teen's Avatar Speaking Camel
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    family tree: (I just drew it but it messed up when i post it. so I write it )

    Shāhanshāh Yazdgerd: Faction leader. he must be about 54 -+2 years old at 451 BC.
    Shahbānu Ding: Yazdgerd's spouse. female.

    Yazdgerd's children:

    1- Hormoz: heir. (I think he must be in Sistan region at the begining of the mod).male
    2- Peroz: Male
    ----------------------

    Peroz's children:

    1- Balāsh: Oldest son. male.
    2- Perozdokht: female
    3- Kāveh (Guwat? :hmmm: male. he must be about 6 or 7 years old at 451.
    4- Zāmāsp (native: Gāu Māh aspa): youngest child.
    ---------------------------

    Generals (out of the family):

    1- Spahbod Shāpur Mehrān.
    2- Spahbod Zarmehr Sukherā.

    I will complete it soon.
    Last edited by R-teen; July 31, 2008 at 08:51 AM.

  5. #5
    R-teen's Avatar Speaking Camel
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    Last edited by R-teen; August 01, 2008 at 10:33 AM.

  6. #6

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    look awesome

  7. #7

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    NIce mod looking forward to it

  8. #8
    Stephan's Avatar Campidoctor
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    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    nice work
    i like the shadow faction feature

    Yes, I know that Ishtar is spelled wrong

  9. #9

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    The backbone of the Persian army (Spah) in the Sassanid era was composed of two types of heavy cavalry units: Clibanarii and Cataphracts. This cavalry force, composed of elite noblemen trained since youth for military service, was supported by light cavalry, infantry, and archers. Sassanid tactics centered around disrupting the enemy with archers, war elephants, and other troops, thus opening up gaps the cavalry forces could exploit.

    Unlike their predecessors, the Parthians, the Sassanids developed advanced siege engines. This development served the empire well in conflicts with Rome, in which success hinged upon the ability to seize cities and other fortified points; conversely, the Sassanids also developed a number of techniques for defending their own cities from attack. The Sassanid army was famous for its heavy cavalry, which was much like the preceding Parthian army, albeit only some of the Sassanid heavy cavalry were equipped with lances. The Greek historian Ammianus Marcellinus's description of Shapur II's clibanarii cavalry manifestly shows how heavily equipped it was, and how only a portion were spear equipped:

    All the companies were clad in iron, and all parts of their bodies were covered with thick plates, so fitted that the stiff-joints conformed with those of their limbs; and the forms of human faces were so skillfully fitted to their heads, that since their entire body was covered with metal, arrows that fell upon them could lodge only where they could see a little through tiny openings opposite the pupil of the eye, or where through the tip of their nose they were able to get a little breath. Of these some who were armed with pikes, stood so motionless that you would have thought them held fast by clamps of bronze.

    The Byzantine emperor Maurikios also emphasizes in his Strategikon that many of the Sassanid heavy cavalry did not carry spears, relying on their bows as their primary weapons.

    The amount of money involved in maintaining a warrior of the Asawaran (Azatan) knightly caste required a small estate, and the Asawaran (Azatan) knightly caste received that from the throne, and in return, were the throne's most notable defenders in time of war.



    In short, there were the following classes of mobile cavalry troops:

    * Persian immortal guard (Zhayedan)

    * Azadan nobility Savaran: elite cavalry also described as the Persian knightly caste (see below)

    * War elephants

    * Light cavalry: primarily horse-archers

    * Medium cavalry: Medium-armoured cavalry armed with lance and shield

    * Clibanarii cavalry: Heavy shock cavalry armed with maces and swords

    * Cataphract cavalry: Heavy cavalry armed with lances

    Role of Cavalry
    Despite their obvious importance, it must be remembered that, except in cases of all-mounted forces, Sassanian armies were usually less than one-third cavalry. For their organization, I refer you to Phil Halewood's articles, while noting that at Nihawand (641) al-Tabari claims the Persians advanced "... like mountains of steel ..."and "in units of seven," while al-Baladhuri says they were drawn up in "... in tens and fives ..." Whichever the case, a high degree of tactical organization is indicated.

