Ancient History and World Mythology

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  1. Hand of Nergal
    Hand of Nergal
    Alright fellas, since I've been away for so long I thought I should contribute by doing a little history report. From my point of view we get a fair deal of info on Greek and Roman cultures, but rarely get a look from outside that perspective. I decided to do something on I feel is an overlooked culture. My firends, meet the...


    Part I

    (note: the bulk of this essay is derived from the Wikipedia article on Minoan culture)

    a) Who are the Minoans?

    The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age culture on the island of Crete. They were mainly a mercantile culture much like the Phoenicians who engaged in overseas trade far beyond their island. They were a highly organized people with sophisticated multi-storied palaces and art. The Minoan culture flourished from approximately 2700 to 1450 BC; afterwards, Mycenaean Greek culture became dominant at Minoan sites in Crete. It was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century, at first through the work of the British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans, Minoan Crete took its historic place, as Will Durant said in 1939, as "the first link in the European chain."

    What the Minoans called themselves is unknown. The term "Minoan" was coined by Arthur Evans after the mythic "king" Minos. Minos was associated in Greek myth with the labyrinth, which Evans identified as the site at Knossos. It has sometimes been argued that the Egyptian place name "Keftiu" (*kaftāw) and the Semitic "Kaftor" or "Caphtor" and "Kaptara" in the Mari archives apparently refer to the island of Crete. In the Odyssey which was composed centuries after the destruction of the Minoan civilization, Homer calls the natives of Crete Eteocretans ("true Cretans"); these may have been descendants of the Minoans.

    (note: there is also a reference to “Caphtorites” in the Book of Genesis, in the table of nations they are descendants of Mizraim, who was descended from Ham, who was a son of Noah and a survivor of the flood)

    b)Periods of Minoan history:

    7000 BC first settlement
    3100 BC-2100 BC Early Minoan period
    2100 BC-1700 BC Middle Minoan period = Old Palace Age
    1700 BC-1420 BC Late Minoan period = Young Palace Age
    1420 BC-1050 BC Mycenaean period

    Rather than tell calendar dates for the Minoan period, archaeologists use two systems of relative chronology. The first, created by Evans and modified by later archaeologists, is based on pottery styles. It divides the Minoan period into three main eras—Early Minoan (EM), Middle Minoan (MM), and Late Minoan (LM). These eras are further subdivided, e.g. Early Minoan I, II, III (EMI, EMII, EMIII).

    Another dating system, proposed by the Greek archaeologist Nicolas Platon, is based on the development of the architectural complexes known as "palaces" at Knossos, Phaistos, Malia, and Kato Zakros, and divides the Minoan period into Prepalatial, Protopalatial, Neopalatial, and Post-palatial periods. The relationship among these systems is given in the accompanying table, with approximate calendar dates drawn from Warren and Hankey (1989).

    Minoan Chronology

    3650-3000 BC Early Minoan I - Prepalatial
    2900-2300 BC Early Minoan II
    2300-2160 BC Early Minoan III
    2160-1900 BC Middle Minoan IA
    1900-1800 BC Middle Minoan IB - Protopalatial (Old Palace Period)
    1800-1700 BC Middle Minoan II
    1700-1640 BC Middle Minoan IIIA - Neopalatial (New Palace Period)
    1640-1600 BC Middle Minoan IIIB
    1600-1480 BC Late Minoan IA
    1480-1425 BC Late Minoan IB
    1425-1390 BC Late Minoan II - Postpalatial (At Knossos, Final Palace Period)
    1390-1370 BC Late Minoan IIIA1
    1370-1340 BC Late Minoan IIIA2
    1340-1190 BC Late Minoan IIIB
    1190-1170 BC Late Minoan IIIC
    1100 BC Subminoan

    The oldest evidence of inhabitants on Crete are pre-ceramic Neolithic farming community remains that date to approximately 7000 BC. A comparative study of yDNA haplogroups of modern Cretan men showed that a male founder group came from Anatolia or the Levant, like the Greeks.

    The beginning of the Bronze Age in Crete, around 2600 BC marked the beginning of Crete as an important center of civilization. At the end of the MMII period (1700 BC) there was a large disturbance in Crete, probably an earthquake, or possibly an invasion from Anatolia.

    The use of the term "colony", however, like "thalassocracy", has been subjected to an increasing critique in recent years. The Minoan strata there replace a mainland-derived culture in the Early Bronze Age, the earliest Minoan settlement outside Crete. The Cyclades were in the Minoan cultural orbit, and, closer to Crete, the islands of Karpathos, Saros and Kasos, also contained Minoan colonies, or settlements of Minoan traders, from the Middle Bronze Age (MMI-II); most of them were abandoned in LMI, but Minoan Karpathos recovered and continued with a Minoan culture until the end of the Bronze Age. Other supposed Minoan colonies, such as that hypothesised by Adolf Furtwängler for Aegina, have been dismissed by subsequent archaeological studies. There was a Minoan colony at Triandra on Rhodes.

    Certain locations within Crete emphasise it as an 'outward looking' society. The Neopalatial site of Kato Zakro, for instance, is located within 100 metres of the modern shore-line, situated within a bay. Its large number of workshops and the richness of its site materials indicate a potential 'entrepôt' for import and export. Such activities are elaborated in artistic representations of the sea, including the 'Flotilla' fresco from room 5, in the west house at Akrotiri.

    Minoan cultural influence indicates an orbit that extended not only throughout the Cyclades (so-called Minoanisation), but in locations such as Egypt and Cyprus. Late Minoan I (LMI) stonework has been observed at Amman. Furthermore, in fifteenth-century tomb paintings at Thebes a number of individuals have been distinguished as Minoan in appearance, bearing gifts. Inscriptions record these people as coming from Keftiu, or the "islands in the midst of the sea", and may refer to gift-bringing merchants or officials from Crete (It was an ancient custom for foreign powers to make tribute payments. In some cases, as when the Romans demanded tributary payments from the Carthaginians, it was considered punitive and in that case post-bellum. In the case of the Minoans, which I believe to have been a peaceful culture, their tributes were more than likely earned from reputation and respect for their high level of culture).

    The Thera eruption occurred during a mature phase of the LM IA period. The calendar date of the volcanic eruption is extremely controversial. Radiocarbon dating has indicated a date in the late 1600s BC; those radiocarbon dates, however, conflict with the estimates of archaeologists who synchronize the eruption with the Conventional Egyptian chronology and obtain a date of around 1525-1500 BC. The eruption often is identified as a catastrophic natural event for the culture, leading to its rapid collapse, perhaps being narrated mythically as Atlantis by Classical Greeks.