    Thus the picture of Sassanian cavalry painted by the various sources is one of increasing organization and armor for more troopers generally. Over the centuries, the heaviest armor for the noble cavalry lightens to permit archery, while the clouds of Parthian light horse archers acquire mail, regimentation, and perhaps better bows. Regional variations could also be expected, especially among the locally supported aswaran, depending on the non-Iranians faced across the border: Roman or Alan, Indian or Turk, Abyssinian or Lazican.

  10. #10

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    Thanks it will help + rep BTW if youre intrested were looking for a Sassanid researcher soo..

  11. #11

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    ok i will post when i can


    Sassanid Persian, 600 AD – 651 AD

    Draft list by Ulf Olsson



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    During the period covered by this list the Sassanid army changed quite a bit. In the early part of the period the Sassanids fought a cataclysmic war against the other ‘superpower’ of the day, the Byzantines. The Sassanids were highly successful at first and came very close to winning, but in the end they lost decisively, with disastrous consequences. The extremely demanding war effort crippled both states and left them unable to resist the conquering Muslims effectively. The Sassanids suffered a protracted series of civil wars in the aftermath of the war against the Byzantines and were also hard hit by serious outbreaks of plague. The combined effects of these disasters along with weakened royal authority had serious effects on the Sassanid state and army.


    Sassanid armies from the period of the last Byzantine war are covered by the first army list, Triumph and Tragedy (600 AD – 627 AD).
    The period of the civil wars and the Muslim conquest is covered by the second army list, The Last Stand (628 AD – 651 AD).

    A Sassanid Army must be either a Royal Army or a Provincial Army.

    A Royal Army is commanded by the Shah-an-shah or one of his deputies. It must include a Royal Savaran Division and may include some other units directly attached to the Royal court.
    A Provincial Army is commanded by a provincial governor or general. It may, but is not required to, include a Marzban Savaran Division.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Triumph and Tragedy (600 AD – 627 AD)

    Terrain in the West: Dry - Plains
    Terrain in The East: Dry - Hilly

    0-1 Royal Savaran Division (Only in Royal Army)
    1c Guard Savaran
    1-2 Guard Savaran
    0-1 Drafsh-i-Kavian Standard and Guard

    Only a Royal Army can, and must, include a Royal Savaran Division and must be commanded by the C-in-C. If the Drafsh-i-Kavian Standard and Guard is included in the Royal Savaran Division, it may not also be included in the Royal Infantry Division.

    0-1 Marzban Savaran Division (Only in Provincial Army)
    1c Guard Savaran
    0-1 Guard Savaran
    1-2 Feudal Heavy Savaran or Feudal Medium Savaran

    The Marzban Savaran Division can only be used by a Provincial Army. If used it must be commanded by the C-in-C.

    2-4 Feudal Savaran Division
    1c Feudal Heavy Savaran or Feudal Medium Savaran
    1-2 Feudal Medium Savaran
    0-1 Auxiliary Horse Archers

    0-1 Lakhmid Ally Division (AD 600 – AD 602)
    1c Lakhmid Ally Medium Tribal Cavalry or Lakhmid Ally Light Tribal Cavalry
    1-2 Lakhmid Ally Light Tribal Cavalry

    The Lakhmid Division may only be used in the West.

    0-1 Royal Infantry Division (Only in Royal Army)
    1c Drafsh-i-Kavian Standard and Guard or Royal Archers
    1-2 Royal Archers

    The Royal Infantry Division can only be used in a Royal Army. If the Drafsh-i-Kavian Standard and Guard is included in the Royal Infantry Division, it may not also be included in the Royal Savaran Division.

    0-1 Dailami Division
    1c Dailami
    1-2 Dailami

    No Dailami additional units may be fielded if the Dailami Division is used.

    0-2 Median or Mesopotamian Infantry Division
    1c Median or Mesopotamian City Spearmen
    1-2 Paighan Archers

    May not be used in Soghdia or in Khurasan.

    0-2 Paighan Levy Infantry Division
    1c Paighan Archers or Paighan Levy
    2-3 Paighan Levy

    At least one Paighan Division must be used if any infantry are used.

    0-1 or 0-2 Turk Ally Division
    1c Turk Ally Horse Archers
    1-3 Turk Ally Horse Archers

    Turk Ally Divisions may only be used in the East. Up to 2 Turk Ally Divisions may be fielded if the entire army is mounted. If any infantry are used, only 1 Turk Ally Division may be fielded.

    Additional Units
    0-2 Armenian Noble Retinue (Note 1)
    0-2 Auxiliary Horse Archers (Note 2)
    0-2 Dailami (Note 3)
    0-1 Median or Mesopotamian City Spearmen (Note 4)
    0-2 Tribal Hillmen (Note 5)
    0-2 'Pil' War Elephants (Note 6)
    0-2 Arab Ally Tribal Cavalry (Note 7)

    Additional Unit notes:
    No units may be added to any Allied Division.


    Armenian Noble Retinue may only be added to a Royal Savaran Division or Marzban Savaran Division. No more than one Armenian Noble Retinue unit may be added to a single Division.
    Auxiliary Horse Archers may be added to any Savaran Division.
    Dailami can only be added if the Dailami Division is not used. Dailami additional units may only be used in any Savaran Division or in the Royal Infantry Division.
    Median or Mesopotamian City Spearmen can only be added to a Median or Mesopotamian Infantry Division.
    Tribal Hillmen may be added to Median or Mesopotamian Infantry Division or to a Paighan Infantry Division.
    'Pil' War Elephants can only be added to a Royal Savaran Division or to any infantry Division deployed as the Centre Division or Advance Guard Division.
    Arab Ally Tribal Cavalry can be added to any Cavalry Division.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Last Stand (628 AD – 651 AD)

    Terrain in the West: Dry - Plains
    Terrain in The East: Dry - Hilly

    0-1 Royal Savaran Division (Only in Royal Army)
    1c Guard Savaran
    1-2 Guard Savaran
    0-1 Drafsh-i-Kavian Standard and Guard

    Only a Royal Army can, and must, include a Royal Savaran Division and must be commanded by the C-in-C. If the Drafsh-i-Kavian Standard and Guard is included in the Royal Savaran Division, it may not also be included in the Royal Infantry Division.

    0-1 Marzban Savaran Division (Only in Provincial Army)
    1c Guard Savaran
    0-1 Guard Savaran
    1-2 Feudal Heavy Savaran or Feudal Medium Savaran

    The Marzban Savaran Division can only be used by a Provincial Army. If used it must be commanded by the C-in-C.

    1-2 Feudal Savaran Division
    1c Feudal Heavy Savaran or Feudal Medium Savaran
    1-2 Feudal Medium Savaran
    0-1 Auxiliary Horse Archers

    At least one Feudal Savaran Division must consist entirely of Brittle units. If any units in a Feudal Savaran Division are Brittle, all must be.

    0-1 Royal Infantry Division (Only in Royal Army)
    1c Drafsh-i-Kavian Standard and Guard or Royal Archers
    1-2 Royal Archers

    The Royal Infantry Division can only be used in a Royal Army. If the Drafsh-i-Kavian Standard and Guard is included in the Royal Infantry Division, it may not also be included in the Royal Savaran Division.

    0-1 Dailami Division (628 AD – 633 AD) or Dailami Ally Division (634 AD – 651 AD)
    1c Dailami
    1-2 Dailami

    No Dailami additional units may be fielded if the Dailami Division is used. In 634 AD – 651 AD any Dailami Division used must be classed as Ally to reflect the major Dailami unit that changed sides and joined the Muslims.

    0-1 Median or Mesopotamian Infantry Division
    1c Median or Mesopotamian City Spearmen
    1-2 Paighan Archers

    May not be used in Soghdia or in Khurasan.

    0-2 Paighan Levy Infantry Division
    1c Paighan Archers or Paighan Levy
    2-3 Paighan Levy

    At least one Paighan Division must be used if any infantry are used.

    0-1 Tribal Hill Clan Ally Division
    1c Tribal Ally Hillmen
    1-2 Tribal Ally Hillmen

    0-2 Turk Ally Division
    1c Turk Ally Horse Archers
    1-3 Turk Ally Horse Archers

    Additional Units
    0-2 Armenian Noble Retinue (Note 1)
    0-2 Auxiliary Horse Archers (Note 2)
    0-2 Dailami (Note 3)
    0-1 Median or Mesopotamian City Spearmen (Note 4)
    0-1 'Pil' War Elephants (Note 5)
    0-1 Arab Ally Tribal Cavalry (Note 6)

  12. #12

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    I HAVE FOUND THIS ALSO

    Sorry if this stuf apears like------------Additional Unit notes:
    No units may be added to any Allied Division.

    but this was taken from some historical game featuring this period.