    (My own theory about this that was influenced by others. The Egyptians mention in their stelas an invasion from a coalition of so-called “sea people” which coincides curiously with the destruction and looting of temples and cities from the western Mediterranean to modern day Turkey. I believe that these sea people had a significant pat in the decline of Minoan culture)

    “Around 1200 BC there was crisis in the Mediterranean which resulted in the collapse of the late Bronze Age empires. In mainland Greece, Thebes, Lefkandi, Tiryns, Mycenae, and Pylos and on Crete, Khania, all suffered destruction, partial or complete. Mostly these cities and their palaces seem to have gone up in flames. In Anatolia, all of the major Bronze Age sites have a destruction level which can be dated to around this time. The Hittite capital of Hattusas was plundered and burned, as were the chief cities of Cyprus. On the coast of North Syria, the trading city of Ugarit was destroyed and never reoccupied. Further south in the Levant many other sites show similar destruction. This wave of destruction did not spread east to Mesopotamia, and although it moved southwards, Egypt possessed the strength to withstand it.”

    “Of the various theories put forward to explain the crisis, that which has been most highly favored attributes it to ethnic movements, principally from the north. In Greece, it was attributed to the invasion of the Dorians, and in western Asia, to the Phrygians and the “sea peoples”. The identity of the sea peoples is based on Egyptian inscriptions and reliefs of the reigns of the Pharaohs Merneptah and Ramses III. The names of some of the groups preserved in the Egyptian sources clearly relate to known place-names. For example, the Shardana have long been associated with Sardinia. It was suggested that, following the repulse of the invasion by the Pharaoh Ramses III, this group sailed off and eventually colonized Sardinia.”

    - The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece, Robert Morkot; pgs 30-31

    The Palaces at Knossos, Phaistos, Malia, and Kato Zakros were destroyed. But with the start of the Neopalatial period, population increased again, the palaces were rebuilt on a larger scale and new settlements were built all over the island. This period (the 17th and 16th centuries BC, MM III / Neopalatial) represents the apex of the Minoan civilization. The Thera eruption occurred during LMIA (and LHI).

    A short time after the LMIB/LMII catastrophe, around 1420 BC, the palace sites were occupied by the Mycenaeans, who adapted the Linear A Minoan script to the needs of their own Mycenaean language, a form of Greek, which was written in Linear B. The first such archive anywhere is in the LMII-era "Room of the Chariot Tablets". Later Cretan archives date to LMIIIA (contemporary with LHIIIA) but no later than that.

    During LMIIIA:1, Amenhotep III at Kom el-Hatan took note of k-f-t-w (Kaftor) as one of the "Secret Lands of the North of Asia".

    (the ancient Egyptian language, like ancient Hebrew, had no vowels, as the sounds produced by vowels were merely implied and not written. We have no idea how their words are pronounced, even though it survives in the Coptic church of modern Egypt much as Latin is preserved in Catholic churches, it has not been spoken by an ancient for thousands of years. It is not so unusual to write words without vowels. If I were to write "Lck th dr pls" one may be able to correctly assume that I was saying "lock the door please". What we have in common are a common language and culture, something that ancient Egyptians and Minoans might have actually shared at one point or for centuries through mutual trade and relations, but that we share with neither culture)

    Also mentioned are Cretan cities such as Αμνίσος(Amnisos), Φαίστος (Phaistos), Κυδονία (Kydonia) and Kνόσσος(Knossos) and some toponyms reconstructed as belonging to the Cyclades or the Greek mainland. If the values of these Egyptian names are accurate, then this pharaoh did not privilege LMIII Knossos above the other states in the region.

    After about a century of partial recovery, most Cretan cities and palaces went into decline in the 13th century BC. Knossos remained an administrative center until 1200 BC; the last of the Minoan sites was the defensive mountain site of Karfi, a refuge site which displays vestiges of Minoan civilization almost into the Iron Age.


    Crete is a mountainous island with natural harbors (this may have explained their sea-faring, or at least mercantile maritime nature, as well as their strategic interest to invaders and colonists). There are signs of earthquake damage at many Minoan sites and clear signs of both uplifting of land and submersion of coastal sites due to tectonic processes all along the coasts.

    Homer recorded a tradition that Crete had 90 cities. The island was probably divided into at least eight political units during the height of the Minoan period and at different stages in the Bronze Age into more or less. The north is thought to have been governed from Knossos, the south from Phaistos, the central eastern part from Malia, and the eastern tip from Kato Zakros and the west from Chania. Smaller palaces have been found in other places.
    Some of the major Minoan archaeological sites are:


    -Knossos - the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete; was -purchased for excavations by Evans on March 16, 1900.
    -Phaistos - the second largest palatial building on the island, excavated by the Italian school shortly after Knossos
    -Malia - the subject of French excavations, a palatial centre which affords a very interesting look into the development of the palaces in the protopalatial period

    (above: the ruins of the palace of Knossos in modern Crete, an aerial view of the ruins, an artistic rendition of the palace, and a floor plan. Notice all of the labyrinthian corridors and walls that inspired archaelogists to compare it to the labyrinth of Greek mythology)

    -Kato Zakros - a palatial site excavated by Greek archaeologists in the far east of the island. This is also referred to as "Zakro" in archaeological literature.
    -Galatas - the most recently confirmed palatial site
    -Agia Triada - an administrative centre close to Phaistos
    -Gournia - a town site excavated in the first quarter of the 20th Century by the American School
    -Pyrgos - an early minoan site on the south of the island
    -Vasiliki - an early minoan site towards the east of the island which gives its name to a distinctive ceramic ware
    -Fournu Korfi - a site on the south of the island
    -Pseira - island town with ritual sites
    -Mount Juktas - the greatest[citation needed] of the Minoan peak sanctuaries by virtue of its association with the palace of Knossos
    -Arkalochori - the findsite of the famous Arkalochori Axe
    -Karfi - a refuge site from the late Minoan period, one of the last of the Minoan sites
    -Akrotiri - settlement on the island of Santorini (Thera), near the site of the Thera Eruption
    -Zominthos - a mountainous city in the northern foothills of Mount Ida


    Minoans were traders, and their cultural contacts reached far beyond the island of Crete — to Old Kingdom Egypt, to copper-bearing Cyprus and the Syrian coasts beyond, and to Anatolia. Minoan techniques and styles in ceramics provided models, of fluctuating influence, for Helladic Greece. In addition to the familiar example of Thera, Minoan "colonies" — if that is not too misleading a term— can be found first of all at Kastri on Cythera, the birthplace for Greeks of Aphrodite, an island close to the Greek mainland that came under Minoan influence in the mid-third millennium (EMII) and remained Minoan in culture for a thousand years, until Mycenaean occupation in the thirteenth century. Their culture, from 1700 BC onward, shows a high degree of organization.

    Many historians and archaeologists believe that the Minoans were involved in the Bronze Age's important tin trade: tin, alloyed with copper apparently from Cyprus, was used to make bronze. The decline of Minoan civilization and the decline in use of bronze tools in favor of iron ones seem to be correlated.

    The Minoan trade in saffron, the stigma of a mutated crocus which originated in the Aegean basin as a natural chromosome mutation, has left fewer material remains: a fresco of saffron-gatherers at Santorini is well-known. This inherited trade pre-dated Minoan civilization: a sense of its rewards may be gained by comparing its value to frankincense, or later, to pepper. Archaeologists tend to emphasize the more durable items of trade: ceramics, copper, and tin, and dramatic luxury finds of gold and silver.
    Objects of Minoan manufacture suggest there was a network of trade with mainland Greece (notably Mycenae), Cyprus, Syria, Anatolia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and westward as far as the coast of Spain.

    Minoan men wore loincloths and kilts. Women wore robes that had short sleeves and layered flounced skirts. These were open to the navel allowing their breasts to be left exposed, perhaps during ceremonial occasions. Women also had the option of wearing a strapless fitted bodice, the first fitted garments known in history.[ The patterns on clothes emphasized symmetrical geometric designs. It must be remembered that other forms of dress may have been worn of which we have no record. In spring of 2009, a discovery regarding sewing techniques was made by Grant MacEwan College student Meg Furler.

    The Minoan religion focused on female deities, with females officiating. The statues of priestesses in Minoan culture and frescoes showing men and women participating in the same sports such as bull-leaping, lead some archaeologists to believe that men and women held equal social status. Inheritance is thought to have been matrilineal. The frescos include many depictions of people, with the genders distinguished by colour: the men's skin is reddish-brown, the women's white. Concentration of wealth played a large role in the structure of society. Multiroom constructions were discovered in even the ‘poor’ areas of town, revealing a social equality and even distribution of wealth.

    (I am not alone in thinking that ancient Minoan Crete had a matriarchal society, with men actually being subservient to men, and with women holding actual power. For example, there are no frescos or paintings male heroes, phallic symbols, and perhaps only one fresco and one questionable and apocryphal literary mention of a king, making it unusual for bronze age cultures. While matriarchal societies are not unheard of, it is a peculiar example and interesting to see men portrayed as not only on the same level as woman, but perhaps even beneath them in class)
  2. Hand of Nergal
    Hand of Nergal
    Part II


    The Minoans worshiped goddesses. Although there is some evidence of male gods, depictions of Minoan goddesses vastly outnumber depictions of anything that could be considered a Minoan god. While some of these depictions of women are speculated to be images of worshipers and priestesses officiating at religious ceremonies, as opposed to the deity herself, there still seem to be several goddesses including a Mother Goddess of fertility, a Mistress of the Animals, a protectress of cities, the household, the harvest, and the underworld, and more. Some have argued that these are all aspects of a single Great Goddess. They are often represented by #serpents, (The serpent is a powerful symbol of life conquering death, because as comparitive mythology expert Joseph Campbell noted “ the shedding of the snake’s skin is life emerging from death”. The holiness of the snake is also seen in Hinduism as the Nagarajah, or serpent king) birds, poppies, and a somewhat vague shape of an animal upon the head. Some suggest the goddess was linked to the "Earthshaker", a male represented by the bull and the sun, who would die each autumn and be reborn each spring. (compare to the myths of Attis of Phrygia or Adonis of west semetic origin, both of which finding their way into Greek culture by adoption. Both were agricultural culture based, with handsome young men symbolic of the agricultural cycle of birth-death-rebirth. Though the notorious bull-headed Minotaur is a purely Greek depiction, seals and seal-impressions reveal bird-headed or masked deities.

    (above: the ubiquitous snake goddess and a Labyrys double sided axe, no doubt a symbolic representation of the moon)

    A major festive celebration was exemplified in the famous athletic Minoan bull dance, represented at large in the frescoes of Knossos and inscribed in miniature seals. In this feat that appears extremely dangerous, both male and female dancers would confront the bull and, grasping it by its sacred horns, permit themselves to be tossed, somersaulting over its back to alight behind it. Each of these sequential movements appears in Minoan representations, but the actual significance of the bull dance in Minoan cult and cultural life is lost beyond retrieval. What is clear, however, is that there is no inkling of an antagonistic confrontation and triumph of the human through the ritual death of the bull, which is the essence of the surviving bullfight of Hispanic culture; rather, there is a sense of harmonious cooperation.
    Interpretation of Minoan icons can easily range too far: Walter Burkert warns:
    "To what extent one can and must differentiate between Minoan and Mycenaean religion is a question which has not yet found a conclusive answer"
    and suggests that useful parallels will be found in the relations between Etruscan and Archaic Greek culture and religion, or between Roman and Hellenistic culture. Minoan religion has not been transmitted in its own language, and the uses literate Greeks later made of surviving Cretan mythemes, after centuries of purely oral transmission, have transformed the meager sources: consider the Athenian point-of-view of the Theseus legend. A few Cretan names are preserved in Greek mythology, but there is no way to connect a name with an existing Minoan icon, such as the familiar "serpent”-goddess. Retrieval of metal and clay votive figures— double axes, (labyrs) miniature vessels, models of artifacts, animals, human figures—has identified sites of cult: here were numerous small shrines in Minoan Crete, and mountain peaks and very numerous sacred caves—over 300 have been explored—were the centers for some cult, but temples as the Greeks developed them were unknown. Within the palace complex, no central rooms devoted to cult have been recognized, other than the center court where youths of both sexes would practice the bull-leaping ritual. It is notable that there are no Minoan frescoes that depict any deities. Minoan sacred symbols include the bull and its horns of consecration, the labrys (double-headed axe), the pillar, the serpent, the sun-disk, and the tree(The bull is a very old idol seen among many ancient cultures, both agricultural and nomadic pastoral/herding. When Moses came down from mount Sinai he found his Hebrew peoples worshipping idols of calves much as their ancestors had done for centuries. The semetic cattle gods, Moloch notable among them, were significant among people with lunar based calendars as the horns of the bull were symbolic of the crescent moon, and as the ancient Hebrews were a shepherd people their livelihoods often depended on their livestocks).

    -Possibility of human sacrifice?