    Armenian Noble Retinue may only be added to a Royal Savaran Division or Marzban Savaran Division. No more than one Armenian Noble Retinue unit may be added to a single Division.
    Auxiliary Horse Archers may be added to any Savaran Division.
    Dailami can only be added if the Dailami Division is not used. Dailami additional units may only be used in any Savaran Division or in the Royal Infantry Division.
    Median or Mesopotamian City Spearmen can only be added to a Median or Mesopotamian Infantry Division.
    'Pil' War Elephants can only be added to a Royal Savaran Division or to any infantry Division deployed as the Centre Division or Advance Guard Division.
    Arab Ally Tribal Cavalry can be added to any Cavalry Division.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Mounted Units

    Guard Savaran
    Heavy Horse Archers – Initiative 7, (Deep Line, Expert)
    2 Bases - 52 Pts
    3 Bases - 71 Pts
    4 Bases - 91 Pts

    Comments:
    The Guard Savaran depict the highly efficient professional heavy cavalry employed by the King-of-Kings and the regional military Marzban commanders. Examples of such units include the Immortals and the Pushtighban.

    Feudal Heavy Savaran
    Heavy Horse Archers– Initiative 6, (Deep Line)
    3 Bases - 57 Pts, 51 Pts if Brittle
    4 Bases - 72 Pts, 64 Pts if Brittle

    In 628 AD – 651 AD, all Savaran units in at least one Feudal Savaran Division must be graded as Brittle. Feudal Savaran in other Feudal Savaran Divisions may be Brittle. If any Savaran or units in a Division are Brittle, all must be.

    Comments:
    The Feudal Heavy Savaran represent feudal cavalry made up of wealthy provincial nobles' retinues equipped to a very high standard. In the later part of the period the effectiveness and loyalty of the Sassanid nobility declined.

    Feudal Medium Savaran
    Medium Horse Archers – Initiative 6, (Deep Line)
    3 Bases - 48 Pts, 42 Pts if Brittle
    4 Bases - 60 Pts, 52 Pts if Brittle

    In 628 AD – 651 AD, all Savaran units in at least one Feudal Savaran Division must be graded as Brittle. Feudal Savaran in other Feudal Savaran Divisions may be Brittle. If any Savaran units in a Division are Brittle, all must be.

    Comments:
    The Feudal Medium Savaran represent less heavily equipped feudal cavalry. In the later part of the period the effectiveness and loyalty of the Sassanid nobility declined.

    Auxiliary Horse Archers
    Light Horse Archers – Initiative 6 (Wave)
    2 Bases - 36 Pts, 32 Pts if Brittle
    4 Bases - 60 Pts, 52 Pts if Brittle

    Auxiliary Horse Archers must be classed as Brittle in 628 AD – 651 AD.

    Comments:
    The Auxiliary Horse Archers represent the lightly equipped feudal vassals, mercenaries and vassal tribesmen from Central Asia.

    Turk Ally Horse Archers
    Medium or Light Horse Archers – Initiative 6 (Ally, Expert, Wave)
    4 Bases - 56 Pts
    6 Bases - 78 Pts

    Comments:
    These units represent Turkic tribesmen from Central Asia allied to the Sassanids.

    Armenian Noble Retinue
    Heavy Cavalry – Initiative 6 (Deep Line)
    3 Bases - 48 Pts
    4 Bases - 60 Pts

    Comments:
    Armenia was a constant battle-ground in the wars between Sassanids and Byzantines. The Armenian Noble Retinues represent those nobles, such as Smbat Bagratuni, who served the Shahanshah providing him with reliable high-quality heavy cavalry lancers.

    Lakhmid Ally Medium Tribal Cavalry (AD 600 – AD 602)
    Medium Irregular Horse-Initiative 6 (Ally, Wave)
    4 Bases - 40 Pts
    6 bases - 54 Pts

    Comments:
    Lakhmid Ally Medium Irregular Horse are the more heavily equipped members of Lakhmid Bedouin clans allied to the Sassanids.

    Lakhmid Ally Light Tribal Cavalry or Arab Ally Tribal Cavalry
    Light Irregular Horse – Initiative 6 (Ally, Wave)
    4 Bases - 40 Pts
    6 Bases - 54 Pts

    Comments:
    Lakhmid Ally Light Tribal Cavalry are the more lightly equipped members of Lakhmid Bedouin clans allied to the Sassanids. It also depicts contingents of smaller Arab tribes after the fall of the Lakhmids.