    Evidence that suggest the Minoans may have performed human sacrifice has been found at three sites: (1) Anemospilia, in a MMII building near Mt. Juktas, interpreted as a temple, (2) an EMII sanctuary complex at Fournou Korifi in south central Crete, and (3) Knossos, in an LMIB building known as the "North House." (explanation of abbreviations)
    The temple at Anemospilia was destroyed by earthquake in the MMII period. The building seems to be a tripartite shrine, and terracotta feet and some carbonized wood were interpreted by the excavators as the remains of a cult statue. Four human skeletons were found in its ruins; one, belonging to a young man, was found in an unusually contracted position on a raised platform, suggesting that he had been trussed up for sacrifice, much like the bull in the sacrifice scene on the Mycenaean-era Agia Triadha sarcophagus. A bronze dagger was among his bones, and the discoloration of the bones on one side of his body suggests he died of blood loss. The bronze blade was fifteen inches long and had images of a boar on each side. The bones were on a raised platform at the center of the middle room, next to a pillar with a trough at its base.

    The positions of the other three skeletons suggest that an earthquake caught them by surprise—the skeleton of a twenty-eight year old woman was spread-eagled on the ground in the same room as the sacrificed male. Next to the sacrificial platform was the skeleton of a man in his late thirties, with broken legs. His arms were raised, as if to protect himself from falling debris, which suggests that his legs were broken by the collapse of the building in the earthquake. In the front hall of the building was the fourth skeleton, too poorly preserved to allow determination of age or gender. Nearby 105 fragments of a clay vase were discovered, scattered in a pattern that suggests it had been dropped by the person in the front hall when he was struck by debris from the collapsing building. The jar appears to have contained bull's blood.

    Unfortunately, the excavators of this site have not published an official excavation report; the site is mainly known through a 1981 article in National Geographic (Sakellarakis and Sapouna-Sakellerakis 1981, see also Rutter).
    Not all agree that this was human sacrifice. Nanno Marinatos says the man supposedly sacrificed actually died in the earthquake that hit at the time he died. She notes that this earthquake destroyed the building, and also killed the two Minoans who supposedly sacrificed him. She also argues that the building was not a temple and that the evidence for sacrifice "is far from ... conclusive." Dennis Hughes concurs and also argues that the platform where the man lay was not necessarily an altar, and the blade was probably a spearhead that may not have been placed on the young man, but could have fallen during the earthquake from shelves or an upper floor.
    At the sanctuary-complex of Fournou Korifi, fragments of a human skull were found in the same room as a small hearth, cooking-hole, and cooking-equipment. This skull has been interpreted as the remains of a sacrificed victim.

    In the "North House" at Knossos, the bones of at least four children (who had been in good health) were found which bore signs that "they were butchered in the same way the Minoans slaughtered their sheep and goats, suggesting that they had been sacrificed and eaten. The senior Cretan archaeologist Nicolas Platon was so horrified at this suggestion that he insisted the bones must be those of apes, not humans."
    The bones, found by Peter Warren, date to Late Minoan IB (1580-1490), before the Myceneans arrived (in LM IIIA, circa 1320-1200) according to Paul Rehak and John G. Younger. Dennis Hughes and Rodney Castleden argue that these bones were deposited as a 'secondary burial'. Secondary burial is the not-uncommon practice of burying the dead twice: immediately following death, and then again after the flesh is gone from the skeleton. The main weakness of this argument is that it does not explain the type of cuts and knife marks upon the bones.

    Like much of the archaeology of the Bronze Age, burial remains constitute a substantial proportion of material and archaeological evidence for the period. By the end of the Second Palace Period Minoan burial practice is dominated by two broad forms: 'Circular Tombs', or Tholoi, (located in South Crete) and 'House Tombs', (located in the north and the east). Of course, there are many trends and patterns within Minoan mortuary practice that do not conform to this simple breakdown. Throughout this period there is a trend towards individual burials, with some distinguished exceptions. These include the much-debated Chrysolakkos complex, Mallia, consisting of a number of buildings forming a complex. This is located in the centre of Mallia's burial area and may have been the focus for burial rituals, or the 'crypt' for a notable family.

    These tombs often evidence group burial, where more than one body is deposited. These may represent the burial crypts for generations of a kin group, or of a particular settlement where the individuals are not closely related and shared in the construction of the tomb. The 'house tomb' at Gournia is a typical example, where the construction consisted of a clay and reed roof, topping a mud-brick and stone base. At Ayia Photia certain rock-cut chamber tombs may have been used solely for the burial of children, indicating complex burial patterns that differed from region to region. Mortuary furniture and grave goods varied widely, but could include storage jars, bronze articles such as tools and weapons, and beauty articles such as pendants. Little is known about mortuary rituals, or the stages through which the deceased passed before final burial, but it has been indicated that 'toasting rituals' may have formed a part of this, suggested by the prevalence of drinking vessels found at some tombs.

    In later periods (EM III) a trend towards singular burials, usually in clay Pithoi (large storage vessels), is observed throughout Crete, replacing the practice of built tombs. Equally, the introduction of Larnake or Larnax burials emerges, where the body was deposited in a clay or wooden sacrophagus. These coffins were often richly decorated with motifs and scenes similar to those of the earlier fresco and vase painting tradition. However, rock-cut tombs and Tholoi remained in use even by the LM III period, including the site of Phylaki.
    The distribution of burial sites varies in time and space. Some functional demands may have influenced the decision to locate a cemetery: the Late Minoan rock-cut tombs at Armeni utilise the geography of the area for structural support, where chambers are dug deep into the rock. Generally, cemeteries tend to cluster in regions close to settled areas. The Mochlos cemetery, for example, would have served the inhabitants of that island who settled in the south of the area. The cemetery itself has been interpreted to indicate a visible hierarchy, perhaps indicating social differentiation within the local population; larger, monumental tombs for the 'èlite', and smaller tombs, including some early Pithoi burials, for the larger part of the population.
    The German geologist Hans Georg Wunderlich argued that the Palace of Knossos itself was a mortuary temple. This interpretation is strongly rejected by mainstream archaeology


    Knowledge of the spoken and written language of the Minoans is scant, due to the small number of records found. Sometimes the Minoan language is referred to as Eteocretan, but this presents confusion between the language written in Linear A scripts and the language written in a Euboean- derived alphabet after the Greek Dark Ages. While the Eteocretan language is suspected to be a descendant of Minoan, there is not enough source material in either language to allow conclusions to be made. It also is unknown whether the language written in Cretan hieroglyphs is Minoan. As with Linear A, it is un-deciphered and its phonetic values are unknown.

    Approximately 3,000 tablets bearing writing have been discovered so far in Minoan contexts. The overwhelming majority are in the Linear B script, apparently being inventories of goods or resources. Others are inscriptions on religious objects associated with cult worship? Because most of these inscriptions are concise economic records rather than dedicatory inscriptions, the translation of Minoan remains a challenge. The hieroglyphs came into use from MMI and were in parallel use with the emerging Linear A from the eighteenth century BC (MM II) and disappeared at some point during the seventeenth century BC (MM III).

    In the Mycenean period, Linear A was replaced by Linear B, recording a very archaic version of the Greek language. Linear B was successfully deciphered by Michael Ventris in 1953, but the earlier scripts remain a mystery. Unless Eteocretan truly is its descendant, it is perhaps during the Greek Dark Ages, a time of economic and socio-political collapse, that the Minoan language became extinct.

    The Phaistos disc above is of an unknown script similar to Anatolian Heiroglyphs and "Linear A", as yet undeciphered.
  3. Hand of Nergal
    Hand of Nergal


    The collection of Minoan art is in the museum at Heraklion, near Knossos on the north shore of Crete. Minoan art, with other remains of material culture, especially the sequence of ceramic styles, has allowed archaeologists to define the three phases of Minoan culture (EM, MM, LM) discussed above.
    Since wood and textiles have vanished through decomposition, the most important surviving examples of Minoan art are Minoan pottery, the palace architecture with its frescos that include landscapes, stone carvings, and intricately carved seal stones.

    In the Early Minoan period ceramics were characterized by linear patterns of spirals, triangles, curved lines, crosses, fishbone motifs, and such. In the Middle Minoan period naturalistic designs such as fish, squid, birds, and lilies were common. In the Late Minoan period, flowers and animals were still the most characteristic, but the variability had increased. The 'palace style' of the region around Knossos is characterised by a strong geometric simplification of naturalistic shapes and monochromatic paintings. Very noteworthy are the similarities between Late Minoan and Mycenaean art. Frescoes were the main form of art during these time of the Minoan culture. These frescoes are basically the only record we have of the Minoan civilization.

    While the Egyptian painters of the time painted their wall paintings in the "dry-fresco" (fresco secco) technique, the Minoans utilized a "true" or "wet" painting method, allowing the pigments of metal and mineral oxides to bind well to the wall, while it required quick execution. The nature of this technique encouraged improvisation, spontaneity, and the element of chance. Since they had to work within the time constrains of the drying plaster, the painters had to be very skillful, and their fluid brush strokes translated into the graceful outlines that characterize minoan painting.

    For this reason, this method of painting was most appropriate for the fluid moments of life and nature scenes that the Minoans favored, which contrasted sharply with the strict stylization and stereotyping typical of frescoes from other Mediterranean cultures of the same time.
    The figures of Minoan frescoes are depicted in natural poses of free movement that reflect the rigors of the activity they engage with, an attitude characteristic of a seafaring culture accustomed to freedom of movement, liquidity, and vigor.

    At the Middle period III of the Neopalatial period (1700-1600 BC) the Minoans learned the painting with forms from the Aegeans, but Aegeans took from the Minoans the representations with the horses gallop, individual patterns (fishes), and modalities of representation (representation of territorial levels). In Crete now is beginning to flourish, in a magnificent manner, a more naturalistic formal art in frescoes (scenes of gardens, such as the "Crocus gatherer" and representation of marine fauna). In ceramics (white painting on a dark background) appear forms (fishes) next to the ornament element (continuous whorls).

    Later (1550-1450 B.C.) at the last flourishing of the palaces, the social and courtier life information is given by the impressive performances with forms in frescoes (scenes from gardens, celebrations, dance scenes, jumping bulls, on cups from Vapheio (Lakonia), sacrifice scenes in temples which were located in hills, sporting events, also a military scene). Fine examples from this period are the Minoan Lady known as "La Parisienne" and the "Prince of lilies" from the palace of Knossos. Shortly after 1400 BC is originated the famous sarcophagus from Aghia Triadha, with combined Minoan and Mycenaean religious scenes.

    Very little sculpture from Minoan Crete has survived since most of it was not monumental, and instead consisted of small artifacts dedicated to gods or kings. One of the best known examples is the Snake Goddess fetish which exhibits many stylized conventions with the geometric division of the body and dress, while its frontal pose reminds us of Mesopotamian and Egyptian sculpture. The extended arms holding the snakes however add animation to the static pose. The statuette appears to be a goddess or high priestess, and the dress which covers the body all the way to the ground while leaving the breasts exposed was typical of Minoan female attire and is repeated in frescoes. Some of these models were conserved by re-shaping and re-painting, and underwent several modifications.

    A variety of ceramic, bone, clay and stone figures have been recovered from Minoan sites, many of which have been excavated from communal tombs and peak sanctuaries. Schematic depictions of human individuals and various animals in a range of attitudes have been recorded, though due to the friable nature of baked clay many survive in fragments rather than coherent shapes. Some of these figures have been treated with layers of paint, either in a binary black and white, or shades of red. It has been demonstrated that the visual profiles of the clay figures, with their arms raised or crossed, could have represented a technique for individuals to reach an altered state of consciousness (ASC) in conjunction with sound and light stimulation.

    Other common gestures observed in figures include the 'Minoan salute' (i.e., one fist raised to the forehead whilst the other remains at the side) and the 'hands-on-hips'. The latter attitude is often represented in a female figure who has been given multiple interpretations: the epiphany (appearance) of a deity, a religious official, and a worshiper. Whatever the meaning (if there is only one), it is clear that gestures and posturing were important aspects of Palatial culture and Minoan ritual.

    Through their interaction with other civilizations of the middle east, the Minoans were aware and utilized the art of metalworking. Their skillful jewelry creations adorned the collections of noble palace inhabitants and were even exported around the Mediterranean.
    The archaeological museums in Crete present a number of gold artifacts, along with an assortment of copper instruments that date back to 2300 BC.

    Copper was a much sought after commodity during this time, and it does not appear naturally in Crete. Most likely the Minoans imported copper from Cyprus.
    The skill of the Minoan metal smiths was renowned in the ancient world, and many artisans worked abroad in mainland Greece and the Aegean islands. The Mycenaeans learned the art of inlaying bronze with gold from the Minoans

    i)Warfare and Peace

    Though the vision created by Sir Arthur Evans of a pax Minoica, a "Minoan peace", has been criticised in recent years, it is generally assumed there was little internal armed conflict in Minoan Crete itself, until the following Mycenaean period. As with much of Minoan Crete, however, it is hard to draw any obvious conclusions from the evidence. However, new excavations keep sustaining interests and documenting the impact around the Aegean.
    Evans argued that there is little evidence for ancient Minoan fortifications.