    'Pil' War Elephants
    Medium Elephants – Initiative 6
    2 Bases - 68 Pts
    3 Bases - 96 Pts

    Comments:
    War Elephants represent the elephants often employed by the Sassanids. It appears that they were usually used to support infantry.

    Foot Units

    Drafsh-i-Kavian Standard and Guard (AD 600 – AD 635)
    Medium Shieldsmen + Medium Archer detachment – Initiative 6 (Elite, Army Standard)
    4 Bases - 54 Pts
    6 Bases - 65 Pts

    Comments:
    The Drafsh-i-Kavian was a huge royal standard surrounded by a dedicated infantry guard unit of spearmen and archers. It was finally lost in battle against the Muslims in AD 635.

    Dailami
    Light Shieldsmen + Light Archer detachment – Initiative 6 (Elite)
    4 Bases - 34 Pts, 30 Pts if Ally
    6 Bases - 45 Pts, 39 Pts if Ally

    During the war against the Muslim Arabs, at least one major Dailami unit changed sides. Any Dailami Division used must be classed as Ally in 634 AD – 651 AD. Dailami additional units MAY be classed as Ally in the same period.

    Comments:
    Dailami provided guard forces for the King-of-Kings and for senior provincial Marzban commanders. They were lightly equipped professional infantry of good quality supported by archers.

    Royal Foot Archers
    Medium Archers – Initiative 6 (Expert)
    4 Bases - 32 Pts
    6 Bases - 44 Pts

    Comments:
    The Royal Archers represent the professional foot archer units attached to the Royal court.

    Median or Mesopotamian City Spearmen
    Medium Shieldsmen – Initiative 6
    6 Bases - 32 Pts, 26 Pts if Brittle
    8 Bases - 40 Pts, 32 Pts if Brittle

    Must be classed as Brittle in AD 628 – AD 651. May be classed as Brittle at other dates. All Spearmen in the same Division must be of the same classification.

    Comments:
    The Spearmen represent the infantry with equipment resembling that of Roman infantry (or even gladiators!). They did not possess the same level of skill and discipline that Roman infantry displayed, however. The catastrophic defeats at the end of the last Byzantine war and the subsequent civil wars long with an outbreak of plague are assumed to affect performance during the period of the civil wars and the Arab conquest.

    Paighan Archers
    Medium/Light Archers – Initiative 5
    6 Bases - 31 Pts
    8 Bases - 38 Pts

    Comments:
    The Archers represent the lightly equipped levy archers fielded in large numbers by the Sassanids from a variety of sources.

    Tribal Hillmen
    Light Irregulars – Initiative 6
    6 Bases - 26 Pts, 20 Pts if Ally
    8 Bases - 32 Pts, 24 Pts if Ally

    Comments:
    The Tribal Hillmen depicts the irregular infantry provided by various mountain clans.

    Paighan Levy
    Irregular Medium Foot – Initiative 4
    6 Bases - 17 Pts
    8 Bases - 20 Pts

    Comments:
    The soldiers of the Paighan Levy were not really combat troops at all, but rather a sort of labour corps. In battle they were deployed to the rear and hastily armed with spear and large wicker shields. They did not perform at all well in battle, which is understandable. The Paighan Levy is the part of Sassanid armies that gave Persian infantry an undeservedly bad reputation in Roman sources.

  13. #13

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    Great need some pics though and what does the points mean?? Need a final unit list allied units can be recruited via the buildings allied camps and mercenary camps..

  14. #14

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    sorry for not awser soner

    You now the sassanide empire recruited troops from all the provinces they capture so it could be like broken crecent, local troops.