    But as S. Alexiou has pointed out (in Kretologia 8), a number of sites, especially Early and Middle Minoan sites such as Aghia Photia, are built on hilltops or are otherwise fortified. As Lucia Nixon said, "...we may have been over-influenced by the lack of what we might think of as solid fortifications to assess the archaeological evidence properly. As in so many other instances, we may not have been looking for evidence in the right places, and therefore we may not end with a correct assessment of the Minoans and their ability to avoid war."

    Chester Starr points out in "Minoan Flower Lovers" (Hagg-Marinatos eds. Minoan Thalassocracy) that Shang China and the Maya both had unfortified centers and yet still engaged in frontier struggles, so that itself cannot be enough to definitively show the Minoans were a peaceful civilization unparalleled in history. In 1998, however, when Minoan archaeologists met in a conference in Belgium to discuss the possibility that the idea of Pax Minoica was outdated, the evidence for Minoan war proved to be scanty.

    Archaeologist Jan Driessen, for example, said the Minoans frequently show 'weapons' in their art, but only in ritual contexts, and that "The construction of fortified sites is often assumed to reflect a threat of warfare, but such fortified centers were multifunctional; they were also often the embodiment or material expression of the central places of the territories at the same time as being monuments glorifying and merging leading power" (Driessen 1999, p. 16).

    On the other hand, Stella Chryssoulaki's work on the small outposts or 'guard-houses' in the east of the island represent possible elements of a defensive system. Claims that they produced no weapons are erroneous; type A Minoan swords (as found in palaces of Mallia and Zarkos) were the finest in all of the Aegean (See Sanders, AJA 65, 67, Hoeckmann, JRGZM 27, or Rehak and Younger, AJA 102).

    Keith Branigan claimed that 95% of so-called Minoan weapons possessed hafting (hilts, handles) that would have prevented their use as weapons (Branigan, 1999); more recent experimental testing of accurate replicas has shown this to be incorrect as these weapons were capable of cutting flesh down to the bone (and scoring the bone's surface) without any damage to the weapons themselves. Archaeologist Paul Rehak maintains that Minoan figure-eight shields could not have been used for fighting or even hunting, since they were too cumbersome (Rehak, 1999).

    And archaeologist Jan Driessen says the Minoans frequently show 'weapons' in their art, but only in ritual contexts (Driessen 1999). Finally, archaeologist Cheryl Floyd concludes that Minoan "weapons" were merely tools used for mundane tasks such as meat-processing (Floyd, 1999). Although this interpretation must remain highly questionable as there are no parallels of one-meter-long swords and large spearheads being used as culinary devices in the historic or ethnographic record.

    About Minoan warfare in general, Branigan concludes that "The quantity of weaponry, the impressive fortifications, and the aggressive looking long-boats all suggested an era of intensified hostilities. But on closer inspection there are grounds for thinking that all three key elements are bound up as much with status statements, display, and fashion as with aggression.... Warfare such as there was in the southern Aegean EBA early Bronze Age was either personalized and perhaps ritualized (in Crete) or small-scale, intermittent and essentially an economic activity (in the Cyclades and the Argolid/Attica) " (1999, p. 92).

    Archaeologist Krzyszkowska concurs: "The stark fact is that for the prehistoric Aegean we have no direct evidence for war and warfare per se" (Krzyszkowska, 1999).
    Furthermore, no evidence exists for a Minoan army, or for Minoan domination of peoples outside Crete. Few signs of warfare appear in Minoan art. "Although a few archaeologists see war scenes in a few pieces of Minoan art, others interpret even these scenes as festivals, sacred dance, or sports events" (Studebaker, 2004, p. 27). Although armed warriors are depicted being stabbed in the throat with swords, violence may occur in the context of ritual or blood sport.

    Although on the Mainland of Greece at the time of the Shaft Graves at Mycenae, there is little evidence for major fortifications among the Mycenaeans there (the famous citadels post-date the destruction of almost all Neopalatial Cretan sites), the constant warmongering of other contemporaries of the ancient Minoans – the Egyptians and Hittites, for example – is well documented (the battle of Kadesh is one example of a competition bewteen rival kingdoms that culminated in one of the oldest recorded battles in history).

    j)Architecture and Building

    The Minoan cities were connected with stone-paved roads, formed from blocks cut with bronze saws. Streets were drained and water and sewer facilities were available to the upper class, through clay pipes.
    Minoan buildings often had flat tiled roofs; plaster, wood, or flagstone floors, and stood two to three stories high. Typically the lower walls were constructed of stone and rubble, and the upper walls of mudbrick. Ceiling timbers held up the roofs.

    The materials used in constructing the villas and palaces varied, and could include sandstone, gypsum, or limestone. Equally, building techniques could also vary between different constructions; some palaces employed the use of ashlar masonry whilst others used roughly hewn megalithic blocks.

    The first palaces were constructed at the end of the Early Minoan period in the third millennium BC (Malia). While it was formerly believed that the foundation of the first palaces was synchronous and dated to the Middle Minoan at around 2000 BC (the date of the first palace at Knossos), scholars now think that palaces were built over a longer period of time in different locations, in response to local developments. The main older palaces are Knossos, Malia, and Phaistos.

    Some of the elements recorded in the Middle Minoan 'palaces' (Knossos, Phaistos and Mallia, for example) have precedents in earlier styles of construction in the Early Minoan period. These include the indented western court, and the special treatment given to the western façade. An example of this is seen at the "House on the Hill" at Vasiliki, dated to the Early Minoan II period.

    The palaces fulfilled a plethora of functions: they served as centres of government, administrative offices, shrines, workshops, and storage spaces (e.g., for grain). These distinctions might have seemed artificial to Minoans.
    The use of the term 'palace' for the older palaces, meaning a dynastic residence and seat of power, has recently come under criticism (see Palace), and the term 'court building' has been proposed instead. However, the original term is probably too well entrenched to be replaced. Architectural features such as ashlar masonry, orthostats, columns, open courts, staircases (implying upper stories), and the presence of diverse basins have been used to define palatial architecture.

    Often the conventions of better-known, younger palaces have been used to reconstruct older ones, but this practice may be obscuring fundamental functional differences. Most older palaces had only one story and no representative facades. They were U-shaped, with a big central court, and generally were smaller than later palaces. Late palaces are characterised by multi-story buildings. The west facades had sandstone ashlar masonry. Knossos is the best-known example. See Knossos.