    About allied troops those can be recruited from mercenary camps or just like the gulams in broken crecent


    -1 Lakhmid Ally Division (AD 600 – AD 602)
    1c Lakhmid Ally Medium Tribal Cavalry or Lakhmid Ally Light Tribal Cavalry
    1-2 Lakhmid Ally Light Tribal Cavalry


    0-2 Median or Mesopotamian Infantry Division
    1c Median or Mesopotamian City Spearmen
    1-2 Paighan Archers

    0-1 or 0-2 Turk Ally Division
    1c Turk Ally Horse Archers
    1-3 Turk Ally Horse Archers


    1 Dailami Division (628 AD – 633 AD) or Dailami Ally Division (634 AD – 651 AD)
    1c Dailami
    1-2 Dailami


    0-1 Tribal Hill Clan Ally Division
    1c Tribal Ally Hillmen
    1-2 Tribal Ally Hillmen

    Auxiliary Horse Archers
    Light Horse Archers – Initiative 6 (Wave)
    2 Bases - 36 Pts, 32 Pts if Brittle
    4 Bases - 60 Pts, 52 Pts if Brittle

    Turk Ally Horse Archers
    Medium or Light Horse Archers – Initiative 6 (Ally, Expert, Wave)

    Armenian Noble Retinue
    Heavy Cavalry – Initiative 6 (Deep Line)

    Lakhmid Ally Medium Tribal Cavalry (AD 600 – AD 602)
    Medium Irregular Horse-Initiative 6 (Ally, Wave)


    Lakhmid Ally Light Tribal Cavalry or Arab Ally Tribal Cavalry
    Light Irregular Horse – Initiative 6 (Ally, Wave)


    this site contains other information

    http://www.persianempire.info/parthia20.htm

    the points mean how mutch the unit cost on that game and the base upgrade that waas neded to recruit them

    Persian military references from the same period include instruction on many points, such as tactics, ambushes, and camp fortifications. Standard (but not exclusive) deployment for large armies was advised to be in five parts: a main battle line, a reinforcing line, a small reserve (the Immortals, elite cavalry), and two cavalry wings. Another tactic saw the cavalry forming a front line while the army advanced, only to retire to the wings and thus surprising with infantry an enemy who had expected to face mounted troops.


    well the list may contain more units.
    Last edited by daxter; August 18, 2008 at 03:48 PM.

  15. #15

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    No i dont want BC system basicly the Sassanids recruit some units available from all around the Empire from barracks and allied units from allied camps

  16. #16

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    Ok thats even better

    it makes the sassanids more unique.


    Procopius and al-Tabari note that sometimes entire Iranian armies were composed of cavalry, often including mounted contingents from Arab allies, Armenia, and other lands. For example, in 619 a Turk and Hepthalite invasion was defeated by the Persarmenian general Smbat Bagratuni leading a Sassanian imperial army. In 531, at Callinicus in Commagene, an all-mounted force of 15,000 Persians and Arabs attacked Belisarius' 20,000-strong Byzantine army of horse and foot, defeating them through a combination of bow and melee. A small force of heavy infantry lead by the dismounted Belisarius held out until the fall of night covered their escape.


    Just saying persian troops have elite cavelary but weaker infantry types in witch have to rely on the sughdians, and dailami witch means alied troops to fill the infantry role.
    Last edited by daxter; August 18, 2008 at 04:08 PM.

  17. #17

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    Yes i will explain in the new edition of the newsletter the allied camps and mercenary camps

  18. #18

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    *Osprey images removed.*

    Chimaeira.


    well

    catrafact

    this is partialy armoured so they could have two versions







    See this for more information




    NAKHARAR SEE THE THREAD I HAVE CREATED IN THIS FORUM FOR MORE PICS
    Last edited by Chim; August 22, 2008 at 09:23 AM.

  19. #19

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    nice

  20. #20
    Kara Kolyo's Avatar Mikhail
    Join Date
    Mar 2006
    Location
    Sofia, Bulgaria
    Posts
    2,482

    Default Re: Research Thread: The Sassanid Empire

    Hey guys, Nakharar asked me to help with the sassanids and though ancient Iran is not my major, i'll do my best to help.
    As was posted before the sassanid army relied mostly on heavy cavalry, allied light cavalry and foot archers and spearmen plus dailamys and sughdians.
    Since M2TW doesn't allow for units to have more than two weapons and on the other hand the sassanid cavalrimen used more, i was thinking that for variety's sake there could be several versions of the savaran. For example there could be armed with bows/axes, bows/spears, spears/swords and spear maces. It will be good to have variety in the amount of armor too - half cataphracts and full cataphracts.
    So for example the famous sistany heroes, known from Ferdowsi can be armed with bows and swords with more lightly armored horses to deal with the nomadic invasions and so on.
    Will be looking forward for suggestions as i look arround osprey books and other places that can be useful for a mod


    under the patronage of Perikles in the house of Wilpuri
    Proud patron of Cymera

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