    Further building conventions could include storage magazines, a north-south orientation, a pillar room, a Minoan Hall system, a western court, and pier-and-door entrance ways. Palatial architecture in the First Palace Period is identified by its 'square within a square' style, whilst later, Second Palace Period constructions incorporated more internal divisions and corridor.

    It is a common architectural standard among the Middle Minoan 'palaces' that they are aligned with their surrounding topography. The MM palatial structure of Phaistos appears to align with Mount Ida, whilst Knossos is aligned with Juktas. These are orientated along a north-south axis. One suggested reason for this is the ritual significance of the mountain, where a number of Peak Sanctuaries (spaces for public ritual) have been excavated (i.e., Petsophas). The material record for these sites show clusters of clay figurines and evidence of animal sacrifice.

    One of the most notable contributions of Minoans to architecture is their unique column, which was wider at the top than the bottom. It is called an 'inverted' column because most Greek columns are wider at the bottom, creating an illusion of greater height. The columns were also made of wood as opposed to stone, and were generally painted red. They were mounted on a simple stone base and were topped with a pillow-like, round piece as a capital.

    A number of compounds interpreted as 'Villas' have been excavated in Crete. These structures share many features with the central Palaces (i.e., a conspicuous western facade, storage facilities, and a 'Minoan Hall') of the Neopalatial era, and may indicate either that they performed a similar rôle, or that they were artistic imitations, suggesting that their occupants were familiar with palatial culture. These villas are often richly decorated (see the frescos of Haghia Triadha Villa A).
  4. Hand of Nergal
    Hand of Nergal
    part IV: the end, at last > <

    k)Stock and diet

    The Minoans raised cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats, and grew wheat, barley, vetch, and chickpeas, they also cultivated grapes, figs, and olives, and grew poppies, for poppyseed and perhaps, opium. The Minoans domesticated bees, and adopted pomegranates and quinces from the Near East, although not lemons and oranges as is often imagined. They developed Mediterranean polyculture, the practice of growing more than one crop at a time, and as a result of their more varied and healthy diet, the population increased.

    This method of farming would theoretically maintain the fertility of the soil, as well as offering protection against low yields in any single crop. Furthermore, Linear B tablets indicate the importance of orchard farming (i.e., figs, olives and grapes) in processing crops for "secondary products". The process of fermenting wine from grapes is likely to have been a concern of the "Palace" economies, whereby such prestige goods would have been both important trade commodities as well as culturally meaningful items of consumption.

    Equally, it is likely that the consumption of exotic or expensive products would have played a role in the presentation and articulation of political and economic power. Farmers used wooden plows, bound by leather to wooden handles, and pulled by pairs of donkeys or oxen. The importance of marine resources in the Cretan diet is equally important to consider: the prevalence of edible molluscs in site material, and the artistic representations of marine fish and animals, including the distinctive "Octopus" stirrup jar (LM IIIC), indicate an appreciation and occasional use of fish within the economy.

    However, doubt remains over the functional significance of these resources in the wider Cretan diet, especially in relation to grain, olives and animal produce. Indeed, the intensification of agricultural activity is indicated by the construction of terraces and dams at Pseira in the Late Minoan period.
    Not all plants and flora would have a purely functional or economic utility. Artistic depictions often show scenes of Lily gathering and performances within 'green' spaces.

    The fresco known as the "Sacred Grove" at Knossos, for instance, depicts a number of female figures facing towards the left-hand-side of the scene, flanked by a copse of trees. Some scholars have suggested that these depictions represent the performance of 'harvest festivals' or ceremonies, as a means to honour the continued fertility of the soil. Further artistic depictions of farming scenes are observed on the Second Palace Period "Harvester Vase" (an egg-shaped rhyton, or pouring vessel), where 27 male figures, led by another, each carry hoes. This suggests the importance of farming as an artistic motif.

    Much debate has been animated by the discovery of storage magazines within the palace compounds. At the second 'palace' at Phaistos, for instance, a range of rooms in the western side of the structure have been identified as a magazine block. Within these storage areas have been recovered numerous jars, jugs and vessels, indicating the role of the complex as a potential re-distribution centre of agricultural produce.

    Several possibilities may be suggested, including a model where all economic and agricultural produce was controlled by the Palace and re-distributed by it. At sites such as Knossos, where the town had developed to a considerable size (75 ha), there is evidence of craft specialisation, indicating workshops. The Palace of Kato Zakro, for instance, indicates workshops that were integrated into the structure of the palace. Such evidence contributes to the idea that the Minoan palatial system developed through economic intensification, where greater agricultural surplus could support a population of administrators, craftsmen and religious practitioners. The number of domestic, or sleeping, chambers at the Palaces indicate that they could have supported a large population of individuals who were removed from manual labour.


    The Minoan eruption on the island of Thera (present-day Santorini about 100 km distant from Crete) occurred during the LM IA period. This eruption was among the largest volcanic explosions in the history of civilization, ejecting approximately 60 km3 of material and rating a 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. The eruption devastated the nearby Minoan settlement at Akrotiri on Santorini, which was entombed in a layer of pumice.

    Also, it has been suggested that the eruption and its effect on the Minoan civilization was the origin of the Atlantis myth, via Egyptian historical accounts. It is further believed that the eruption severely affected the Minoan culture on Crete, although the extent of the impact has been debated. Early theories proposed that ashfall from Thera on the eastern half of Crete choked off plant life, causing starvation of the local population.

    However, after more thorough field examinations, this theory has lost credibility, as it has been determined that no more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in) of ash fell anywhere on Crete. Recent studies indicate, based on archaeological evidence found on Crete, that a massive tsunami, generated by the Theran eruption, devastated the coastal areas of Crete and destroyed many Minoan coastal settlements. The LM IIIA (Late Minoan) period is marked by its affluence (i.e., wealthy tombs, burials and art) and the ubiquity of Knossian ceramic styles. However, by LM IIIB the importance of Knossos as a regional centre, and its material 'wealth', seem to have declined.

    Significant Minoan remains have been found above the Late Minoan I era Thera ash layer, implying that the Thera eruption did not cause the immediate downfall of the Minoans. As the Minoans were a sea power and depended on their naval and merchant ships for their livelihood, the Thera eruption caused significant economic hardship to the Minoans. Whether these effects were enough to trigger the downfall of the Minoan civilization is under intense debate. The Mycenaean conquest of the Minoans occurred in Late Minoan II period, not many years after the eruption, and many archaeologists speculate that the eruption induced a crisis in Minoan civilization, which allowed the Mycenaeans to conquer them easily.

    Several authors have noted evidence for exceedence of carrying capacity by the Minoan civilization. For example archaeological recovery at Knossos provides clear proof of deforestation of this part of Crete near late stages of Minoan development

    (As I already mentioned earlier in Part I, I believe that the raiding and looting activities of foreign sea people contributed strongly to the decline and eventual destruction of several civilizations. Had the Minoan civilization begun its decline due to other factors, such as the Thera eruption, they would have made an easy conquest for the militaristic sea people who were strong enough to offer combat with the Egyptian kingdom under the reign of Ramses III, a virtual superpower of the ancient world).

    That concludes the class for today folks, feel free to comment and nitpick. For anyone interested in further studies into these curious and beautiful people I recommend some sites.

    “New chronology proposed for Minoan civilization” From the “Passionate about history”


    …a sample…

    "It’s generally thought that these cultural developments in the eastern Mediterranean occurred during the 16th century B.C., along with the New Kingdom period in Egypt, when Egypt expanded its influence into western Asia.
    The new studies suggests that these developments probably took place instead during the preceding “Second Intermediate Period,” when Egyptian power was weak and a foreign Canaanite dynasty even conquered northern Egypt for a while.
    According to the new chronology, the Late Bronze Age civilizations in the Aegean and on Cyprus may have developed in association with 18th- and 17th-century Canaanite and Levantine civilizations and their expanding maritime trade world. These cultures were very different from the Egyptians’ in terms of culture, language and religion.
    For more than a century, archaeologists have developed the chronology for this region by painstakingly comparing the various civilizations’ artifacts and artistic styles, such as how spirals were painted on pots or how metalwork was done. To pin the cultural periods to calendar dates, they then linked them to the accepted dates for the Egyptian pharaohs.
    Since the 1970s, scientists have been measuring radiocarbon dates from the same areas, which don’t match with this artifact-based timeframe. Because of uncertainty about the dating methods, however, the radiocarbon results haven’t been convincing enough to overturn the archaeologists’ conclusions."

    Check the site out for yourselves, it has some cool stuff, also, this site

    Has some good historical info with cool pics, links, and sources ^^
  5. Armatus
    wow that's a lot on the people called "minoans"
  6. portu cale 64
    portu cale 64
    Congratulations Hand!
    Very good work about the minoan civilization!
  7. Hand of Nergal
    Hand of Nergal
    Hey guys, check out this website.

    The goal of the site as they say on their homepage is to...

    "...promote the use of historical simulations as a tool for teaching history by providing free resources that anyone can use...."

    They make little counters that can be printed and cut out to recreate battles from all over history, and yes, there is a considerable lot for ancient history alone. Some samples.

    Alexander's Macedonians


    There is also a "blanks" gif that you can copy and paste to make your own soldiers with Paint.

  8. Hand of Nergal
    Hand of Nergal
    Some are more detailed than others
  9. Hand of Nergal
    Hand of Nergal
    One of my favorite ancient civilizations is that of the Phoenicians. I feel they are a very significant ancient people for three reasons.

    1)We inherited the Phoenetic alphabet from them, at least most westerners did. Some people (like the Gaels) retain a non-Phonetic alphabet, but their alphabet still formed the basis for several writing systems both Semetic and non-semetic alike.

    2)They were great explorers that set up colonies from the middles east to west Africa, and (perhaps) even as far as the Americas? Its a very controversial topic, Ill talk more about it later...

    3)Because they were a sea-faring people they condicted trade throughout the mediterranean, set up colonies in far places when people were still afraid of the unknown world with mythical beasts like "sea serpents", and may have influenced the exploitation of european metals leading to the iron age (long before their use in the med the "barbarian" celts in modern Britain were using Iron, and, interestingly, so were the so-called "black" sub-saharan Africans).

    There are some people who are so bold as to believe that the Phoenicians may have sailed across the Atlantic even and founded colonies in the Americas. They have a basis for their hypothesis, but I am not willing to give my opinion either way, I shall just say that its unlikely, but we cannot underestimate the ingenuity of ancient peoples as we learn time and again^^.

    We know that the bold Phoenicians were a successful seafaring culture, and that between them and their "clients" such as wealthy Egyptian patrons they could have funded a major expedition. Could they travel as far as the Americas? The Atlantic trade winds have a tendency to take sail ships in a southwesterly direction (interestingly, the Mayans claim that a mysterious white haired people appeared and taught them civilization, they were called gods, could they have been sailors? Also keep in mind that ancient astronaut theorists believe they were aliens, and that the Mayan civilization was heavily influenced by the earlier Olmec peoples, who make no mention of white haired men as far as I know).

    Some people even go so far as to claim that not only did the Phoenicians discover America long before either the Vikings or Columbus, but other ancients as well, based on coinage and artwork from several ancient people found along coasts. I am not entirely convinced, there can be several alternative explanations, but it is interesting nevertheless.

    One of the most interesting items that could serve as some kind of hard evidence is this coin.

  10. Hand of Nergal
    Hand of Nergal
    Lets take a cloer look at this coin!

    "This detail of a gold coin shows what McMenamin believes is a map of the Mediterranean area, surrounded by Europe, Britain, Africa, and (at left) the Americas. The image appears on coins minted in Carthage between 350 and 320 BC."

    Finally, Im not sure if you guys have heard about this, but in the Histories of Herodotus it is purported that an Egyptian Pharoah hired Phoenician sailors to circumnavigate Africa. It is another controversial issue, many experts find it to be highly dubious, and considering how bad ancient geography was, there may only be a little truth in this.

    Believe it or not some amateur sailors and modern scholars have built a reconstructed ship in Phoenician style and have set out to examine the feasability by doing it in our age. You can check out the project and read their blogs to see how they are doing. They have only just now reached Oman, but theyve been sailing for about a year and a month to date. According to Herodotus the original crew took several years, so lets see how they do. Theyve had some maintenace issues already, and while the people of the coasts have been very friednly and supportive so far, they are very concerned with the pirates of east Africa (as am I).

    You can track the progress of their ship via a Googleearth style map here.

    This is their latest blog mission log...

    Position Report 51
    Date: 8th September 2009
    Location: 70 N/Miles from Salalah, Oman


    Short Blog from Expedition Leader Philip Beale:

    We are still making painfully slow progress towards Salalah at about a knot per hour. So much for the forecasts of strong winds! We are however seeing big waves of 4-5 meters and the high point of the day was catching several sightings of a large whale. We are still challenged by some technical problems but working on them.
    Unfortunately the Satellite tracker is not transmitting our latest position. If you are able to plot our course (you can do this on Google Earth) or our position at 10:00hrs local time was 16.20N and 53.00 E.

    My heart goes out to them!

    May the mighty god Poseidon bless their passing...^^
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